Marlene Scardamalia

Marlene Scardamalia
University of Toronto | U of T · Institute for Knowledge Innovation and Technology

PhD

About

185
Publications
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (185)
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the possibility that knowledge building metadiscourse-discourse about knowledge building-can produce a positive feedback loop, with positive emotional state and knowledge advancement serving to increase each other. Grades 2 and 3 students’ utterances over several months were analyzed as a unit of study, starting with identificat...
Article
Full-text available
It seems certain that blended learning will be on the rise in higher education, with in-person meetings increasingly precious time, and online synchronous and asynchronous sessions used to complement them. This paper examines Knowledge Building in two graduate courses conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. There were no in-person sessions; rather,...
Article
This study explores the dynamic, interactive nature of digital drawings and writing in a knowledge building community in which students used a multimedia online environment—Knowledge Forum—to represent and advance ideas in the field of optics. The research employs a mixed-methods case study to collect and analyze multimedia notes created by 22 four...
Article
This paper examines the alignment of education with the needs for knowledge creation in the digital age using the Knowledge Building model and Knowledge Forum® technology. Knowledge Building is akin to knowledge creation as practiced in research laboratories and other frontier-advancing organizations, with added focus on value to the individual, co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Collaborative learning involves intricate interactions in which students participate in cognitive activities within social-emotional environments. Cognitive interactions mediate knowledge sharing, construction, and creation, while social-emotional interactions shape student perception of community climate and influence their emotional expressions,...
Article
Full-text available
Emotions have a powerful effect on learning but results regarding the nature of the impact are inconsistent and little is known about effects with young students, as participants are usually university students. This study aims to explore the emotional and cognitive dynamics of young students in both online and offline Knowledge Building. Classroom...
Research
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This workshop aims to engage participants in discussing and deriving the problem-space surrounding assessment and environment for knowledge building. The problem-space aims to map the types of data (text-based and multimodal data), hypotheses of the learning attributes (visible and invisible) to be derived from these data, and the related annotatio...
Article
Interdisciplinary studies foster integration of ideas across disciplines. The knowledge building pedagogy, with its 12 principles and associated technology, Knowledge Forum ® , provides multifaceted support for linking ideas across disciplines and communities. This exploratory study aims to assess the extent to which elementary-school students with...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ontario's Leading Student Achievement Project aims to foster professional collaboration among principals, vice-principals, and teachers in order to build capacity for improving student achievement and well-being. During the 2017-2018 school year, a multi-level, multi-district KB network was initiated to spread Knowledge Building in elementary schoo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study explores Epistemic Network Analysis (ENA) to assess Knowledge Building discourse. Knowledge Forum notes were coded using a "ways of contributing" framework, and students were grouped based on their use of Knowledge Forum scaffolds. Findings indicate that the epistemic networks for theory, question, and source groups were significantly di...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Knowledge Building is a socio-constructivist learning model that aims to meet the needs of the changing knowledge society by bringing knowledge creation into the heart of school work, enabling students to take collective responsibility for community knowledge advancement/idea improvement. In Knowledge Building, students are given high-levels of epi...
Chapter
Knowledge Building is a SMART pedagogy that encourages students to take collective responsibility for knowledge advancement; Knowledge Forum technology is designed to support them in this work. This study explores the application of a new method to assess the emergence and evolution of collective cognitive responsibility (CCR) based on peer valuati...
Chapter
Full-text available
Advances in scripting theory and advances in support for student-driven knowledge construction call for a reconsideration of long-standing issues of guidance, control, and agency. This symposium undertakes a fresh analysis based on the relations between two widely adopted approaches that may be poles apart but arguably viewed as variations within a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Asymmetric collaboration in CSCL environments may lead to exclusion of some students and less idea diversity than needed for a productive, inclusive community. To uncover the degree of asymmetric collaboration, the social entropy index (the sum of relative participation proportions of each individual) was adopted in some studies, but only quantitat...
Poster
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It is not clear under what conditions do students ask repetitive questions and the possible effects of repetition on knowledge-building process. In this study, 18 groups of semantically similar questions were found in two online knowledge-building databases, and three patterns emerged: asking a similar question in advance of reading existing questi...
