Martha Clokie

Martha Clokie
University of Leicester | LE · Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation

PhD, MSc, BSc

About

220
Publications
35,237
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
5,573
Citations

Publications

Publications (220)
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. are a leading cause of human food poisoning and can be transmitted to humans via consuming contaminated pork. To reduce Salmonella spread to the human food chain, bacteriophage (phage) therapy could be used to reduce bacteria from animals’ preslaughter. We aimed to determine if adding a two-phage cocktail to fe...
Article
Full-text available
Bacteriophages and phage-derived proteins are a promising class of antibacterial agents that experience a growing worldwide interest. To map ongoing phage research in Singapore and neighboring countries, Lee Kong (NUS) recently co-organized a virtual symposium on Bacter-iophage and Bacteriophage-Derived Technologies, which was attended by more than...
Article
Full-text available
Bacteriophages related to phage Bp_AMP1 are the most widely spread group of phages infecting Burkholderia pseudomallei—the causative agent of melioidosis. These viruses are also infective against the nonpathogenic host Burkholderia thailandensis, allowing experimental work with them without any special safety precautions. The indirect data as well...
Article
Full-text available
The characterization of therapeutic phage genomes plays a crucial role in the success rate of phage therapies. There are three checkpoints that need to be examined for the selection of phage candidates, namely, the presence of temperate markers, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes, and virulence genes. However, currently, no single-step tools are...
Article
Full-text available
Infections caused by multidrug resistant Salmonella strains are problematic in swine and are entering human food chains. Bacteriophages (phages) could be used to complement or replace antibiotics to reduce infection within swine. Here, we extensively characterised six broad host range lytic Salmonella phages, with the aim of developing a phage cock...
Article
Background: Fast and computationally efficient strategies are required to explore genomic relationships within an increasingly large and diverse phage sequence space. Here, we present PhageClouds, a novel approach using a graph database of phage genomic sequences and their intergenomic distances to explore the phage genomic sequence space. Methods:...
Article
Full-text available
We characterized the complete genome sequence of the lytic Salmonella enterica bacteriophage PRF-SP1, isolated from Penang National Park, a conserved rainforest in northern Malaysia. The novel phage species from the Autographiviridae family has a 39,966-bp double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome containing 49 protein-encoding genes and shares 90.96% sim...
Article
Full-text available
All known Clostridioides difficile phages encode integrases rendering them potentially able to lyse or lysogenise bacterial strains. Here, we observed the infection of the siphovirus, CDHS-1 on a ribotype 027 strain, R20291 and determined the phage and bacterial gene expression profiles, and impacts of phage infection on bacterial physiology and pa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Introductory Paragraph Phage-bacterial recognition is species-specific, determined by interactions between phage receptor-binding proteins (RBPs) and corresponding bacterial receptors. RBPs are diverse and we present data demonstrating the identification and characterisation of a novel C. difficile phage RBP. Putative RBP were identified for CDHS-1...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter discusses application of natural parasites of bacteria, bacteriophages (phages), as a promising biological control for Salmonella in poultry and swine. Many studies have shown phages can be applied at different points from farm-to-fork, from pre to post slaughter, to control the spread of Salmonella in the food chain. Pre-slaughter app...
Article
Full-text available
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major problem globally. The main bacterial organisms associated with urinary tract infection (UTI) associated sepsis are E. coli and Klebsiella along with Enterobacter species. These all have AMR strains known as ESBL (Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase), which are featured on the WHO priority pathogens list as “cr...
Article
Full-text available
The successful treatment of Lyme disease (LD) is contingent on accurate diagnosis. However, current laboratory detection assays lack sensitivity in the early stages of the disease. Because delayed diagnosis of LD incurs high healthcare costs and great suffering, new highly sensitive tests are in need. To overcome these challenges, we developed an i...
Article
Bacteriophages offer a viable solution to addressing the global issue of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Although knowledge of bacteriophages has increased greatly since their discovery in 1915, a significant amount of what is currently known is based on studies conducted in model conditions and aerobic environments. There are a variety of...
Article
Full-text available
