Marta O Soares

Marta O Soares
The University of York · Centre for Health Economics

Doctor of Philosophy

About

116
Publications
15,494
Reads
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3,160
Citations
Additional affiliations
November 2009 - April 2016
The University of York
Position
  • Senior Researcher

Publications

Publications (116)
Article
Background Many decisions in health care aim to maximise health, requiring judgements about interventions that may have higher health effects but potentially incur additional costs (cost-effectiveness framework). The evidence used to establish cost-effectiveness is typically uncertain and it is important that this uncertainty is characterised. In s...
Article
Full-text available
Background Patients with low estimated glomerular filtration rates may be at higher risk of post-contrast acute kidney injury following contrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging. Point-of-care devices allow rapid measurement of estimated glomerular filtration rates for patients referred without a recent estimated glomerular filtration rate resu...
Article
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Introduction Many HIV‐positive individuals in Africa have advanced disease when initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) so have high risks of opportunistic infections and death. The REALITY trial found that an enhanced‐prophylaxis package including fluconazole reduced mortality by 27% in individuals starting ART with CD4 <100 cells/mm³. We investig...
Article
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Well-established methods of economic evaluation are used in many countries to inform decisions about the funding of new medical interventions. To guide such decisions, it is important to consider what health gains would be expected from the same level of investment elsewhere in the health care system. Recent research in the UK has evaluated the evi...
Article
Introduction: Many HIV-positive individuals in Africa have advanced disease when initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) so have high risks of opportunistic infections and death. The REALITY trial found that an enhanced-prophylaxis package including fluconazole reduced mortality by 27% in individuals starting ART with CD4<100 cells/mm3. We investig...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Limited evidence exists regarding the cost and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) effects of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) recurrence and progression to muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). We examined these effects using evidence from a recent randomized control trial. Material and methods: The costs and HRQoL ass...
Article
Background: Most surgical incisions heal by primary intention (i.e. wound edges are apposed with sutures, clips or glue); however some heal by secondary intention (i.e. the wound is left open and heals by formation of granulation tissue). There is, however, a lack of evidence regarding the epidemiology, management, and impact on patients’ quality o...
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Here, we report on the outcome of the 2nd International Danube Symposium on advanced biomarker development that was held in Vienna, Austria, in early 2018. During the meeting, cross-speciality participants assessed critical aspects of non-invasive, quantitative biomarker development in view of the need to expand our understanding of disease mechani...
Article
Background Many decisions in healthcare aim to maximise health, requiring judgements about interventions that may have higher health effects but potentially incur additional costs (cost-effectiveness framework). The evidence used to establish cost-effectiveness is typically uncertain and it is important that this uncertainty is characterised. In si...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia is a common and frequently fatal infection. Adjunctive rifampicin may enhance early S. aureus killing, sterilise infected foci and blood faster, and thereby reduce the risk of dissemination, metastatic infection and death. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether or not adjunctive rifampicin reduces bacteriolog...
Article
Objective To assess the natural history and treatment effect on survival among patients with transthyretin-associated familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) stage 1 Val30Met. Methods Multi-institutional, hospital-based study of patients with TTR-FAP Val30Met prospectively followed up until December 2016, grouped into untreated (n = 1,771), live...
Article
Full-text available
Background Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia is a common and frequently fatal infection. Adjunctive rifampicin may enhance early S. aureus killing, sterilise infected foci and blood faster, and thereby reduce the risk of dissemination, metastatic infection and death. Objectives To determine whether or not adjunctive rifampicin reduces bacteriologi...
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Background: Surgical wounds healing by secondary intention can be difficult and costly to manage and are profoundly under researched. This prospective inception, cohort study aimed to derive a better understanding of surgical wounds healing by secondary intention and to facilitate the design of future research investigating effective treatments....
Article
Full-text available
Background: Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia is a common, frequently fatal infection. Adjunctive rifampicin may enhance early S. aureus killing, sterilise infected foci and blood faster, and thereby reduce the risk of dissemination, metastatic infection and death. Objectives: To determine whether adjunctive rifampicin reduces bacteriological (micr...
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Full-text available
Background Men with suspected prostate cancer usually undergo transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy. TRUS-guided biopsy can cause side effects and has relatively poor diagnostic accuracy. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) used as a triage test might allow men to avoid unnecessary TRUS-guided biopsy and improve diagno...
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Background: Venous leg ulcers are open skin wounds on the lower leg which can be slow to heal, and are both painful and costly. The point prevalence of open venous leg ulcers in the UK is about 3 cases per 10,000 people, and many people experience recurrent episodes of prolonged ulceration. First-line treatment for venous leg ulcers is compression...
Data
Appendix S1. Clinical assessment of wound infection Table S1. Wound pain collected using weekly text messages by randomized group and time point Table S2. Coefficients from the Cox proportional hazards regression models for time to healing Table S3. Wound area from tracings by randomized group over time