Poster
Full-text available
This study represents an attempt to uncover user profiles for productive engagement in knowledge building environments. In line with the Knowledge Building goal of re-creating schools as knowledge creating organizations, we reviewed the literature on productive forms of engagement in knowledge work in out-of-school contexts, and applied a Team Mana...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Working on students’ authentic problems is emphasized in Knowledge Building theory and pedagogy, as it is perceived that a failure to deal with such problems may result in a failure of knowledge building. This study is focused on questions students asked in a knowledge building environment, in order to examine how issues students cared enough about...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Developing cultural capacity for innovation is an educational imperative. The challenge in schools is to foster a culture of sustained, creative work with ideas, as in out-of-school Collaborative Innovation Networks (COINs) and cyberteams that self-organize to create knowledge. In this study, we examined the online knowledge work of three Knowledge...
Chapter
Knowledge building/knowledge creation involves exploring idea landscapes, crisscrossing them in every direction to learn one’s way around. Through pursuit of multiple and intersecting rather than prescribed paths, knowledge creators come to feel at home in a conceptual environment, able to pursue promising ideas, redirect work based on advances and...
Article
Productive collaborative engagement in increasingly global, innovative enterprises requires feeling at home with complexity and knowledge creation. Knowledge Building aims to engage students directly in sustained creative work with ideas from the earliest years of schooling, with all students taking responsibility for advancing community knowledge....
Article
Full-text available
Productive collaborative engagement in increasingly global, innovative enterprises requires feeling at home with complexity and knowledge creation. Knowledge Building aims to engage students directly in sustained creative work with ideas from the earliest years of schooling, with all students taking responsibility for advancing community knowledge....
Article
Full-text available
Evaluating promisingness of ideas is an important but underdeveloped aspect of knowledge building. The goal of this research was to examine the extent to which Grade 3 students could make promisingness judgments to facilitate knowledge-building discourse. A Promising Ideas Tool was added to Knowledge Forum software to better support knowledge‐build...
Article
Full-text available
This research explores the ability of grade 2 students to engage in productive discussion about the state of their knowledge building using group-level feedback tools to support their metadiscourse. Two aspects of knowledge work were common to the comparison and experimental classes: “Knowledge Building talk” (KB talk) involving teacher-student dis...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to explore the use of principle-based analytic tools to improve community knowledge building in a class of Grade 5/6 students. A flexible design framework was used to engage students in use of three analytic tools - a Vocabulary Analyzer, a Social Network Tool, and a Semantic Overlap Tool. These tools are built into Kno...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We report a longitudinal study on the development of 22 students' productive vocabulary in knowledge building from Grade 1 to 6. Vocabulary growth was assessed based on the student discourse in Knowledge Forum, an online community space designed to support Knowledge Building. Analysis of lexical proficiency based on Lexical Frequency Profile and P_...
Chapter
Education now functions in an open informational world in which there are essentially no boundaries constraining the information that may be brought to bear on any topic, question, or activity. Changes in the form and connectedness of information are giving rise to new issues concerning coherence, sustained work with ideas, and complexity. In place...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study aims to investigate the COINs concept of rotating leadership within a Knowledge Building context. Individual and group level leadership patterns in a grade 4 science class were explored through temporal visualization of betweenness centrality. Results indicate that the student network was relatively decentralized, with almost all student...
Chapter
Classroom-based knowledge building requires advanced pedagogies and collaborative technologies. It qualifies as disruptive innovation: progressively more impressive accounts of what students and teachers can accomplish alter beliefs regarding developmental, demographic, and cultural barriers. To establish knowledge-building communities requires eff...
Article
Full-text available
Learning technology periodically undergoes changes in response to changes in the prevailing models of human cognition and learning. A major shift throughout the behavioral sciences that began in the 1980s is beginning to have effects at the level of classroom learning and its supportive technologies. Inspired by complexity theory, it is a shift tha...
Chapter
The terms “knowledge creation” and “knowledge building” represent the same core idea, an idea suggested by the conjunction of the words “creation” and “building”: Knowledge is the product of purposeful acts of creation and comes about through building up a structure of ideas (for instance, a design, a theory, or the solution of a thorny problem) ou...
Article
This study investigates ways of using key terms to represent and assess community knowledge in an online knowledge building environment. Knowledge Forum – an environment specially designed to support advances in community knowledge – incorporates key-term analytic tools. In the current study these tools were used to determine if key-term measures c...
