Martha Augoustinos

Martha Augoustinos
University of Adelaide · School of Psychology

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124
Publications
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Publications

Publications (124)
Article
Recent conversations prompted by the #MeToo and #TimesUp movements have put issues of workplace sexism, sexual harassment and sexual assault into the global spotlight. This paper examines how members of the Australian Liberal Party made sense of, and responded to, accusations by female Liberal MPs of bullying and intimidation in their party. Transc...
Article
We propose that part of the problem in combatting prejudice lies in people's dynamic understandings of what prejudice is. To examine this, we asked participants to rate the degree to which they perceived specific group‐relevant attitudes as prejudice. In Study 1, White participants perceived the attitudes as more prejudiced when the attitudes were...
Article
Hillary Clinton’s nomination as the first female presidential candidate to represent a major party in the 2016 US presidential election represented a key moment in US history. The focus on her gender during the campaign was intensified following the accusation by Republican Party nominee, Donald Trump, that Clinton was “playing the woman card”. The...
Article
This study, using conventional content analysis, examined a corpus of #MeToo tweets from the first day the hashtag went viral, October 16th, 2017. Of the 10,546 #MeToo tweets collected, three major categories were identified: these included #MeToo Facilitated Self-Disclosure, Messages of Support, and Calling Out Poor Behaviour with 5,243, 1,556, an...
Article
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Although anti-immigrant attitudes continue to be expressed around the world, identifying these attitudes as prejudice, truth or free speech remains contested. This contestation occurs, in part, because of the absence of consensually agreed-upon understandings of what prejudice is. In this context, the current study sought to answer the question, “w...
Article
Over the last decades, the use of explicit derogatory language (e.g., hate speech, slurs, micro-insults) has risen in many countries. We provide an overview on blatant language discrimination, including its psychological antecedents and consequences. After presenting a working definition of derogatory language and describing its prevalence, we disc...
Article
The concept of intersectionality, the overlapping nature of social identities and systems of power, has become increasingly influential in the social sciences literature. However, the analysis of leadership experiences at the intersections of culture and gender has remained marginal to the field despite the rapid growth of diverse workplaces worldw...
Article
Policymaking is increasingly being recognised as a value‐laden process in which social problems are not simply identified and measured, but discursively produced. The current study examined how the problem of Indigenous disadvantage is produced within the original Closing the Gap policy framework, to identify underlying assumptions and problem repr...
Article
A considerable evidence base exists demonstrating the high prevalence of family caregiving in the community; however, there is a paucity of in‐depth research examining the impact of family caregiving on the living and employment needs of those providing this unpaid service. This study employed a qualitative interview design with purposive sampling...
Article
This paper discusses the impact of negative media and political depictions of the South Sudanese community on the psychological health and well-being of women from the South Sudanese community in South Australia. Interviews revealed enduring experiences of racism and discrimination that had damaging effects on participants’ sense of identity, menta...
Chapter
Drawing on research examining talk about racial, gender, and income inequality, this chapter details how the language of social inequality is patterned by the use of contradictory liberal egalitarian principles to rationalize and justify social inequality, particularly but not exclusively by members of dominant groups. Although principles of fairne...
Article
Cross-group friendships are often assumed to be a panacea to intergroup conflict. However, the irony of harmony hypothesis suggests that friendships can have negative consequences for collective action and social change. We complement this research with accounts of cross-group friendship, using interviews and focus groups with minority (African-Car...
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Background/Objectives If people who hold anti‐fat attitudes believe these attitudes to be true, then anti‐prejudice appeals are likely to be unsuccessful, if only because the targets will not see their attitudes as in need of change. The current study examined processes that may lead people to see their anti‐fat attitudes as “truth” or as “prejudic...
Article
Batel and Castro's call for reopening the dialogue between the theory of social representations and discursive psychology is to be welcomed and indeed, somewhat long overdue. Despite the case that many scholars are engaging in the kind of rapprochement being advocated for by Batel and Castro, I argue here that the intellectual trajectory discursive...
Article
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Despite advances in the representation of women in positions of leadership, gender-based inequalities persist. A particular dilemma for female leaders concerns whether to acknowledge, or avoid talking about, their experiences of gender and gender inequality in public life. Routinely, women who confront such discrimination experience social and pers...