Article
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Background Empirical evidence supporting the cost-effectiveness estimates of particular health care technologies may be limited, or it may even be missing entirely. In these situations, additional information, often in the form of expert judgments, is needed to reach a decision. There are formal methods to quantify experts’ beliefs, termed as struc...
Article
Considering whether or not a proposed investment (an intervention, technology, or program of care) is affordable is really asking whether the benefits it offers are greater than its opportunity cost. To say that an investment is cost-effective but not affordable must mean that the (implicit or explicit) “threshold” used to judge cost-effectiveness...
Chapter
In the face of constrained budgets, unavoidable decisions about the use of health care interventions have to be made. Decision makers seeking to maximise health for their given budget should use the best available information on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, and for this purpose they may use a process of gathering and combining existing evi...
Article
Background: In recent years, Health Technology Assessment (HTA) processes specific to diagnostics and prognostic tests have been created in response to the increased pressure on health systems to decide not only which tests should be used in practice but also the best way to proceed, clinically, from the information they provide. These technologie...
Article
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Background Several biologic therapies are approved by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) for psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients who have had an inadequate response to two or more synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). NICE does not specifically recommend switching from one biologic to another, and only u...
Article
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Background: The current recommendation of using transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUSB) to diagnose prostate cancer misses clinically significant (CS) cancers. More sensitive biopsies (eg, template prostate mapping biopsy [TPMB]) are too resource intensive for routine use, and there is little evidence on multiparametric magnetic resonance ima...
Article
Full-text available
Background Surgical wounds healing by secondary intention (SWHSI) are increasingly being treated with negative‐pressure wound therapy (NPWT) despite a lack of high‐quality research evidence regarding its clinical and cost‐effectiveness. This pilot feasibility RCT aimed to assess the methods for and feasibility of conducting a future definitive RCT...
Article
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Background: Pressure ulcers, also known as bedsores, decubitus ulcers and pressure injuries, are localised areas of injury to the skin or the underlying tissue, or both. Dressings are widely used to treat pressure ulcers and promote healing, and there are many options to choose from including alginate, hydrocolloid and protease-modulating dressing...
Article
In informing decisions, utilising health technology assessment (HTA), expert elicitation can provide valuable information, particularly where there is a less-developed evidence-base at the point of market access. In these circumstances, formal methods to elicit expert judgements are preferred to improve the accountability and transparency of the de...
Chapter
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This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects of (1) dressings and (2) topical agents for healing venous leg ulcers in any care setting and to rank treatments in order of effectiveness, with assessment of uncertainty and evidence quality.
Article
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Background Most incisions following surgery heal by primary intention, with the edges of the wound apposed with sutures or clips. However, some wounds may break open or be left to heal from the bottom up (i.e. healing by secondary intention). Surgical wounds healing by secondary intention (SWHSI) are often more complex to manage, and require additi...
Article
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Abstract Background Complex wounds are those that heal by secondary intention and include lower-limb ulcers, pressure ulcers and some surgical wounds. The care of people with complex wounds is costly, with care mainly being delivered by community nurses. There is a lack of current, high-quality data regarding the numbers and types of people affec...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Complex wounds are those that heal by secondary intention and include lower-limb ulcers, pressure ulcers and some surgical wounds. The care of people with complex wounds is costly, with care mainly being delivered by community nurses. There is a lack of current, high-quality data regarding the numbers and types of people affected, care...
Article
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of vortioxetine (Lundbeck) to submit clinical and cost-effectiveness evidence for vortioxetine for the treatment of major depressive episodes (MDEs), as part of the Institute’s Single Technology Appraisal (STA) process. The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and...
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Background: The value of evidence about the performance of a technology and the value of access to a technology are central to policy decisions regarding coverage with, without, or only in research and managed entry (or risk-sharing) agreements. Objectives: We aim to outline the key principles of what assessments are needed to inform "only in re...
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Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors (anti-TNFs) are typically used when the inflammatory rheumatologic diseases ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-AxSpA) have not responded adequately to conventional therapy. Current National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance recommends treatmen...
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Significant investments in regenerative medicine necessitate discussion to align evidentiary requirements and decision-making considerations from regulatory, health system payer and developer perspectives. Only with coordinated efforts will the potential of regenerative medicine be realized. We report on discussions from two workshops sponsored by...
Article
