Martie Skinner

Martie Skinner
University of Washington Seattle | UW · Social Development Research Group

PhD

About

98
Publications
23,305
Reads
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5,757
Citations
Additional affiliations
February 2008 - January 2013
University of Washington Seattle
Position
  • Health Disparities in Drug Use in Emerging Adulthood
Description
  • African American European American Biomarkers Cortisol
June 2004 - present
January 1998 - May 2004
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Education
September 1988 - May 1992
September 1980 - August 1983
University of Oregon
Field of study
  • Economics

Publications

Publications (98)
Article
Purpose This study examined levels of substance-specific risk factors such as perception of harm from substance use among young adults in a range of cannabis-permissive environments. The main objective was to inform future preventive interventions aimed at reducing cannabis use in the context of increasingly permissive environments. Methods Data c...
Article
This study experimentally tested risk behavior outcomes of Connecting, a low-cost, self-directed, family-based prevention program for families with youth placed in their care by state child welfare agencies. Families caring for youth aged 11 to 15 years from across Washington State were recruited and randomly assigned to either the self-directed pr...
Article
Simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use (SAM) such that their effects overlap has emerged as a behavior that is riskier than using either substance separately. It has been associated with high-risk binge drinking and driving while intoxicated during young adulthood, and it has been demonstrated to cause greater physical and mental impairment than us...
Article
This study experimentally tested proximal outcomes of Connecting, a low-cost, self-directed, family-based substance-use prevention program for foster families. Families (n = 220) fostering youth age 11 to 15 years were recruited and randomly assigned into the self-administered program with telephone support (n = 110) or a treatment as usual, contro...
Article
Full-text available
Research on race and policing indicates that Black Americans experience a greater frequency of police contacts, discretionary stops, and police harassment when stops occur. Yet, studies examining the long-term consequences of police contact with young people have not examined whether criminal justice consequences of police contact differ by race. W...
Article
Full-text available
Background Early adulthood is a critical developmental period when many youth transition from living at home to the relative autonomy of college. This transition results in increased opportunity for positive growth and identity development – and for risky substance use and sexual behaviors. Parents continue to influence young adult behavior even fr...
Article
Purpose: Adolescent handgun carrying is a behavioral marker for youth interpersonal conflicts and an intervention point for violence prevention. Our knowledge about the epidemiology of adolescent handgun carrying mainly pertains to urban settings. Evidence on the initiation age, cumulative prevalence, and longitudinal patterns of this behavior and...
Article
Purpose: Positive youth development (PYD) has served as a framework for youth programs in high-income countries since the 1990s and has demonstrated broad behavioral health and developmental benefits. PYD programs build skills, assets, and competencies; foster youth agency; build healthy relationships; strengthen the environment; and transform sys...
Chapter
Marijuana use has been linked to a wide variety of negative consequences, especially for those who initiate use in early adolescence and become daily or regular users as a teenager. If these negative consequences are to be avoided, prevention efforts must focus upstream on childhood and adolescent developmental periods before marijuana use is initi...
Article
This study focused on gender differences in the prediction of adult intimate partner violence (IPV) by subtypes of child abuse and children’s exposure to IPV. Latent classes of adult IPV consisted of a no violence (20.3%), a psychological violence only (46.2%), a psychological and sexual violence (9.2%), a multitype violence and intimidation (6.8%)...
Article
Objectives: To evaluate whether the effects of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system, implemented in early adolescence to promote positive youth development and reduce health-risking behavior, endured through age 21 years. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves of prospective data collected between 2004 and 2014 from a panel of 4407 participan...
Article
Permissive attitudes and norms about marijuana use and perceptions of low harm from use are considered risk factors for adolescent marijuana use. However, the relationship between risk and use may be reciprocal and vary across development and socializing domains. We examined the bidirectional relationships between marijuana-specific risk factors in...
Article
Objective: As legalization of nonmedical retail marijuana increases, states are implementing public health campaigns designed to prevent increases in youth marijuana use. This study investigated which types of marijuana-related messages were rated most highly by parents and their teens and whether these preferences differed by age and marijuana us...
Article
Analyses examined offending patterns during adolescence and adulthood and their relation to child maltreatment subtypes and education factors measured during adolescence and adulthood. A total of 356 participants were followed from preschool to adulthood in a prospective longitudinal study. Child maltreatment subtypes include physical-emotional abu...
Article
Youth who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and two-spirit (LGBTQ2S) are disproportionally represented in the foster care population and often face discrimination within the system. This article summarizes findings from focus groups with youth in care who are LGBTQ2S, foster caregivers, and child welfare workers to...