Article
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Most people agree that discrimination is wrong, but the boundary between ‘discrimination’ and ‘not discrimination’ is often highly contested in everyday practice. We explore the social representations of ‘discrimination’ as an object of study in qualitative interviews and focus groups with both minority (self-identified as BAME [Black, Asian, and m...
Article
Social media platforms like Facebook have the potential to make significant contributions to health communication and promotion, yet little is known about the social practices that routinely occur in such spaces. Health organisations can use social media to communicate about public health issues like the prevention of dementia for the purpose of im...
Chapter
Recent international crises such as the war in Syria have led to the displacement of unprecedented numbers of people seeking refuge in western liberal democratic nations in Europe and elsewhere. The response by western governments and their citizens to those seeking asylum and refuge has been polarized, making their resettlement a highly politicize...
Article
The Internet has been argued to provide diverse sites for health communication and promotion, including issues that constitute major public health priorities such as the prevention of dementia. In this study, discursive psychology is used to examine how information about dementia risk prevention was presented on the websites of the most prominent E...
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Norms and expectations regarding fathers are changing, with fathers now expected to be more involved in caregiving. One consequence of this is an increase in fathers who assume the primary caregiving role. The study reported in this paper involved a discourse analysis of 176 Australian newspaper articles that focused on primary caregiving fathers....
Article
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Expectations and norms of fatherhood are evolving, with fathers now expected to be more involved in childcare. These changes have made it possible for a growing number of fathers to assume a primary caregiving role. Catering to these fathers, a growing number of books have been published focusing on primary caregiving fathers. The present article r...
Article
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Speech errors, slips, and gaffes made in the public arena that are perceived to be either implicitly or explicitly racially offensive often result in significant social consequences to the responsible speaker and generate public controversy. The current research, informed by conversation analysis and discursive psychology, examines how speakers man...
Chapter
Discourse Analysis (DA) refers to the systematic study of both written text and talk and its role in constructing social reality. DA is much more than a qualitative methodology: it is theoretically and epistemologically informed by social constructionism and has been central to challenging the dominance of cognitive and perceptual theoretical model...
Article
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Recently there has been growing interest in what is positioned as a new form of masculinity arising from the increase in fathers as primary caregivers. This new form is referred to as a 'caring masculinity', and is theorised as a radical shift away from traditional or hegemonic forms of masculinity. This paper critically examines the fathering lite...
Chapter
Increasing cultural diversity and norms of social equality in liberal democratic nations have made the emergence of national leaders from minority backgrounds such as Barack Obama in the United States and Julia Gillard in Australia more likely. Such leaders not only face special challenges in mobilising widespread social identification and politica...
Article
Advice relating to the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia has become commonplace in the media. This article explores how messages about brain health are constructed in a sample of Australian newspapers in the period 2009-2014. Drawing on insights from discursive psychology and conversation analysis, we identify some specific discursive pr...
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Previous research with adolescents with refugee backgrounds living in countries of resettlement has found that school belonging has an impact on a range of wellbeing and developmental outcomes, including mental health, peer relationships, self-esteem and self-efficacy, and academic achievement. However, very little research has explored school belo...
Article
This paper explores the salience of the “crisis” in boys’ education as it is articulated in Australian print media. We will consider the ways in which this crisis is expressed through a gendered language which simultaneously represents boys as “forgotten” by teaching practices thought to be prioritising girls’ learning, and as an equity (disadvanta...
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While there is a body of research concerning the education of students with migrant or refugee backgrounds, little of this research focuses on primary-school aged children. In order to address this gap, the current paper utilises data gained from an ethnographic study to consider the challenges and opportunities associated with diverse classrooms d...
Article
Former Prime Minister Julia Gillard's speech in the Australian parliament on sexism and misogyny received considerable public attention and controversy. However, less attention has been paid to how Gillard attended and oriented to issues related to her status as a woman during the period between her elevation to the position of Prime Minister in Ju...
Article
Racism has been a core topic in social psychology since the 1930s. Central to most definitions of racism is the belief in a biological hierarchy between different social groups based on perceived racial differences. As a complex social issue multiple social psychological perspectives have been advanced to understand and theorize beliefs, behavior,...