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects of (i) dressings and (ii) topical agents for healing pressure ulcers in any care setting. To rank treatments in order of effectiveness, with assessment of uncertainty and evidence quality.
Article
Full-text available
Background: The key principles regarding what assessments lead to different types of guidance about the use of health technologies (Only in Research, Approval with Research, Approve, or Reject) provide an explicit and transparent framework for technology appraisal. Objective: We aim to demonstrate how these principles and assessments can be appl...
Article
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Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) models are routinely used to inform health care policy. Key model inputs include relative effectiveness of competing treatments, typically informed by meta-analysis. Heterogeneity is ubiquitous in meta-analysis, and random effects models are usually used when there is variability in effects across studies. In the a...
Article
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Cost-effectiveness analysis involves the comparison of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a new technology, which is more costly than existing alternatives, with the cost-effectiveness threshold. This indicates whether or not the health expected to be gained from its use exceeds the health expected to be lost elsewhere as other health-care...
Article
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IntroductionPrior to investing in a large, multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT), the National Institute for Health Research in the UK called for an evaluation of the feasibility and value for money of undertaking a trial on intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) as an adjuvant therapy for severe sepsis/septic shock.Methods In response to this c...
Article
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Most economic evaluations that participate in decision-making processes for incorporation and financing of technologies of health systems use decision models to assess the costs and benefits of the compared strategies. Despite the large number of economic evaluations conducted in Brazil, there is a pressing need to conduct an in-depth methodologica...
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Background Network meta-analysis methods extend the standard pair-wise framework to allow simultaneous comparison of multiple interventions in a single statistical model. Despite published work on network meta-analysis mainly focussing on the synthesis of aggregate data, methods have been developed that allow the use of individual patient-level dat...
Article
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Background: Compression is an effective and recommended treatment for venous leg ulcers. Although the four-layer bandage (4LB) is regarded as the gold standard compression system, it is recognised that the amount of compression delivered might be compromised by poor application technique. Also the bulky nature of the bandages might reduce ankle or...
Article
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The costs, benefits and risks associated with diagnostic imaging investigations for epilepsy surgery necessitate the identification of an optimal pathway in the pre-surgical workup. In order to assess the added value of additional investigations a full cost-effectiveness evaluation should be conducted, taking into account all of the life-time costs...
Article
Advanced evidence synthesis techniques such as indirect or mixed treatment comparisons provide powerful analytic tools to inform decision making. In some cases, however, existing research is limited in quantity and/or existing research data are ‘sparse’. We demonstrate how modelling assumptions in evidence synthesis can be explored in the face of l...
Chapter
Elicitation can be used to quantify unknown parameters or to inform assumptions used in decision models for economic evaluation. The current level of knowledge regarding parameters is specified as statistical distributions. Within the context of a decision model, these can be used to generate estimates of the value of conducting further research to...
Article
Full-text available
Drawbacks exist with the standard treatment (four-layer compression bandages) for venous leg ulcers. We have therefore compared the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two-layer compression hosiery with the four-layer bandage for the treatment of such ulcers. We undertook this pragmatic, open, randomised controlled trial with two paral...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Purpose: To develop a conceptual framework for estimating cost effectiveness thresholds in the context of health care systems with budget constraints. To use routinely available data in the English National Health Service to estimate a cost effectiveness threshold (in terms of cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY)) relevant to decisions made b...
Article
Objectives: Decision models for health technology appraisal are defined by their structure and data. Often there are alternatives for how the model might be specified and what data to include, and criteria are required to guide these choices. This study uses multiparameter evidence synthesis (MPES) to synthesize data from diverse sources and test...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia is a common and serious infection, with an associated mortality of ~25%. Once in the blood, S. aureus can disseminate to infect almost any organ, but bones, joints and heart valves are most frequently affected. Despite the infection's severity, the evidence guiding optimal antibiotic therapy is weak: f...
Article
The design of decision-analytic models for cost-effectiveness analysis has been the subject of discussion. The current work addresses this issue by noting that, when time is to be explicitly modelled, we need to represent phenomena occurring in continuous time. Models evaluated in continuous time may not have closed-form solutions, and in this case...
Article
Full-text available
The general issue of balancing the value of evidence about the performance of a technology and the value of access to a technology can be seen as central to a number of policy questions. Establishing the key principles of what assessments are needed, as well as how they should be made, will enable them to be addressed in an explicit and transparent...
Article
Full-text available
For patients who continue to have seizures despite ongoing treatment, surgical resection of the epileptic focus may be considered, and can result in seizure-freedom. Currently, non-invasive tests provide information to inform the scope and positioning of invasive electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes. However, these technologies could replace int...