Salmonella spp. is a leading cause of gastrointestinal enteritis in humans where it is largely contracted via contaminated poultry and pork. Phages can be used to control Salmonella infection in the animals, which could break the cycle of infection before the products are accessible for consumption. Here, the potential of 21 myoviruses and a siphov...
Article
Full-text available
Prophages are phages that are integrated into bacterial genomes and which are key to understanding many aspects of bacterial biology. Their extreme diversity means they are challenging to detect using sequence similarity, yet this remains the paradigm and thus many phages remain unidentified. We present a novel, fast and generalizing machine learni...
Preprint
Full-text available
The successful treatment of Lyme disease (LD) requires an accurate diagnostic test; however, most tests are insensitive and unspecific. To overcome these challenges, we developed and validated an internally-controlled quantitative PCR (Ter-qPCR) that targets the multicopy terminase large subunit ( terL ) gene encoded by prophages that are only foun...
Article
Full-text available
Bacteroides spp. are part of the human intestinal microbiota but can under some circumstances become clinical pathogens. Phages are a potentially valuable therapeutic treatment option for many pathogens, but phage therapy for pathogenic Bacteroides spp. including Bacteroides fragilis is currently limited to three genome-sequenced phages. Here we de...
Article
Full-text available
Bacteroides spp. are part of the human intestinal microbiota but can under some circumstances become clinical pathogens. Phages are a potentially valuable therapeutic treatment option for many pathogens, but phage therapy for pathogenic Bacteroides spp. including Bacteroides fragilis is currently limited to three genome-sequenced phages. Here we de...
Article
Full-text available
The Galleria mellonella is an effective model for probing Clostridioides difficile interactions with phages. Despite valuable insights from this model, the larvae are not easily amenable to assessing detailed clinical responses to either bacteria or phages. Here, larval survival, colonisation and toxin levels were compared to expression profiles of...
Article
Full-text available
This article is a summary of the activities of the ICTV’s Bacterial and Archaeal Viruses Subcommittee for the years 2018 and 2019. Highlights include the creation of a new order, 10 families, 22 subfamilies, 424 genera and 964 species. Some of our concerns about the ICTV’s ability to adjust to and incorporate new DNA- and protein-based taxonomic to...
Article
Full-text available
DNA can be preserved in marine and freshwater sediments both in bulk sediment and in intact, viable resting stages. Here, we assess the potential for combined use of ancient, environmental, DNA and timeseries of resurrected long-term dormant organisms, to reconstruct trophic interactions and evolutionary adaptation to changing environments. These n...
Article
Treatment options are limited for alcoholic hepatitis, a liver disease associated with high alcohol intake. Studies in mice reveal that the microorganisms responsible for this condition can be tackled by a viral treatment. Viral treatment tackles alcoholic hepatitis in a mouse model.
Article
Full-text available
Phages are the most abundant biological entity on Earth. There are many variants in phage virion sizes, morphology, and genome sizes. Large virion sized phages, with genome sizes greater than 200 kbp have been identified and termed as Jumbo phages. These phages exhibit certain characteristics that have not been reported in phages with smaller genom...
Article
Full-text available
Bacterial speciation is a fundamental evolutionary process characterized by diverging genotypic and phenotypic properties. However, the selective forces that affect genetic adaptations and how they relate to the biological changes that underpin the formation of a new bacterial species remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the spore-forming,...
Article
Full-text available
A common cause of human food poisoning is through ingestion of pork products contaminated with Salmonella spp. Worryingly multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella strains have been isolated from pigs, which motivates the need for alternative antimicrobials. In this study isolation and characterization of 21 lytic Salmonella phages is described. All 21...
Article
Full-text available
Hypermutable loci are widespread in bacteria as mechanisms for rapid generation of phenotypic diversity within a population that enables survival of fluctuating, often antagonistic, selection pressures. Localized hypermutation can mediate phase variation and enable survival of bacteriophage predation due to high frequency, reversible alterations in...
Article
Full-text available
Despite a wealth of knowledge on Salmonella phages worldwide, little is known about poultry-associated Salmonella phages from Thailand. Here, we isolated 108 phages from Thai poultry farms that infect Salmonellaenterica serovar Typhimurium. Phages STm101 and STm118 were identified as temperate Siphoviridae phages. Genome sequencing and analyses rev...
Article
Full-text available
The Third Annual Meeting of the European Virus Bioinformatics Center (EVBC) took place in Glasgow, United Kingdom, 28–29 March 2019. Virus bioinformatics has become central to virology research, and advances in bioinformatics have led to improved approaches to investigate viral infections and outbreaks, being successfully used to detect, control, a...
