Marshall Devor

Marshall Devor
Hebrew University of Jerusalem | HUJI

About

302
Publications
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22,602
Citations
Citations since 2016
27 Research Items
4797 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600

Publications

Publications (302)
Article
Although general anesthesia is normally induced by systemic dosing, an anesthetic state can be induced in rodents by microinjecting minute quantities of GABAergic agents into the brainstem mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area (MPTA). Correspondingly, lesions to the MPTA render rats relatively insensitive to standard anesthetic doses delivered syst...
Article
Ectopic discharge ("ectopia") in damaged afferent axons is a major contributor to chronic neuropathic pain. Clinical opinion discourages surgical resection of nerves proximal to the original injury site for fear of resurgence of ectopia and exacerbated pain. We tested this concept in a well-established animal neuroma model. Teased fiber recordings...
Article
Full-text available
Doubtless, the conscious brain integrates masses of information. But declaring that consciousness simply "emerges" when enough has accumulated, doesn't really explain how first person experience is implemented by neurons. Moreover, empirical observations challenge integrated information theory's (IIT) reliance on thalamo-cortical interactions as th...
Article
Full-text available
It is nearly axiomatic that pain, among other examples of conscious experience, is an outcome of still-uncertain forms of neural processing that occur in the cerebral cortex, and specifically within thalamo-cortical networks. This belief rests largely on the dramatic relative expansion of the cortex in the course of primate evolution, in humans in...
Article
Full-text available
We all experience pain at one time or another. Pain is an essential “alarm bell” that tells us that something is wrong, and a “teacher” that reminds us not to do that same thing again. Usually, pain is felt when a stimulus, such as a pinch or an injury, causes electrical pulses to run along one of the cables of nerve fibers in our body and into the...
Article
Full-text available
The mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area (MPTA) was identified in rats as a singular brainstem locus at which microinjection of minute quantities of GABAergic agents rapidly and reversibly induces loss-of-consciousness and a state of general anesthesia, while lesioning renders animals insensitive to anesthetics at normal systemic doses. Obtaining...
Article
The brain undergoes rapid, dramatic, and reversible transitioning between states of wakefulness and unconsciousness during natural sleep and in pathological conditions such as hypoxia, hypotension, and concussion. Transitioning can also be induced pharmacologically using general anesthetic agents. The effect is selective. Mobility, sensory percepti...
Article
General anesthetic agents are thought to induce loss-of-consciousness (LOC) and enable pain-free surgery by acting on the endogenous brain circuitry responsible for sleep-wake cycling. In clinical use, the entire CNS is exposed to anesthetic molecules with LOC usually attributed to synaptic suppression in the cerebral cortex and immobility and anal...
Article
In light of the general shift from rats to mice as the leading rodent model in neuroscience research we used c-Fos expression as a tool to survey brain regions in the mouse in which neural activity differs between the states of wakefulness and pentobarbital-induced general anesthesia. The aim was to complement prior surveys carried out in rats. In...
Article
The mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area (MPTA) is a small brainstem nucleus that, when exposed to minute quantities of GABAA receptor agonists, induces a state of general anesthesia. In addition to immobility and analgesia this state is accompanied by widespread suppression of neural activity in the cerebral cortex and high delta-band power in th...
Article
What we already know about this topic: Lesions of the mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area in the brainstem render rats strongly insensitive to pentobarbitalThe effects of mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area lesions on responses to other anesthetics have not been previously reported WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: Targeted microinjectio...
Article
Patients with radicular low back pain (radicular LBP, sciatica) frequently describe their pain as "shooting" or "radiating." The dictionary meaning of these words implies rapid movement, and indeed, many sufferers report feeling pain moving rapidly from the lower back or buttock into the leg. But, others do not. Moreover, the sensation of movement...
Article
Neuropathic pain is frequently driven by ectopic impulse discharge (ectopia) generated in injured peripheral afferent neurons. Observations in the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model in rats suggest that cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) contribute three times more to the ectopic barrage than the site of nerve injury (neuroma). The DRG is...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Pain in herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is traditionally explained in terms of 2 processes: irritable nociceptors in the rash-inflamed skin and, later, deafferentation due to destruction of sensory neurons in one virally infected dorsal root ganglion. Objectives and methods Consideration of the evidence supporting...