Book
The subject of this book is the mental activities that go into composing written texts. For brevity we will often refer to the subject simply as writing, but the term should not be taken too literally. In this book we are not concerned with the physical act of writing, except insofar as it influences other processes. The mental activities of writin...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge Building provides a model of education for a knowledge age—a model of collective responsibility for idea improvement. This article provides two examples of getting started with the pedagogy and the technology, one from Senior Kinder-garten, with students working together to understand why leaves change color in the fall, and the other fro...
Article
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New media, new knowledge practices, and concepts point to the need for greater understanding of cognitive processes underlying knowledge acquisition and generation in open informational worlds. The authors of the articles in this special issue address cognitive and instructional challenges surrounding multiple document comprehension—a prerequisite...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Knowledge creation depends on pursuit of promising possibilities. This paper reports a case study of a graduate-level course, with promisingness judgments incorporated as an explicit goal of course work. The top-level goal for the course was to have students take collective responsibility for "the creation of an assessment of collaborative knowledg...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study examines the impact of formative feedback to enhance students' productive written vocabulary. Behavioral, lexical, and network structure analyses were applied to the work of two Grade 2 classes engaged in knowledge building in science. Two variations of feedback including vocabulary and contribution-based visualizations were integrated i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The ability to identify promising ideas is an important but obscure and undeveloped aspect of knowledge building. The goal of this research was to examine the extent to which young students can make promisingness judgments and, as a result, engage in more effective knowledge building. Toward this end we embedded a design experiment in a Grade 3 cla...
Article
Although learning with understanding has been recognized as essential to quality learning across the curriculum, it has been less extensively studied in the humanities and social studies than in the natural sciences. This chapter examines differences in what constitutes understanding in history, social studies, and literature, but also elaborates o...
Article
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"知识建构"(Knowledge Building)理论是多伦多大学安大略教育研究院Marlene Scardamalia和Carl Bereiter两位教授于上世纪90年代提出的建构主义理论。在历经20多年的发展之后,其理论、教学法和技术手段已自成体系。知识建构理论认为:一般的建构主义教学以完成一系列任务和活动为导向,学生对为什么进行这些活动缺乏理解和掌控,属于"浅层"建构主义;而知识建构理论推崇的是"深层"建构,它以发展学习社区内的公共知识为目标,学生是积极的认知者,须共同承担认知责任。知识建构的基本观点被概括为12条基本原则,用作设计教学法和开发技术工具的基础。知识建构理论与实践已波及包括加拿大、美国、西班牙、新加坡和香港等18个国家和地区,涉及中小学科学、数学、社会、历史等多个学科教...
Article
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Sustainable knowledge building requires working with emergent rather than fixed goal structures, and opportunism in knowledge work rather than fixed routines. Thus the pedagogical model requires teacher innovation, surrounding a principled rather than procedural approach to teaching. Using social network analysis and other quantitative methods, thi...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores Knowledge Building as a principle-based innovation at an elementary school and makes a case for a principle- versus procedure-based approach to educational innovation, supported by new knowledge media. Thirty-nine Knowledge Building initiatives, each focused on a curriculum theme and facilitated by nine teachers over eight years...
Article
Full-text available
Causal explanation is an essential part of both science and history. This means that a large part of knowledge in these areas only becomes useful to the extent that one understands how facts are connected causally. Assuming that most explaining is done interactively—that is, through dialogue—this research focuses on kinds of contributions students...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Knowledge creation requires identifying and pursuing promising ideas—ideas that in their nascent form may not seem like much but that with development could grow into something big. The goal of our research is to develop a tool to explore the concept of promisingness and "big ideas," especially elementary school students' ability to make "promising...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines theoretical, pedagogical, and technological differences between two technologies that have been used in undergraduate interprofessional health sciences at the University of Toronto. One, a learning management system, WebCT 2.0, supports online coursework. The other, a Knowledge Building environment, Knowledge Forum 2.0, supports...
Article
Full-text available
Online discourse from a class of 22 students (11 boys and 11 girls) was analysed to assess advances in conceptual understanding and literacy. The students worked over a two-year period (Grades 3-4), during which they contributed notes to an online Knowledge Building environment—Knowledge Forum®. Contributions revealed that both boys and girls produ...
Article
The Knowledge Society Network (KSN) “takes advantage of new knowledge media to maximize and democratize society’s knowledge-creating capacity” (www.ikit.org/KSN). This article synthesizes the principles and designs of this network which were initiated over 15 years ago, and presents an exploratory study of interactions in the KSN over four years, e...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge Building as a theoretical, pedagogical, and technological innovation focuses on the 21st century need to work creatively with knowledge. The team now advancing Knowledge Building spans multiple disciplines, sectors, and cultural contexts. Several teacher-researcher-government partnerships have formed to bring about the systemic changes re...
