Marlieke de Kraker

Marlieke de Kraker
Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève | HUG · SPCI

About

73
Publications
6,972
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3,487
Citations
Citations since 2016
37 Research Items
2589 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500

Publications

Publications (73)
Article
Importance Peripheral intravenous catheters (PVCs) are the most frequently used indwelling devices in hospitals worldwide. Peripheral intravenous catheter bloodstream infections (PVC-BSIs) are rare, but severe and preventable, adverse events. Objective To investigate the incidence of PVC-BSIs after changing the policy of routine PVC replacement ev...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial impact on health systems. The WHO Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Surveillance and Quality Assessment Collaborating Centres Network conducted a survey to assess the effects of COVID-19 on AMR surveillance, prevention and control. Methods From October to December 2020, WHO Global Antimicrobial R...
Article
Full-text available
As with any health threat, our ability to respond to the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance depends on our ability to understand the scale of the problem, magnitude, geographical spread, and trends over time. This is especially true for resistance emergence to newer antibiotics coming to the market as last-resort treatments. Yet curre...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial impact on health systems. The WHO Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Collaborating Centres Network conducted a survey to assess the effects of COVID-19 on AMR surveillance, prevention and control. Methods From October-December 2020, WHO Global Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Surveillance System (G...
Article
Full-text available
There has been an increased focus on the public health burden of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). This raises conceptual challenges such as determining how much harm multi-drug resistant organisms do compared to what, or how to establish the burden. In this viewpoint we will present a counterfactual framework and provide guidance to harmonize method...
Article
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Background Bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by Enterobacteriaceae show increasing frequency of resistance to third-generation cephalosporin (3GC) antibiotics on the African continent but the mortality impact has not been quantified. Methods We used historic data from six African hospitals to assess the impact of 3GC resistance on clinical outco...
Article
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Background The health impact of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has not been included in the Global Burden Disease (GBD) report, as reliable data has been lacking. AMR burden estimates have been derived from models combining incidence and/or prevalence data from national and/or international surveillance systems and mortality estimates from clinical...
Article
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Objectives This study aimed to determine rates and risk factors of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) acquisition and transmission within households after hospital discharge of an ESBL-PE-positive index patient. Methods 2-year prospective cohort study in 5 European cities. Patients colonised with ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-Ec)...
Article
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Objectives/purpose The costs attributable to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) remain theoretical and largely unspecified. Current figures fail to capture the full health and economic burden caused by AMR across human, animal, and environmental health; historically many studies have considered only direct costs associated with human infection from a h...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has frequently been colloquially compared to the seasonal influenza, but comparisons based on empirical data are scarce. Aims To compare in-hospital outcomes for patients admitted with community-acquired COVID-19 to patients with community-acquired influenza in Switzerland. Methods Patients >18 years,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives/Purpose The costs attributable to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) across human, animal, and environmental health remain theoretical and largely unspecified. Current figures fail to capture the full health and economic burden caused by AMR; historically many studies have considered only direct costs associated with human infection from a h...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives/Purpose The costs attributable to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) remain theoretical and largely unspecified. Current figures fail to capture the full health and economic burden caused by AMR across human, animal, and environmental health; historically many studies have considered only direct costs associated with human infection from a h...
Article
Full-text available
The scarcity of novel antibiotic compounds in a time of increasing resistance rates has begun to ring alarm bells at the highest echelons of government. Large new financial incentives to accelerate antibiotic research and development, such as market entry rewards (MERs), are being considered. However, there is little focus on how to sustain the eff...
Article
Background: Hand hygiene is crucial in infection prevention and control. It is unclear whether sprayed alcohol-based handrub (ABHR) is non-inferior to the WHO recommended method of handrubbing with poured ABHR. Aim: We tested whether sprayed ABHR can be an alternative (non-inferior) method for effective hand hygiene with/without handrubbing. Me...
Article
Objectives: The aim was to evaluate the effect of duration of therapy (DOT) on mortality and relapse for patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB). Methods: We performed a retrospective single-centre cohort study including adult patients with SAB. We determined the association between DOT (≤14 days versus >14 days) and mortality by a...
Article
Background: Surveillance of surgical site infections (SSIs) is a core component of effective infection control practices, though its impact has not been quantified on a large scale. Aim: To determine the time-trend of SSI rates in surveillance networks. Methods: SSI surveillance networks provided procedure-specific data on numbers of SSIs and...