Article
Chronic postmastectomy pain (PMP) imposes a major burden on the quality of life of the ever-increasing number of long-term survivors of breast cancer. An earlier report by Nissenbaum et al. (2010) claimed that particular polymorphisms in the gene CACNG2 are associated with the risk of developing chronic PMP after breast surgery. This information is...
Article
Ectopic impulse discharge (ectopia) generated in the soma of afferent neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) following nerve injury is thought to be a major contributor to neuropathic pain. The DRG is thus a prime interventional target. The process of electrogenesis (impulse generation) in the DRG is far more sensitive to systemically administered N...
Article
The induction of general anesthesia shares many features with the transition from wakefulness to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, suggesting that the two types of brain-state transition are orchestrated by a common neuronal mechanism. Previous studies revealed a brainstem locus, the mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area (MPTA), that is of singu...
Article
The MPTA (mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area) is a key node in a network of axonal pathways that collectively engage the key components of general anesthesia: immobility and atonia, analgesia, amnesia and loss-of-consciousness. In this study we have applied double retrograde tracing to analyze MPTA connectivity, with a focus on axon collateraliz...
Article
The transition from wakefulness to general anesthesia is widely attributed to suppressive actions of anesthetic molecules distributed by the systemic circulation to the cerebral cortex (for amnesia and loss of consciousness) and to the spinal cord (for atonia and antinocice-ption). An alternative hypothesis proposes that anesthetics act on one or m...
Chapter
Pain in herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia is classically ascribed to irritable, inflammation-sensitized nociceptors in the cutaneous rash and to spinal cord deafferentation. After considering weaknesses in the evidence base underlying this view an alternative explanation is offered, based on hyperexcitability at ectopic pacemaker sites in af...
Article
Chronic pain is a multifactorial disease comprised of both inflammatory and neuropathic components that affect ∼20% of the world’s population. sec-Butylpropylacetamide (SPD) is a novel amide analogue of valproic acid (VPA) previously shown to possess a broad spectrum of anticonvulsant activity. In this study we defined the pharmacokinetic parameter...
Article
Transient loss of consciousness (TLOC), frequently triggered by perturbation in essential physiological parameters such as pCO2or O2, is considered a passive consequence of generalized degradation in high-level cerebral functioning.However, the fact that it is almost always accompanied by atonia and loss of spinal nocifensive reflexes suggests that...
Article
We review evidence that the induction of anesthesia with GABAergic agents is mediated by a network of dedicated axonal pathways, which convey a suppressive signal to remote parts of the central nervous system. The putative signal originates in an anesthetic-sensitive locus in the brainstem that we refer to as the mesopontine tegmental anesthesia ar...
Article
General anesthetic agents induce loss of consciousness coupled with suppression of movement, analgesia and amnesia. Although these diverse functions are mediated by neural structures located in wide-ranging parts of the neuraxis, anesthesia can be induced rapidly and reversibly by bilateral microinjection of minute quantities of GABAA -R agonists a...
Article
Although microglia have been implicated in nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain, the manner by which injured sensory neurons engage microglia remains unclear. We found that peripheral nerve injury induced de novo expression of colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) in injured sensory neurons. CSF1 was transported to the spinal cord, where it targeted...
Article
The molecular agents that induce loss of consciousness during anesthesia are classically believed to act by binding to cognate transmembrane receptors widely distributed in the CNS and critically suppressing local processing and network connectivity. However, previous work has shown that microinjection of anesthetics into a localized region of the...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic pain is a highly prevalent and poorly managed human health problem. We used microarray-based expression genomics in 25 inbred mouse strains to identify dorsal root ganglion (DRG)-expressed genetic contributors to mechanical allodynia, a prominent symptom of chronic pain. We identified expression levels of Chrna6, which encodes the α6 subuni...
Article
Full-text available
Neuropathic pain is a major, intractable clinical problem and its pathophysiology is not well understood. Although recent gene expression profiling studies have enabled the identification of novel targets for pain therapy, classical study designs provide unclear results owing to the differential expression of hundreds of genes across sham and nerve...