Article
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What is at stake for women who challenge sexism? In October 2012, Australia’s first female Prime Minister, Julia Gillard, delivered a speech in Parliament in which she accused the Leader of the Opposition, Tony Abbott, of sexism and misogyny. The speech attracted local and international media coverage, and sparked widespread debate about precisely...
Chapter
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The psychological and ideological processes of social categorization, differentiation and identification that adhere to how social groups negotiate and acquire identities for themselves, and those defined as different or ‘Other’, have been central to research in the social representations tradition (Augoustinos and Riggs, 2007; Chryssochoou, 2004;...
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In this article, we build on previous critical discursive research concerning the deployment of nationalist rhetoric in the negative representation of asylum seekers to also consider the interplay between neoliberal and nationalist discourses regarding asylum seekers arriving by boat to Australia. Rather than arguing that neoliberalism and national...
Article
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The negative psychological impacts of working with traumatised people are well documented and include vicarious traumatisation (VT): the cumulative effect of identifying with clients' trauma stories that negatively impacts on service providers' memory, emotions, thoughts, and worldviews. More recently, the concept of vicarious resilience (VR) has b...
Technical Report
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When arriving in a resettlement country, young people with migrant or refugee backgrounds may face a range of challenges, including negotiating changing identities, challenges learning about and ‘fitting in’ to a new culture, and issues such as discrimination or social exclusion (Kromidas 2011; Isik-Ercan, 2014; Woods, 2009; Riggs & Due, 2011). In...
Article
We aimed to explore how refugee people utilised their coping resources and strategies to find meaning in their past and present experiences. Using an experience-centred narrative approach, we analysed the stories of 24 former refugees from two African countries resettled in South Australia. Data analysis revealed altruism and helping behaviour as a...
Article
Using narrative methodology this paper analyses the life stories of 25 former refugees from two African countries, resettled in Australia. Study findings demonstrated a salient divergence between the stories of the two communities; within which there were also individual differences in structure and content of participants’ narratives. Five narrati...
Article
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This paper outlines a participatory research methodology we have found to be successful in researching the educational experiences and perceptions of children with migrant or refugee backgrounds in Australia for whom English is a second language, aged between 5 and 7 years. As such, the paper focuses on research methods that are effective in resear...
Article
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The theory of psychological essentialism provides an account of how and why some social groups are represented as if they possessed an inhering, immutable and group-defining ‘essence’. Whilst much of the empirical and theoretical work on essentialism has attended to characterising its cognitive components through the utilisation of survey measures,...
Article
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The present study explores the challenges posed when those within the scientific establishment itself publicly undermine scientific theories of political, social and environmental significance. Drawing from the Theory of Social Representations (Moscovici, 1984), and Discursive Psychology (Edwards & Potter, 1992) we analyse interviews with a wellkno...
Article
Building rapport is considered important in investigative interviewing of children about alleged sexual abuse, but theoretical understanding of the nature of rapport and how to judge its presence remains sketchy. This article argues that the conversation analytic concept of progressivity may provide empirical tractability to the concept of rapport...
Article
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Heat waves are considered a health risk and they are likely to increase in frequency, intensity and duration as a consequence of climate change. The effects of heat waves on human health could be reduced if individuals recognise the risks and adopt healthy behaviours during a heat wave. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of r...
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Record breaking heat waves have been recorded in Adelaide, Australia in recent years and climate change would likely increase the frequency, duration and severity of heat waves. This paper describes the governance and institutional arrangements during the development of an adaptation strategy (herein referred to as heat-health policy) for heat wave...
Article
The election of the first African-American President of the United States, Barack Obama, has been widely recognised as an extraordinary milestone in the history of the United States and indeed the world. With the use of a discursive psychological approach combined with central theoretical principles derived from social identity and self-categorisat...
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This editorial is closed access, it was published in the serial The British Journal of Social Psychology [Wiley-Blackwell © The British Psychological Society]. The definitive version is available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.2012.02096.x
Article
This paper examines how speakers deploy narrative devices in talking about Sudanese refugees. Particularly, we show how narrative constructions form an important basis for the advancement of accounts about integration problems into the local polity. We analyse talkback ‘phone-in’ calls to a local Adelaide radio station that provide callers an oppor...