Article
The current study examined predictors of marijuana use among adults, including subsamples of adults who are actively parenting (i.e., have regular face-to-face contact with a child) and those who have no children. Participants were a community sample of 808 adults and two subsamples drawn from the full group: 383 adults who were actively parenting...
Article
Research which indicates that adverse experiences influence hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning illustrates the social environment ‘getting under the skin’. The present study extended this literature by examining whether positive social forces within the caregiving environment can also impact cortisol functioning. We conducted a p...
Article
Objectives: The changes in Washington State and Colorado marijuana laws call for the development of new brief family-focused adolescent marijuana use preventive interventions that are relevant for and tailored to the context of legalization for retail sale. To that end, focus groups with parents and teens were conducted to find out about their con...
Article
Objective: To test the feasibility, usability, and proximal outcomes of Connecting, an adaptation of a low-cost, self-directed, family-based substance use prevention program, Staying Connected with Your Teen, with foster families in a randomized, waitlist control pilot study. Method: Families (n = 60) fostering teens between 11 and 15 years of a...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Using prospective longitudinal data from three generations, this study seeks to test whether and how parent and grandparent marijuana use (current and prior) predicts an increased likelihood of child cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use. Methods Using multilevel modeling of prospective data spanning three generations (n = 306 families, ch...
Article
Objective: This study tested a developmental model in which subtypes of childhood maltreatment were hypothesized to have direct and indirect effects on co-occurring depression, anxiety, and substance misuse in adulthood. Indirect effects involved adolescent alcohol use and depression, which were included as mediators in the tested models. Method:...
Article
Analyses tested hypotheses that pertain to direct and indirect effects of parent-reported physical and emotional abuse on later self-reported criminal behavior in a sample of 356 adults of a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. Childhood antisocial behavior was included in analyses as a potential mediator. Physical abuse only predicted adult c...
Article
Gender differences in externalizing and internalizing pathways from child abuse to adult crime were examined across four waves of an extended longitudinal study (N = 186 males and 170 females) using multiple-group structural equation modeling. Results show that child abuse was associated with both internalizing and externalizing behaviors in the el...
Article
Research provides increasing evidence of the association of child abuse with adult antisocial behavior. However, less is known about the developmental pathways that underlie this association. Building on the life course model of antisocial behavior, the present study examined possible developmental pathways linking various forms of child abuse (phy...
Article
This study examines gender differences in the pathway from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to adult binge drinking. Using longitudinal data on 313 males and females (31-41 years old, mean = 36.21) in the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, we test for gender differences in the pathway from CSA to adolescent drinking, norms and pro-alcohol peers, to adult binge...
Article
Drug prevention interventions frequently target early adolescents in order to stop or delay initiation of substance use. However, the prevalence and frequency of drug use escalate and then peak during emerging adulthood, making it important to determine whether drug use prevention efforts in adolescence have lasting effects into adulthood. Addition...
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: ABSTRACT. Objective: This investigation examined patterns of heavy drinking among Black and White young adults from a person-centered perspective and linked family and individual factors in adolescence to young adult drinking patterns. Method: The analysis focuses on 331 10th-grade students (168 Whites, 163 Blacks; 51% males) who w...
Conference Paper
Understanding the relationship between drug use and the stress responsive hormone cortisol may help identify those at greatest risk for substance use disorder. Addictive drugs trigger a stress-response across a wide range of physiological systems (Lovallo, 2006). For some people drug use may be a stressor capable of shifting psychobiology into hypo...
Article
Full-text available
This study reports on rates and predictors of sex risk behavior among a sample of adolescent and young adult children of parents enrolled in methadone treatment for opiate addiction. Data are from 151 participants (80 males, 71 females) in the Focus on Families (FOF) project, a randomized trial of a family intervention and a study of the developmen...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the role that parenting and deviant peers play on frequency of self-reported violent behavior in the 10th grade while testing race differences in mean levels and impact of these risk and protective factors. The level and impact of family and peer factors on violent behavior across race are modeled prospectively from 8th to 10th...
Article
Full-text available
Collecting saliva is the most noninvasive way to detect changing levels of cortisol, a stress hormone of interest to behavioral and health scientists, where there are benefits from multiple samples taken over a period of days. Various self-collection strategies have been employed, ranging from treated cards to cotton swabs and passive drool methods...
Article
Criminologists agree the race disparity in arrests cannot be fully explained by differences in criminal behavior. The authors examine social environment factors that may lead to racial differences in police contact in early adolescence, including family, peers, school, and community. Data are from 331 eighth-grade students. Blacks were almost twice...