Article
Pain sensation protects the organism from potential harm by triggering defensive action and by conveying signals about the noxious event to conscious awareness. Nociceptive signaling normally starts at the periphery, and the information is processed and relayed along pain pathways to the higher brain structures. The pain-processing system is comple...
Article
Unlabelled: We report a novel symptom in many patients with low back pain (LBP) that sheds new light on the underlying pain mechanism. By means of quantitative sensory testing, we compared patients with radicular LBP (sciatica), axial LBP (LBP without radiation into the leg), and healthy controls, searching for cutaneous allodynia in response to w...
Patent
Full-text available
Amide derivatives of valproic acid are provided along their use in the treatment of epilepsy.
Data
Full-text available
Peripheral nervous system origin of phantom limb pain Apostol Vaso a, Haim-Moshe Adahan b, Artan Gjika a, Skerdi Zahaj a, Tefik Zhurda a, Gentian Vyshka c, Marshall Devor d,⇑ a Pain and Rehabilitation Clinic, National Trauma Center, Trauma University Hospital and Galenus Clinic, Tirana, Albania b Pain Rehabilitation Unit, Chaim Sheba Medical Center...
Article
Full-text available
Nearly all amputees continue to feel their missing limb as if it still existed, and many experience chronic phantom limb pain (PLP). There is currently a broad consensus among investigators that the origin of these sensations is a top-down phenomenon, triggered by loss of sensory input and caused by maladaptive cortical plasticity. We tested the al...
Article
Pain has variously been used as a means of punishment, extracting information, or testing commitment, as a tool for education and social control, as a commodity for sacrifice, and as a draw for sport and entertainment. Attitudes concerning these uses have undergone major changes in the modern era. Normative convictions on what is right and wrong ar...
Article
Full-text available
We carried out a genome-wide study, using microRNA sequencing (miRNA-seq), aimed at identifying miRNAs in primary sensory neurons that are associated with neuropathic pain. Such scans usually yield long lists of transcripts regulated by nerve injury, but not necessarily related to pain. To overcome this we tried a novel search strategy: identificat...
Chapter
Quite a few genetic polymorphisms have been identified that associate with painful medical conditions. There is remarkable variability in the amount pain that different people experience. Individual differences in pain response are traditionally attributed to psychosocial and cultural factors, personality, personal inclination and upbringing - in b...
Article
Using a genetic model we demonstrate the role played by "phenotypic switching" of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) expression in axotomized large Aβ afferents in the development of neuropathic pain behavior in rats. After nerve injury both substance P and CGRP are upregulated in Aβ afferents in the corresponding DRGs. It has been proposed tha...
Article
Spontaneous pain is difficult to measure in animals. One proposed biomarker of spontaneous pain is autotomy, a behavior frequently observed in rats with complete hindpaw denervation (the neuroma model of neuropathic pain). A large body of evidence suggests that this behavior reflects spontaneous dysesthesic sensations akin to phantom limb pain or a...
Article
Pain is normally mediated by nociceptive Aδ and C fibers, while Aβ fibers signal touch. However, after nerve injury, Aβ fibers may signal pain. Using a genetic model, we tested the hypothesis that phenotypic switching in neurotransmitters expressed by Aβ afferents might account for heritable differences in neuropathic pain behavior. The study exami...
Article
Certain neuropathic pain states, including postherpetic neuralgia and trigeminal neuralgia, show a dramatically increased incidence in the aged. Two recent experimental observations, unrelated a priori, might provide insight into why this is so. The first observation appeared unexpectedly during the course of a quantitative morphometric study aimed...
Conference Paper
Background / Purpose: Main conclusion: We aimed to identify the gene underlying the quantitative trait loci (QTL) Pain1 on chromosome 15 of the mouse. This QTL is significantly associated with the susceptibility to chronic pain in a model emulating phantom limb pain.The integration of various methodologies highlighted the CACNG2 gene as the most...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic neuropathic pain is affected by specifics of the precipitating neural pathology, psychosocial factors, and by genetic predisposition. Little is known about the identity of predisposing genes. Using an integrative approach, we discovered that CACNG2 significantly affects susceptibility to chronic pain following nerve injury. CACNG2 encodes f...