Article
Objectives: Compliance with the World Health Organization 'how to handrub' action is suboptimal. Simplifying the hand-hygiene action may improve practice. However, it is crucial to preserve antibacterial efficacy. We tested the non-inferiority of 15 versus 30 seconds handrubbing for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli contamination at diffe...
Article
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Innovations are urgently required for clinical development of antibacterials against multidrug-resistant organisms. Therefore, a European, public-private working group (STAT-Net; part of Combatting Bacterial Resistance in Europe [COMBACTE]), has reviewed and tested several innovative trials designs and analytical methods for randomized clinical tri...
Article
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Introduction Inappropriate use of antimicrobials in hospitals contributes to antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) interventions aim to improve antimicrobial prescribing, but they are often resource and personnel intensive. Computerised decision supportsystems (CDSSs) seem a promising tool to improve antimicrobial prescribing bu...
Article
We evaluated whether hand wiping is noninferior to hand rubbing in reducing the bacterial concentration on hands. In 20 healthy volunteers, hand wiping with or without an alcohol-based solution was inferior to hand rubbing with an alcohol-based solution. This finding warrants a note of caution for the application of wipes in health care. Infect Con...
Article
Antimicrobial resistance poses a growing threat to public health and the provision of health care. Its surveillance should provide up-to-date and relevant information to monitor the appropriateness of therapy guidelines, antibiotic formulary, antibiotic stewardship programmes, public health interventions, infection control policies, and antimicrobi...
Article
In 2017, the global hand hygiene day (5th May) focuses on battling antimicrobial resistance (AMR). It promotes strong infection prevention and control and comprehensive antimicrobial stewardship programmes to prevent hospital-acquired infections and reduce the spread of AMR in healthcare facilities.
Article
Full-text available
PurposeIn this era of rising antimicrobial resistance, slowly refilling antibiotic development pipelines, and an aging population, we need to ensure that randomized clinical trials (RCTs) determine the added benefit of new antibiotic agents effectively and in a valid way, especially for severely ill patients. Unfortunately, universally accepted end...
Article
Aims In this narrative review, we provide a framework for assessing the quality of evidence provided by studies investigating antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) interventions, and inform the design and planning stage for future AMS evaluation studies to determine the best strategies to keep antimicrobial resistance at bay. Sources Cochrane/Pubmed Co...
Article
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Introduction The rapid worldwide spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) constitutes a major challenge. The aim of the EUropean prospective cohort study on Enterobacteriaceae showing REsistance to CArbapenems (EURECA), which is part of the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking (IMI JU) funded COMBACTE-CARE project, is to...
Article
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Marlieke de Kraker and colleagues reflect on the need for better global estimates for the burden of antimicrobial resistance.
Article
On the 10th anniversary of the “Clean Care is Safer Care” programme, the WHO Collaborating Centre on Patient Safety launched the “Global Hand Sanitizing Relay 2015” (HSRelay). This hospital-wide activity promotes the WHO handrubbing technique to improve hand hygiene (HH) compliance. More than 15,000 health-care workers (HCWs) from 133 hospitals in...
Article
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INTRODUCTION: We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a symbiotic product to decolonize the intestinal tract of patients harboring multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli and to prevent nosocomial infections. METHODS: This was a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, conducted in a tertiary-care university hospital....
Article
On 31 May 2011, after notification of Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP)OXA-48;CTX-M-15 in two patients, nosocomial transmission was suspected in a Dutch hospital. Hospital-wide infection control measures and an outbreak investigation were initiated. A total of 72,147 patients were categorised into groups based on risk of OXA-48 colonisation or infection,...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Complicated urinary tract infections (c-UTIs) are among the most common nosocomial infections and a substantial part of the antimicrobial agents used in hospitals is for the treatment of c-UTIs. Data from surveillance can be used to guide the empirical treatment choices of clinicians when treating c-UTIs. We therefore used nation-wide...
Article
Prevalence of, and risk factors for, carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Enterobacteriaceae were determined for 1025 Dutch adults in municipalities with either high or low broiler densities. Overall prevalence of ESBL carriage was 5.1%. The hypothesis that individuals in areas with high broiler densities are at greater risk...
Article
Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: We investigated bacteraemia trends for five major bacterial pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, and determined how expanding antimicrobial resistance influenced the total burden of bacteraemias in Europe. Aetiological fractions...
Article
Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18: E466–E472 Dutch laboratories are currently changing their breakpoint criteria from mostly Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints. To evaluate the impact of these changes, we studied antimicrobial resistance tren...
Data
Full-text available
Trends in the number of S. aureus BSIs and the proportion of these that were resistant for methicillin for EARSS laboratories consistently reporting from 2001–2015. (A) Number of S. aureus BSIs. (B) Proportion resistant for methicillin. Diamonds indicate ascertained values, and trend line projections are based on regression analysis; regression equ...
Data
Full-text available
