Martha E. Shenton

Martha E. Shenton
Harvard Medical School | HMS · Department of Psychiatry and Radiology

Ph.D.

About

818
Publications
114,508
Reads
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45,234
Citations
Introduction
Our mission is to investigate brain abnormalities in neuropsychiatric disorders using precise and accurate measurements. This is important when abnormalities are subtle, and hard to detect, such as in schizophrenia and mild traumatic brain injury. This understanding will lead to more effective interventions and treatments. We welcome trainees from around the world. For free downloads, papers and software, and to help support our research (EVERY DOLLAR COUNTS!), which is supported entirely by grant funding, see our website at: http://pnl.bwh.harvard.edu
Additional affiliations
October 2005 - present
Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Note: Professor, Psychiatry 2000 VA/HMS; Professor, Radiology 2003 BWH/HMS; Professor, Psychiatry 2005 BWH/HMS
October 2003 - present
Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Note: Radiology Professorship in 2003 at BWH
October 2000 - September 2005
VA Boston Healthcare System and Harvard Medical School
Position
  • Professor
Education
July 1984 - June 1986
Harvard University
Field of study
  • Biological Psychiatry
September 1978 - June 1984
Harvard University
Field of study
  • Psychology
September 1974 - June 1976
Tufts University
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (818)
Article
Full-text available
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), also referred to as concussion, remains a controversial diagnosis because the brain often appears quite normal on conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Such conventional tools, however, do not adequately depict brain injury in mTBI because they are not sensitive to dete...
Article
Data from postmortem, CT, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies indicate that patients with schizophrenia may have anatomical abnormalities of the left temporal lobe, but it is unclear whether these abnormalities are related to the thought disorder characteristic of schizophrenia. We used new MRI neuroimaging techniques to derive (without kn...
Article
Full-text available
After more than 100 years of research, the neuropathology of schizophrenia remains unknown and this is despite the fact that both Kraepelin (1919/1971: Kraepelin, E., 1919/1971. Dementia praecox. Churchill Livingston Inc., New York) and Bleuler (1911/1950: Bleuler, E., 1911/1950. Dementia praecox or the group of schizophrenias. International Univer...
Article
Full-text available
Both post-mortem and neuroimaging studies have contributed significantly to what we know about the brain and schizophrenia. MRI studies of volumetric reduction in several brain regions in schizophrenia have confirmed early speculations that the brain is disordered in schizophrenia. There is also a growing body of evidence suggesting that a disturba...
Article
Background While adolescent-onset schizophrenia (ADO-SCZ) and adolescent-onset bipolar disorder with psychosis (psychotic ADO-BPD) present a more severe clinical course than their adult forms, their pathophysiology is poorly understood. Here, we study potentially state- and trait-related white matter diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (d...
Article
Results of neuroimaging datasets aggregated from multiple sites may be biased by site-specific profiles in participants’ demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as MRI acquisition protocols and scanning platforms. We compared the impact of four different harmonization methods on results obtained from analyses of cortical thickness data: (...
Preprint
Studies applying Free Water Imaging have consistently reported significant global increases in extracellular FW in populations of individuals with early psychosis. However, these published studies focused on homogenous clinical participant groups (e.g., only first episode or chronic), thereby limiting our understanding of the time course of free wa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a significant concern in military populations, is associated with alterations in brain structure and function, cognition, as well as physical and psychological dysfunction. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is particularly sensitive to changes in brain structure following TBI, as alterations in white matter (...
Article
Full-text available
Brain morphology differs markedly between individuals with schizophrenia, but the cellular and genetic basis of this heterogeneity is poorly understood. Here, we sought to determine whether cortical thickness (CTh) heterogeneity in schizophrenia relates to interregional variation in distinct neural cell types, as inferred from established gene expr...
Article
In 1908, Bleuler proposed a unitary theory of schizophrenia, hypothesizing a "loosening of associations" as the central mechanism underlying disturbances in thinking, motivation, and affective expression. Here, we test Bleuler's model in an archival sample of 79 healthy controls and 76 patients with chronic schizophrenia who had completed neuropsyc...
Article
Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is accompanied by disrupted cortical neuroanatomy. We investigated alteration in covariance of structural networks associated with PTSD in regions that demonstrate the case-control differences in cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA). Methods Neuroimaging and clinical data were aggregated fro...
Article
Full-text available
Mild Traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a signature wound in military personnel, and repetitive mTBI has been linked to age-related neurogenerative disorders that affect white matter (WM) in the brain. However, findings of injury to specific WM tracts have been variable and inconsistent. This may be due to the heterogeneity of mechanisms, etiology, a...
Article
Full-text available
Repetitive head impacts (RHI) are common in youth athletes participating in contact sports. RHI differ from concussions; they are considered hits to the head that usually do not result in acute symptoms and are therefore also referred to as “subconcussive” head impacts. RHI occur e.g., when heading the ball or during contact with another player. Ev...