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stereoselective pain relieving (antiallodynic) activity, antiallodynic-anticonvulsant correlation, teratogenicity and pharmacokinetic profile of two stereoisomers of valnoctamide (VCD), a CNS-active amide derivative of a chiral isomer of valproic acid (VPA). The individual stereoisomers (diastereomers),...
Article
Neuropathic pain that develops after trauma to a nerve may be caused by altered transcription of genes in the damaged neurons. We have previously investigated the effect of nerve injury on the expression of six dorsal root ganglion (DRG) pain candidate molecules in five inbred mouse strains with different pain phenotypes after nerve injury. In this...
Article
Pain, by definition, is a sensory and emotional experience. Response to noxious stimuli in the absence of consciousness is nociception, not pain. Knowledge that a stimulus is tissue threatening (noxious) is available in the pain system with minimal signal processing. This contrasts with vision, for example, where extensive cortical processing is re...
Article
Sustained impulse generation is normally the domain of sensory endings that innervate all peripheral tissues. This property is a consequence of a specially differentiated patch of axonal membrane that permits the sensory ending to encode stimulus-evoked generator depolarizations into a meaningful train of propagated impulses. Electrogenic capabilit...
Article
Keratinocytes play an important role in the dialog between skin and cutaneous sensory neurons. They are an essential source of cutaneous nerve growth factor (NGF), a neurotrophin that contributes to persistent pain in inflammation and neuropathy. We studied the interaction of human keratinocytes (hKTs) and regenerating afferent nerve fibers by tran...
Article
Valproic acid (VPA, 1) is a major broad spectrum antiepileptic and central nervous system drug widely used to treat epilepsy, bipolar disorder, and migraine. VPA's clinical use is limited by two severe and life-threatening side effects, teratogenicity and hepatotoxicity. A number of VPA analogues and their amide, N-methylamide and urea derivatives,...
Article
Do contrasting neuropathic pain diagnoses share common pathophysiological mechanisms? Selective breeding was used to derive rat lines with a common genetic background but a striking difference in the degree of spontaneous pain behavior expressed in the neuroma model of neuropathic pain (HA rats (high autotomy) and LA rats (low autotomy)). The contr...
Article
Somata of primary sensory neurons are thought to contribute to the ectopic neural discharge that is implicated as a cause of some forms of neuropathic pain. Spiking is triggered by subthreshold membrane potential oscillations that reach threshold. Oscillations, in turn, appear to result from reciprocation of a fast active tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na+...
Article
Patients who have suffered nerve injury show profound inter-individual variability in neuropathic pain even when the precipitating injury is nearly identical. Variability in pain behavior is also observed across inbred strains of mice where it has been attributed to genetic polymorphisms. Identification of cellular correlates of pain variability ac...
Article
Microinjection of pentobarbital into a restricted region of rat brainstem, the mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area (MPTA), induces a reversible anesthesia-like state characterized by loss of the righting reflex, atonia, antinociception, and loss of consciousness as assessed by electroencephalogram synchronization. We examined cerebral activity du...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Nerve injury-triggered hyperexcitability in primary sensory neurons is considered a major source of chronic neuropathic pain. The hyperexcitability, in turn, is thought to be related to transcriptional switching in afferent cell somata. Analysis using expression microarrays has revealed that many genes are regulated in the dorsal root...
Article
Ectopic discharge in axotomized dorsal root ganglion neurons is a key driver of neuropathic pain. However, the bulk of this activity is generated and carried centrally in large diameter myelinated Abeta afferents, a cell type that normally signals touch and vibration sense. Evidence is considered suggesting that following axotomy, Abeta afferents u...
Data
Table S1 – Gene transcripts most up- and down-regulated following axotomy. This Table provides the Affymetrix sequence code, the sequence name and the sequence description of the transcripts with the greatest degree of up- and down-regulation in the L5DRG 3 days following L5 spinal nerve transaction. Data are based on the AKR mouse strain.