Article
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The recent apology by the Australian Prime Minister to Indigenous Australians demonstrates the increasing willingness of nation states to apologize for historical injustices. In this critical discursive analysis of Rudd’s apology, we analyse the pragmatic and linguistic features of the apology in light of recent research on political apologies as a...
Article
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Complaining about humanitarian refugees is rarely an unequivocal activity for society members. Their talk appears dilemmatic: ‘sympathy talk’, comprising rhetorical displays of ‘care’, tolerance and aesthetic evaluations, is woven together with more pejorative messages. In this article we investigate how ‘sympathy talk’ functions as a discursive re...
Article
This paper attempts to forge links between two recent approaches in social cognition research: Moscovici's theory of social representations and social schema theory. These two theories or concepts converge in that both schemata and representations are conceptualized as existing knowledge structures which guide and facilitate the processing of socia...
Article
Recently, Devine has argued against the inevitability of prejudice perspective, proposing that stereotypes and personal beliefs should be conceptualized as separate cognitive components. The present paper reports on two studies which explore this issue in relation to stereotypes of and prejudice towards Australian Aborigines. In the first study, re...
Article
This study examines how parents attribute responsibility when their child commits an illicit act. Sixty-seven mothers and 26 fathers (N = 93), with care and control of a child between 10 and 18 years, attributed responsibility to the parent and child in eight hypothetical scenarios in which a child commits an illicit offence. Findings indicate that...
Article
Male-favouring and female-derogating causal attributions for achievement outcomes are often cited within the social psychological literature as evidence for the “ultimate attribution bias”. However, most of the studies documenting this attributional pattern were conducted over 20 years ago. This study examines whether this gender bias can be empiri...
Article
The present research applies Devine's (1989) distinction between stereotype knowledge and personal beliefs to the early development of racial bias in young children. The responses of 110 South Australian children (66 girls and 44 boys) toward white and black stimuli were examined across the 5–6 and 8–9 age groups. Analyses revealed that both age gr...
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
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The words of political elites have the potential to play a significant role in the constitution and proliferation of racist discourse, especially when this discourse has the nuanced linguistic characteristics of ‘new racism’. This article examines the political rhetoric deployed in the articulation and defence of contentious government policy on Su...
Article
The release of the fourth United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report in February 2007 prompted a flood of responses from political leaders around the globe. Perhaps nowhere was this more apparent than in Australia, where its release coincided with the first sitting week of the Australian Parliament, in an election year....
Chapter
Although many definitions of racism have been proposed, an all-inclusive definition has yet to be agreed on, particularly as researchers have identified a variety of racisms (Miles & Brown, 2003; Richards, 1997). Central to many definitions of racism is the belief in a biological hierarchy between different racial and ethnic groups and the associat...
Article
This paper analyses a corpus of articles on GM crops and food which appeared in six UK newspapers in the first three months of 2004, the year following the GM Nation? debate (2003). Using the methods of critical discourse analysis we focus on how specific and pervasive representations of the major stakeholders in the national debate on GM--the Brit...
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The meteoric rise of Professor Wu Sook Hwang who had claimed to have successfully cloned embryonic stem cells in two landmark papers published in Science (2004, 2005) came to an abrupt end when it was discovered that the findings reported in both papers had been deliberately fabricated. Given the heightened expectations associated with therapeutic-...
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Research on foster care suggests that children who have experienced abuse are susceptible to a range of negative life outcomes. Such research also suggests that children removed into foster care can recover from abuse if given opportunities to develop healing relationships with caregivers. Drawing on qualitative data from a national research projec...
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The provision of foster care in Australia has a long and contested history. These histories, along with current media representations of foster care, shape the ways in which the general public understand foster care. Importantly, and where such representations are primarily negative, it is likely that foster care will not be considered a viable opt...
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Foster care systems across Australia are widely recognised as being ‘in crisis’. Problems of both supply (a lack of appropriate placements for children) and demand (increasing numbers of child protection notifications) are central to this crisis. Addressing these problems requires an approach to social work practice that encourages greater support...