Article
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Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with markers of accelerated aging. Estimates of brain age, compared to chronological age, may clarify the effects of PTSD on the brain and may inform treatment approaches targeting the neurobiology of aging in the context of PTSD. Method Adult subjects (N = 2229; 56.2% male) aged 18–69...
Article
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Background Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease that has been neuropathologically diagnosed in brain donors exposed to repetitive head impacts, including boxers and American football, soccer, ice hockey, and rugby players. CTE cannot yet be diagnosed during life. In December 2015, the National Institute of Neurologi...
Article
Little is known about sleep in those with a history of contact sports, who are at increased risk for neurodegenerative disease(s). Sleep disruption and disorders are increasingly recognized as having a bidirectional relationship with Alzheimer’s disease neuropathology. Here, we investigated self‐reported sleep disruption and disorders in male forme...
Article
Repetitive head impacts from American football have been associated with long‐term cognitive symptoms. The late neuropsychological profiles of this population is not well‐characterized. Research has relied on retrospective informant reports and/or has been small samples of former professional players. We describe objective neuropsychological test p...
Article
Background: Repetitive head impacts (RHI) from contact sports have been associated with cognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, not all individuals exposed to RHI develop such disorders. This may be explained by the reserve hypothesis. It remains unclear if the reserve hypothesis accounts for the heterogenous symptom presentation in RHI...
Article
Full-text available
Subtle alterations in white matter microstructure are observed in youth at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. However, the timing of these changes and their relationships to the emergence of psychosis remain unclear. Here, we track the evolution of white matter abnormalities in a large, longitudinal cohort of CHR individuals comprising the Nor...
Article
Full-text available
White matter (WM) abnormalities are repeatedly demonstrated across the schizophrenia time-course. However, our understanding of how demographic and clinical variables interact, influence, or are dependent on WM pathologies is limited. The most well-known barriers to progress are heterogeneous findings due to small sample sizes and the confounding i...
Article
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Background Positive symptoms of psychosis may be the result of faulty coordination and automatization of motor and higher-order cognitive functions, partly due to cerebellar dysfunction. Specifically, auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) have been related to altered processing of sensory feedback to one’s own action. Such alterations highlight the...
Article
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A growing number of studies have examined alterations in white matter organization in people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using diffusion MRI (dMRI), but the results have been mixed which may be partially due to relatively small sample sizes among studies. Altered structural connectivity may be both a neurobiological vulnerability for,...
Article
Full-text available
Studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) report volume abnormalities in multiple regions of the cerebral cortex. However, findings for many regions, particularly regions outside commonly studied emotion-related prefrontal, insular, and limbic regions, are inconsistent and tentative. Also, few studies address the possibility that PTSD abnorma...
Article
Full-text available
Diffusion MRI studies consistently report group differences in white matter between individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Nevertheless, the abnormalities found at the group-level are often not observed at the individual level. Among the different approaches aiming to study white matter abnormalities at the subject level, no...
Article
Full-text available
To assess normal organization of frontostriatal brain wiring, we analyzed diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) scans in 100 young adult healthy subjects (HSs). We identified fiber clusters intersecting the frontal cortex and caudate, a core component of associative striatum, and quantified their degree of deviation from a strictly topographi...
Article
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Background Exposure to repetitive head impacts (RHI) is associated with an increased risk of later-life neurobehavioral dysregulation and neurodegenerative disease. The underlying pathomechanisms are largely unknown. Purpose To investigate whether RHI exposure is associated with later-life corpus callosum (CC) microstructure and whether CC microstr...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Sexual dimorphism has been investigated in schizophrenia, although sex-specific differences among individuals who are at clinical high-risk (CHR) for developing psychosis have been inconclusive. This study aims to characterize sexual dimorphism of language areas in the brain by investigating the asymmetry of four white matter tracts rele...
Article
Objective: The cerebellum serves a wide range of functions and is suggested to be composed of discrete regions dedicated to unique functions. We recently developed a new parcellation of the dentate nuclei (DN), the major output nuclei of the cerebellum, which optimally divides the structure into 3 functional territories that contribute uniquely to...
Article
Full-text available
Sport-related brain injury is very common, and the potential long-term effects include a wide range of neurological and psychiatric symptoms, and potentially neurodegeneration. Around the globe, researchers are conducting neuroimaging studies on primarily homogenous samples of athletes. However, neuroimaging studies are expensive and time consuming...
Article
Full-text available
Intimate partner violence includes psychological aggression, physical violence, sexual violence, and stalking from a current or former intimate partner. Past research suggests that exposure to intimate partner violence can impact cognitive and psychological functioning, as well as neurological outcomes. These seem to be compounded in those who suff...
Article
Full-text available
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common among military personnel and the civilian population and is often followed by a heterogeneous array of clinical, cognitive, behavioral, mood, and neuroimaging changes. Unlike many neurological disorders that have a characteristic abnormal central neurologic area(s) of abnormality pathognomonic to the disorder,...