Article
Full-text available
This study utilized retrospective video analysis to distinguish sensory-motor patterns in infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS) (n=11) from other infants [i.e., autism (n=11), other developmental delay (n=10), typical (n=11)] at 9–12 months of age. Measures of development, autistic features, and FMRP were assessed at the time of entry into the stud...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of allostasis suggests that greater cumulative stress burden can influence stress-responsive physiology. Dysregulation of allostatic mediators, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, is thought to precede many other signs of age-related pathology as the persistent burden of stressors accumulates over the individual's l...
Article
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Previous reports supporting measurement equality between European American and African American families have often focused on self-reported risk factors or observed parent behavior with young children. This study examines equality of measurement of observer ratings of parenting behavior with adolescents during structured tasks; mean levels of obse...
Article
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Working memory problems have been targeted as core deficits in individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, there have been few studies that have examined working memory in young boys with FXS, and even fewer studies that have studied the working memory performance of young boys with FXS across different degrees of complexity. The purpose of...
Article
Full-text available
Few studies follow the lives of opiate-addicted parents. The authors examined a 12-year follow-up of 144 parents in methadone treatment and their 3- to 14-year-old children. Parent mortality was high. Among survivors, drug use and treatment, incarceration, residential and family disruptions, and health problems were common. Moderate and long-term r...
Article
Full-text available
Criminologists have long reported the existence of racial disparity in the criminal justice system, but the important question is why. While some argue that observed differences are a consequence of more criminal behavior among minorities, the weight of the evidence indicates that this is but a partial explanation. In this paper we study data from...
Article
Full-text available
The health risks associated with smoking disproportionately burden Blacks, and Black adults are more likely to smoke than are White adults. Most adult smokers have their first smoking experience as teenagers; however, rates of smoking initiation during adolescence remain lower among Black compared with White youth. The level and impact of family an...
Article
This study describes the adversities experienced by a sample of children of opiate-dependent parents, examines criteria for young adulthood functional resilience, and tests parent, child, and school predictors of resilience. The Focus on Families (FOF) project was a randomized trial of a family-focused intervention with opiate-dependent individuals...
Article
Full-text available
In the present simulation research, the authors examined the relations between the type of information that low-income parents (N = 116) recalled from informed-consent materials and their hypothetical decision to enroll a child in a clinical study. The authors gave parents or guardians of Head Start children information about a medical protocol inv...
Article
This study examines the efficacy of the Focus on Families project (currently called Families Facing the Future), a preventive intervention to reduce substance use disorders among children in families with a parent in methadone treatment. One hundred and thirty families were assigned randomly to a methadone clinic treatment-as-usual control conditio...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the social participation of young children with disabilities in inclusive preschool programs. One hundred forty-three preschool-aged children with disabilities were observed in classrooms representing four organizational contexts: community-based, Head Start, public school, and blended. Children's and adults...
Chapter
Child and mother outcomes are reported for the Abecedarian Project, an early childhood education, pediatric healthcare, and family support program for high-risk children and their mothers. Three randomized intervention conditions for at-risk participants were compared to a control condition. Randomized control group participants received family sup...
Article
This study was designed to test the efficacy of Parents Who Care© (PWC), a seven-session universal prevention program which includes parenting, youth, and family components designed to prevent substance use and other problem behaviors. Using an intent-to-treat experimental design, this study tests the program efficacy across race within a balanced...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to determine whether the installation of equipment for diaper-changing, hand-washing, and food preparation that is specifically designed to reduce the transmission of infectious agents would result in a decrease in the rate of diarrheal illness among children and their teachers in child care centers. Twenty-three pai...
Article
The relationship between depressive symptoms in young adults, the quality of the early home environment, and early educational child care was investigated in young adults randomly assigned to receive early childhood intervention in the Abecedarian study. Of the original 111 infants enrolled (98% African American), 104 participated in an age-21 foll...
Article
This chapter focuses on Focus on Families (FOF) program. The FOF program works with men and women who are parents of young children and are in methadone treatment for opiate addiction. A primary goal of FOF is to reduce parents' illicit drug use by teaching them relapse prevention and coping skills. Methadone treatment is a tested, effective strate...
Article
We examined autistic behavior in a cross-sectional sample of 179 children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and a longitudinal subset of 116 children using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) to (a) determine a prevalence of autistic behavior in FXS, (b) examine the stability of autistic ratings over time, and (c) assess the association between th...