Article
Pain paroxysms in trigeminal neuralgia (TN) are sudden and extremely intense. Nonetheless, many clinicians who treat TN report that patients are rarely if ever awakened at night by pain attacks. If true, this observation is important as it implies the presence of a powerful sleep protective mechanism. We queried TN patients and their habitual sleep...
Article
Microinjection of pentobarbital or other gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(A)-R) active anesthetics into a brainstem region in the rat that we have called the mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area (MPTA) induces a general anesthesia-like state that includes suppression of locomotor activity, loss of the righting reflex, atonia, antinoci...
Article
Propylisopropylacetamide (PID) is a chiral CNS-active constitutional isomer of valpromide, the amide derivative of the major antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA). The purpose of this work was: a) To evaluate enantiospecific activity of PID on tactile allodynia in the Chung (spinal nerve ligation, SNL) model of neuropathic pain in rats; b) To eval...
Article
We have used computer simulation to better understand how the prolonged époques of repetitive discharge that underlie chronic neuropathic pain are generated. When subjected to step depolarization the cell soma of most primary afferents produces a single spike, or a brief spike burst, and then falls silent. Slow ramp depolarization typical of physio...
Article
We aimed to locate a chronic pain-associated QTL in the rat (Rattus norvegicus) based on previous findings of a QTL (pain1) on chromosome 15 of the mouse (Mus musculus). The work was based on rat selection lines HA (high autotomy) and LA (low autotomy) which show a contrasting pain phenotype in response to nerve injury in the neuroma model of neuro...
Article
The rostromedial medulla participates in a large variety of sensory, motor, and autonomic functions. We asked whether individual bulbospinal neurons in this region have localized, target-specific terminal arbors or whether they collateralize broadly in the spinal cord. Collateralization was quantified along three spinal axes, rostrocaudal, left-rig...
Article
Sex and environment may dramatically affect genetic studies, and thus should be carefully considered. Beginning with two inbred mouse strains with contrasting phenotype in the neuroma model of neuropathic pain (autotomy), we established a backcross population on which we conducted a genome-wide scan. The backcross population was partially maintaine...
Article
Autotomy behavior is frequently observed in rats and mice in which the nerves of the hindlimb are severed, denervating the paw. This is the neuroma model of neuropathic pain. A large body of evidence suggests that this behavior reflects the presence of spontaneous dysesthesia and pain. In contrast, autotomy typically does not develop in partial ner...
Article
Among the complaints that bring patients to see their physician, pain in its various manifestations is the most frequent. In spite of this, pain is often not adequately addressed or managed. The aim of this position paper is to present the viewpoint and recommendations of EFIC on the subject of pain management. Our overall objective is to encourage...
Article
General anesthetics are presumed to act in a distributed manner throughout the CNS. However, we found that microinjection of GABAA-receptor (GABAA-R) active anesthetics into a restricted locus in the rat brainstem, the mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area (MPTA), rapidly induces a reversible anesthesia-like state characterized by suppressed locomo...
Article
Anesthesia, slow-wave sleep, syncope, concussion and reversible coma are behavioral states characterized by loss of consciousness, slow-wave cortical electroencephalogram, and motor and sensory suppression. We identified a focal area in the rat brainstem, the mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area (MPTA), at which microinjection of pentobarbital and...
Article
Painful stimuli evoke functional activations in the cortex, but electrical stimulation of these areas does not evoke pain sensation, nor does widespread epileptic discharge. Likewise, cortical lesions do not eliminate pain sensation. Although the cortex may contribute to pain modulation, the planning of escape responses, and learning, the network a...
Article
Pentobarbital microinjected into a restricted locus in the upper brainstem induces a general anesthesia-like state characterized by atonia, loss of consciousness, and pain suppression as assessed by loss of nocifensive response to noxious stimuli. This locus is the mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area (MPTA). Although anesthetic agents directly in...
Article
A common strategy for identifying physiological processes responsible for pain is to compare animal strains that show high versus low pain phenotype. However, this approach yields only weak inference because most strains differ from one another at a large number of genetic loci. We undertook a congenic breeding program aimed at transposing the gene...

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