Article
Full-text available
Bacteriophage possess a variety of auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs) of bacterial origin. These proteins enable them to maximise infection efficiency, subverting bacterial metabolic processes for the purpose of viral genome replication and synthesis of the next generation of virion progeny. Here, we examined the enzymatic activity of a cyanophage Ma...
Article
Bacteria can use specific protein-based strategies to defend individual cells against viruses. Evidence that bacterial small molecules also target viruses provides fresh insights into how bacteria thwart viral infection.
Chapter
Full-text available
By 2050 an estimated 10 million people will die each year from antibiotic-resistant infections — almost 90% of those in the developing world (1). Thus, alternatives to conventional antibiotics are particularly important for the developing world, with the added criteria that they must also be inexpensive, given resource limitations in low- and middl...
Article
Full-text available
Melioidosis, a serious illness caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, results in up to 40% fatality in infected patients. The pathogen is found in tropical water and soil. Recent findings demonstrated that bacterial numbers can be regulated by a novel clade of phages that are abundant in soil and water. These phages differentially infect their bacter...
Article
Full-text available
Bacteriophage therapeutic development will clearly benefit from understanding the fundamental dynamics of in vivo phage-bacteria interactions. Such information can inform animal and human trials, and much can be ascertained from human cell-line work. We have developed a human cell-based system using Clostridium difficile, a pernicious hospital path...
Preprint
Full-text available
Hypermutable loci are widespread in bacteria as mechanisms for rapid generation of phenotypic diversity, enabling individual populations to survive fluctuating, often antagonistic, selection pressures. As observed for adaptive immunity, hypermutation may facilitate survival of multiple, spatially-separated bacterial populations. We developed an ‘os...
Article
Full-text available
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of infectious diarrhea. Conventional antibiotics are not universally effective for all ribotypes, and can trigger dysbiosis, resistance and recurrent infection. Thus, novel therapeutics are needed to replace and/or supplement the current antibiotics. Here, we describe the activity of an optimis...
Article
Full-text available
As the importance of bacteriophages as novel antimicrobials and potential diagnostics comes increasingly into focus, there is a heightened interest in understanding the mechanisms of how they interact with their bacterial hosts. The first step of a bacteriophage (phage) infection is the recognition of specific moieties on the bacterial cell surface...
Article
Full-text available
The prevalence of pathogenic bacteria acquiring multidrug antibiotic resistance is a global health threat to mankind. This has motivated a renewed interest in developing alternatives to conventional antibiotics including bacteriophages (viruses) as therapeutic agents. The bacterium Clostridium difficile causes colon infection and is particularly di...
Data
Release of encapsulated phage from alginate microparticles. Phage release kinetics from alginate microparticles exposed to simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) at pH 6 and pH 7 and after exposure to simulated gastric fluid (SGF) ay pH 2 (exposure for 3 hours to SGF) followed by dissolution of microparticles in SIF at pH 7. 0 hours time point denotes ex...
Article
Full-text available
Cas1 integrase is the key enzyme of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas adaptation module that mediates acquisition of spacers derived from foreign DNA by CRISPR arrays. In diverse bacteria, the cas1 gene is fused (or adjacent) to a gene encoding a reverse transcriptase (RT) related to group II intron RTs. An R...
Article
Full-text available
Against a backdrop of global antibiotic resistance and increasing awareness of the importance of the human microbiota, there has been resurgent interest in the potential use of bacteriophages for therapeutic purposes, known as phage therapy. A number of phage therapy phase I and II clinical trials have concluded, and shown phages don't present sign...
Article
Full-text available
With an increase in cases of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, alternative and adjunct treatments are needed, leading to renewed interest in bacteriophage therapy. There have been few clinically relevant studies of phage therapy against chronic lung infections. Using a novel murine model that uses a natural respiratory inhalation route of...
Article
Full-text available
Bacteriophages (phages) are increasingly being explored as therapeutic agents to combat bacterial diseases, including Clostridium difficile infections. Therapeutic phages need to be able to efficiently target and kill a wide range of clinically relevant strains. While many phage groups have yet to be investigated in detail, those with new and usefu...