Article
Full-text available
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are common with an estimated 27.1 million cases per year. Approximately 80% of TBIs are categorized as mild TBI (mTBI) based on initial symptom presentation. While in most individuals, symptoms resolve within days to weeks, in some, symptoms become chronic. Advanced neuroimaging has the potential to characterize brai...
Article
Objective To develop evidence-informed, expert consensus research diagnostic criteria for Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome (TES), the clinical disorder associated with neuropathologically diagnosed Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE). Methods A panel of 20 expert clinician-scientists in neurology, neuropsychology, psychiatry, neurosurgery, and...
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction Cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) are established biomarkers of brain pathology in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Structural covariance networks (SCN) constructed from CT and SA may represent developmental associations, or unique interactions between brain regions, possibly influenced by a common causal antecedent. T...
Article
Younger age at first exposure (AFE) to repetitive head impacts while playing American football increases the risk for later-life neuropsychological symptoms and brain alterations. However, it is not known whether AFE is associated with cortical thickness in American football players. Sixty-three former professional National Football League players...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: The cerebellum serves a wide range of functions and is suggested to be composed of discrete regions dedicated to unique functions. We recently developed a new parcellation of the dentate nuclei (DN), the major output nuclei of the cerebellum, which optimally divides the structure into three functional territories that contribute uniquely...
Article
Background Antipsychotics are widely used for treating patients with psychosis, and target threshold psychotic symptoms. Individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis are characterized by subthreshold psychotic symptoms. It is currently unclear who might benefit from antipsychotic treatment. Our objective was to apply a risk calculator (RC)...
Article
Full-text available
Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders show disturbances in self-referential processing and associated neural circuits including the default mode network (DMN). These disturbances may precede the onset of psychosis and may underlie early social and emotional problems. In this study, we examined self-referential processing in a group of chil...
Article
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Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is a diffusion MRI approach that enables the measurement of brain microstructural properties, reflecting molecular restrictions and tissue heterogeneity. DKI parameters such as mean kurtosis (MK) provide additional subtle information to that provided by popular diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters, and thus hav...
Article
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Ketamine is increasingly being used as a therapeutic for treatment-resistant depression (TRD), yet the effects of ketamine on the human brain remain largely unknown. This pilot study employed diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) to examine relationships between ketamine treatment and white matter (WM) microstructure, with the aim of increasi...
Article
Full-text available
Several prominent theories of schizophrenia suggest that structural white matter pathologies may follow a developmental, maturational, and/or degenerative process. However, a lack of lifespan studies has precluded verification of these theories. Here, we analyze the largest sample of carefully harmonized diffusion MRI data to comprehensively charac...
Article
The B-SNIP consortium identified three brain-based Biotypes across the psychosis spectrum, independent of clinical phenomenology. To externally validate the Biotype model, we used free-water fractional volume (FW) and free-water corrected fractional anisotropy (FAT) to compare white matter differences across Biotypes and clinical diagnoses. Diffusi...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia and their evolution into overt psychosis may stem from an aberrant functional reorganization of the brain during adolescence. To examine whether abnormalities in connectome organization precede psychosis onset, we performed a functional connectome analysis in a large cohort of medication-naive yo...
Article
Full-text available
The long-term neurologic consequences of exposure to repetitive head impacts (RHI) are not well understood. This study used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to examine later-life neurochemistry and its association with RHI and clinical function in former National Football League (NFL) players. The sample included 77 symptomatic former NFL play...
Article
Axonal myelination and repair, critical processes for brain development, maturation, and aging, remain controlled by sexual hormones. Whether this influence is reflected in structural brain differences between sexes, and whether it can be quantified by neuroimaging, remains controversial. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is an i...
Article
Full-text available
Studies using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have documented alterations in the attention and executive system in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While abnormalities in the frontal lobe have also been reported, the associated white matter fiber bundles have not been investigated comprehensively due to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Synopsis We studied structural connectivity differences between females and males in frontostriatal white matter connections. We proposed a novel method to measure the topographical organization of the frontostriatal circuits, leveraging a data-driven fiber clustering of whole-brain dMRI tractography. The proposed topographical measure provides imp...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives It is important to find biomarkers associated with transition to illness in individuals at clinical high-risk for psychosis (CHR). Here, we use free-water imaging, an advanced diffusion MRI technique, to identify white matter alterations in the brains of CHR subjects who subsequently develop psychosis (CHR-P) compared to those who do not...
Article
Objectives 1) to assess generalizability of neurocognitive deficits reported in previous Western clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis studies in a prodromal program in Shanghai, China; and 2) to investigate neurocognition in CHR subjects in relation to a broader range of clinical outcomes (e.g. remission) than presence or absence of psychosis. M...
Article
Full-text available
Sports‐related concussion is a serious health challenge, and females are at higher risk of sustaining a sports‐related concussion compared to males. Although there are many studies that investigate outcomes following concussion, females remain an understudied population, despite representing a large proportion of the organized sports community. In...