Parameter estimates. Adjusted odds ratios for 30-d mortality and excess length of hospital stay, in days, associated with MRSA, MSSA, G3CREC, and G3CSEC bacteremias, and the derived number needed to be exposed for one excess death (NNE) [3],[4]. (PDF)
Data
Full-text available
Estimated number of excess deaths associated with MRSA, MSSA, G3CREC, and G3CSEC bacteremias in 2007. Countries include all European Union member states (excluding Slovakia), both candidate countries (Croatia and Turkey), two EFTA countries (Iceland and Norway), and Israel. (PDF)
Data
Full-text available
Trends in the number of E. coli BSIs and the proportion of these that were resistant for third-generation cephalosporins for EARSS laboratories consistently reporting from 2003–2015. (A) Number of E. coli BSIs. (B) Proportion resistant for third-generation cephalosporins. Diamonds indicate ascertained values, and trend line projections are based on...
Data
Full-text available
Number of acute care beds for 2007. Beds per 10,000 inhabitants. (PDF)
Data
Full-text available
Estimated excess number of bed-days and costs associated with MRSA, MSSA, G3CREC, and G3CSEC bacteremias in 2007. Countries include all European Union member states (excluding Slovakia), both candidate countries (Croatia and Turkey), two EFTA countries (Iceland and Norway), and Israel. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Background: The relative importance of human diseases is conventionally assessed by cause-specific mortality, morbidity, and economic impact. Current estimates for infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are not sufficiently supported by quantitative empirical data. This study determined the excess number of deaths, bed-days, and hospit...
Article
Full-text available
Antimicrobial resistance is threatening the successful management of nosocomial infections worldwide. Despite the therapeutic limitations imposed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), its clinical impact is still debated. The objective of this study was to estimate the excess mortality and length of hospital stay (LOS) associated w...
Article
1did a large retrospective study in intensive care units (ICU) from ten European countries. They concluded that ICU-acquired pneumonia and bloodstream infections substantially increased mortality and ICU stay, while the additional eff ect of antibiotic resistance in this group of patients was relatively modest. We believe that this study design is...
Article
This study determined excess mortality and length of hospital stay (LOS) attributable to bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in Europe. A prospective parallel matched cohort design was used. Cohort I consisted of patients with third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant E. coli BSI (REC) and...
Conference Paper
Background: To determine the burden of antimicrobial resistance most often patients with an infection caused by a resistant pathogen are compared to patients with the susceptible type of the pathogen (standard' cohort). However, these patient groups often have a very different clinical picture. It is also possible to construct two parallel cohorts,...
Conference Paper
Background: The prevalence of infections caused by resistant E. coli is increasing worldwide. For prioritization in health care determination of the burden of this infection is important. Blood stream infections (BSI) caused by third generation cephalosporin (G3CEP) resistant E. coli (RECO) affect patients that are older, more ill and had a longer...
Article
Full-text available
Antimicrobial resistance has become a global threat to effective health care delivery. This is particularly the case within the Mediterranean region, where data from recent studies suggests the situation to be particularly acute. A better knowledge base, as well as a collaborative effort, is therefore required to address this ever increasing challe...
Article
Information about the epidemiology of resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae within southern and eastern countries of the Mediterranean region is incomplete, as reports have been sporadic and difficult to compare. Over a 36-month period, from 2003 to 2005, the ARMed project collected 1298 susceptibility test results of invasive isolates of S. pneum...
Article
From January 2003 to December 2005, 5091 susceptibility test results from invasive isolates of Escherichia coli, collected from blood cultures and cerebrospinal fluid routinely processed within 58 participating laboratories, were investigated. These laboratories in turn serviced 64 hospitals in Algeria, Cyprus, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Morocc...
Article
Full-text available
Efforts aimed at curtailing the ever increasing spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) require effective information of its epidemiology. However, knowledge about the situation in southern and eastern countries of the Mediterranean is incomplete since reports have been sporadic and difficult to compare. Over a 36 month period...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Efforts aimed at curtailing the ever increasing spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) require effective information of its epidemiology. However, knowledge about the situation in southern and eastern countries of the Mediterranean is incomplete since reports have been sporadic and difficult to compare. Methods: Ov...
Article
For the past seven years (1999 to 2006), the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS) has collected antimicrobial susceptibility test results of invasive isolates in humans of seven bacterial species that serve as indicators for the development of antimicrobial resistance in Europe.
Article
Full-text available
Sporadic reports from centres in the south and east of the Mediterranean have suggested that the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in this region appears to be considerable, yet pan-regional studies using comparable methodology have been lacking in the past. Susceptibility test results from invasive isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcu...
Article
To determine the efficacies of combinations of ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine and albendazole, which are recommended for use in mass treatment programmes against lymphatic filariasis. Review of published trends in microfilarial (mf) intensities after treatment with these combination therapies. By fitting a mathematical model of treatment effects...

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