Article
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In response to the current shortfall in the number of registered foster carers in Australia, many agencies are now actively recruiting lesbians and gay men as foster carers. Importantly, however, this move towards recognising the role that lesbians and gay men may play as foster carers has on the whole not been supported by laws or policies specifi...
Chapter
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White Australians acknowledgments of race privilege or complicity with colonialism continue to come under scrutiny for their "confessional" role in speaking of racism only to yet again "move on" from it. In a similar way, discourse analytic studies of racism continue to be criticised for their failure to produce "real world" outcomes, and for their...
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This paper analyses texts from the Australian print media that invoke nationalist discourse in the so-called ‘Tampa crisis’ of 2001, which involved the boarding by Australian military troops of a civilian Norwegian shipping vessel (the Tampa) that had rescued a group of asylum seekers. In particular, we are interested in how military action was jus...
Article
This paper discursively analyses advocates' explanations of asylum seeking in the 2001 Australian parliamentary debates. Previous research has mapped the negative discourses used to present asylum seekers as economic migrants ‘taking advantage’ of soft laws. This paper analyses how advocates oppose this rhetoric, re-categorising asylum seekers as p...
Article
Many critics have previously examined the ways in which the pervasive construction of the family in Western nations – that of the heterosexual nuclear family – is normalised and naturalised in a range of contexts. This paper examines discourses of genetics and the ‘family’ in a series of UK newspaper articles, many of which are non-normative family...
Article
Whilst there has been a proliferation of research on the role of nationalism in the exclusion of asylum seekers, less attention has been paid to how nationalism can be mobilised in accounts opposing, rather than supporting, harsh anti-asylum seeker regimes. This paper compares the ways in which ‘Australia’ is constructed and used in parliamentary s...
Article
This paper presents findings from a discursive analysis of Hansard recordings of the public hearings of the Australian Public Inquiry into Child Custody. Using a synthesis of membership categorization analysis, sequential conversation analysis, and rhetorical analysis, the study shows how two witnesses, and the committee members they interacted wit...
Article
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The proliferation of the subtle and slippery nature of the new racism has made it increasingly difficult to define racism and to develop an effective anti-racist rhetoric with which to challenge it. To explore the implications of the new racism for anti-racist discourse, this article uses discourse analysis to examine the parliamentary speeches of...
Article
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During the past 20 years, there has been a burgeoning literature on racial discourse in Western liberal democracies that has been informed by several disciplines. This literature has analysed linguistic and discursive patterns of everyday talk and formal institutional talk that can be found in parliamentary debates, political speeches, and the medi...
Article
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This paper explores some of the relationships between the ways in which (White) dominant group children learn about racial differences and the ways in which difference is represented within gay and lesbian families. Research in the latter area has typically provided two dominant (though contrasting) accounts of difference within gay or lesbian fami...
Chapter
Talk about apologising, about saying sorry, has been at the forefront of national concern in Australia over the past ten years. In April 1997, the Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Commission tabled the Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families, a report that generate...
Chapter
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During the last twenty years there has been a burgeoning literature on the language of contemporary racism in Western liberal democracies such as Australia, New Zealand, Britain, Europe and the United States. Much of this literature has been informed by discursive psychology, which not only analyses everyday talk and conversation, but also formal i...
Chapter
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We begin by acknowledging the sovereignty of the Kaurna people, the first nations people upon whose land we live in Adelaide, South Australia. We would also like to acknowledge Lucinda Sale, who conducted and transcribed the focus group interviews.
Article
During the past 20 years, there has been a burgeoning literature on racial discourse in Western liberal democracies that has been informed by several disciplines. This literature has analysed linguistic and discursive patterns of everyday talk and formal institutional talk that can be found in parliamentary debates, political speeches, and the medi...
Article
Full-text available
Ongoing histories of racism in colonial nations such as Australia challenge us as academics to consider how we understand racism and its role in practices of both privilege and oppression. In this article we as two non-indigenous people living in Australia attempt to work through issues of collective responsibility by focusing on what we believe ar...
Article
This article presents a discursive analysis of student talk on disadvantage and affirmative action from two focus group discussions on ‘race’ relations in Australia. Our analysis builds upon previous research in the discursive tradition on affirmative action and demonstrates how participants draw on resources, which construct affirmative action as...