Article
Full-text available
Physiological hyperarousal, an elevated state of physiological arousal and poor modulation, has been postulated to be a significant source of behavior problems in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Temperament has been associated with behavior problems and may also reflect biological reactivity. Young boys with FXS display poorly modulated and...
Article
Predictors of participation and exposure across two formats of a universal prevention program are examined here. Families of 225 8th-grade students, balanced by race (African American and European American) and gender, were assigned to a parent and adolescent group format (PAG) or a self-administered format (SA). Logistic regression showed greater...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the authors compared the phonological accuracy and patterns of sound change of boys with fragile X syndrome, boys with Down syndrome, and typically developing mental-age-matched boys. Participants were 50 boys with fragile X syndrome, ages 3 to 14 years; 32 boys with Down syndrome, ages 4 to 13 years; and 33 typically developing boys...
Article
Full-text available
This study utilized retrospective video analysis to distinguish sensory-motor patterns in infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS) (n = 11) from other infants [i.e., autism (n = 11), other developmental delay (n = 10), typical (n = 11)] at 9-12 months of age. Measures of development, autistic features, and FMRP were assessed at the time of entry into...
Article
This study utilized retrospective video analysis to distinguish sensory-motor patterns in infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS) (n = 11) from other infants [i.e., autism (n = 11), other developmental delay (n = 10), typical (n = 11)] at 9-12 months of age. Measures of development, autistic features, and FMRP were assessed at the time of entry into...
Article
Full-text available
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of mental retardation resulting in developmental delays in males. Atypical outer ear morphology is characteristic of FXS and may serve as a marker for abnormal auditory function. Despite this abnormality, studies of the hearing of young males with FXS are generally lacking. A few studies h...
Article
This study consisted of a national survey of 117 state administrators of early childhood programs to examine specific challenges, strategies, and beliefs around serving Latino children and families. Four types of early childhood programs were represented: child care, Head Start, Part B-Section 619 preschool special education programs, and Part C in...
Article
Full-text available
The academic achievement of boys with fragile X syndrome and the relation between several predictive factors and academic performance are reported. Boys with fragile X syndrome displayed significant deficits in all academic skill areas. Relative strengths were observed in general knowledge, reflecting the ability to integrate experiential informati...
Article
This study examines the developmental changes in nonverbal intellectual functioning evident in males with fragile X syndrome (FXS) measured by the Leiter International Performance Scales-Revised (Leiter-R). The Leiter-R provides both IQ scores and associated growth scores which permit the examination of both age-based IQ scores and overall intellec...
Article
Full-text available
The purposes of this study were to determine the extent and types of parent involvement in Head Start programs, and to examine the relations between parent participation and family, teacher and classroom characteristics. Parents (n = 1131) and teachers (n = 59) from four Head Start programs participated. Data were gathered through volunteer logs, p...
Article
Full-text available
A randomized trial comparing the amount of knowledge orally recalled from four different presentations of the same consent information was conducted in a non-clinic sample of 233 low-income parents who displayed a range of reading comprehension skill. The study simulated recruitment of children into one of two actual studies underway at another loc...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine how total duration of social play of preschool children with disabilities varied as a function of both chronological and developmental age of their social partners. Fifty-five 33- to 60-month-old children with mild to moderate developmental delays were observed in dyadic play situations with four different p...
Article
Propositions from identity theory suggest that interactional and affective commitment to a role identity affects the psychological centrality of that role identity. In turn, the centrality of one's role identity translates into role performance (Stryker & Serpe, 1994). This conceptual model was tested with a sample of 186 fathers in first marriages...
Article
This study examined strategies teachers reported using to support friendships among young children in inclusive early childhood classrooms. The teachers included 25 general early childhood educators from 9 child care centers and 20 early childhood special educators from 9 specialized programs. The Playmates and Friends Questionnaire for Teachers do...
Article
Full-text available
Adaptive behavior over time in 70 children with fragile X syndrome, ages 1 to 12 years, was examined using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. With a mean of 4.4 assessments per child, adaptive behavior skills increased steadily and gradually over time. Children with less autistic behavior and higher percentages of FMPR expression showed better...
Article
In this study, we distributed surveys to 67 families of young boys with fragile X syndrome to determine the prevalence, onset, form, function, location, and correlates of self-injurious behavior. Fifty-five surveys were completed (82%). The mean age of the boys at the time of the survey was 80 months (range = 20-144). Self-injurious behavior (SIB)...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the relationship between selected child and family demographic characteristics (child age, child sex, child birth order, maternal education, and parent language status), family processes (parent-to-child reading at home, and parent expectations about child’s educational attainment), and preschool experience with poor Peruvia...