Article
Full-text available
Can children genuinely create new knowledge, as opposed to merely carrying out activities that resemble those of mature scientists and innovators? The answer is yes, provided the comparison is not to works of genius but to standards that prevail in ordinary research communities. One important product of knowledge creation is concepts and tools that...
Article
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In 1993 Carey and Smith conjectured that the most promising way to boost students’ understanding of the nature of science is a “theory-­‐building approach to teaching about inquiry.” The research reported here tested this conjecture by comparing results from two Grade 4 classrooms that differed in their emphasis on and technological support for cre...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined growth in graphical literacy for students contributing to an online, multimedia, communal environment as they advanced their understanding of biology, history and optics. Their science and history studies started early in Grade 3 and continued to the end of Grade 4; students did not receive instruction in graphics production, no...
Article
Full-text available
Productive knowledge work and high-level literacy are essential for engagement in a Knowledge society. In the research reported in this article, students were engaged in sustained collaborative knowledge building in science and social studies. The vocabulary growth of 22 students over Grades 3 and 4 was traced, based on their entries to Knowledge F...
Article
The history of research on the community perspective in classroom research is briefly described first. Following it, the conception of the "community of learners" is speculated and its problems with considering 21st century skills are identified. As a solution to the problems, a new conception of the "knowledge building community" based on the epis...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter proposes a framework for integrating two different approaches to twenty-first century skills: “working backward from goals” and “emergence of new competencies.” Working backward from goals has been the mainstay of educational assessment and objectives-based instruction. The other approach is based on the premise that breakthroughs in e...
Article
See full text with open access at https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10508400802581676 This article reports a design experiment conducted over three successive school years, with the teacher's goal of having his Grade 4 students assume increasing levels of collective responsibility for advancing their knowledge of optics. Classroom prac...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper explores knowledge building in a community identified by Bielaczyc and Collins (2006) as a hotbed community--a community in which knowledge creation has taken on a life of its own. The practices of six elementary schoolteachers are analyzed to inform the development of teachers' knowledge-building practices and to better understand how t...
Chapter
The Knowledge Age brings with it the need for a new form of educational wisdom-wisdom about knowledge. It is generally believed that it takes a long time to achieve wisdom. If that is true, the best schools can do is start students on a long progression-but a progression toward what? What represents a good or bad start on wisdom? Knowledge-Age wisd...
Article
Teaching "scientific method" has long been a regular part of science education, and many curriculum standards call for it. But it has run into a variety of criticisms, which add up to the charge that it conveys an unrealistic and unappealing view of science. In this article, the authors discuss how science really works and provide different ways to...
Article
This chapter focuses on defining and exploring the area of research-based innovation in education. The authors provide an overview of several new approaches of research-based innovation in the learning sciences, and propose five dimensions of comparing other educational approaches to their own approach of Knowledge Building.
Article
When individuals adapt their practice in order to solve novel or unexpected problems of practice, they are creating new knowledge. This form of innovation development is understood as a core competency of adaptive expertise and the basis for knowledge building community practice. However, little is known about the ways in which this knowledge, prod...
Chapter
The term "learning" has always covered a wide range of phenomena-from schoolchildren learning their multiplication tables to deans learning that their budgets have been cut. Suddenly, in just the last few years, the range has gotten much wider-by orders of magnitude, it seems. We now have learning corporations, even learning societies, institutiona...
Conference Paper
We introduce a free, open-source, non-relational database architecture that is robust, mature, scalable and extensible. The absence of a fixed schema is particularly important to research in the learning sciences where a broad spectrum of research data may need to be stored. We highlight an alternative query mechanism that is suited to highly inter...
Conference Paper
Principle-based pedagogical and technological designs were used to support knowledge building in a grade 5-6 class. Pedagogical designs focused on collective responsibility for knowledge advancement. Technological designs focused on provision of a public space for generating and continually improving ideas with (a) social-network-analysis tools to...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines four months of online discourse of 22 Grade 4 students engaged in efforts to advance their understanding of optics. Their work is part of a school-wide knowledge building initiative, the essence of which is giving students collective responsibility for idea improvement. This goal is supported by software—Knowledge Forum—designed...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study provides a new coding scheme to analyze growth in seven components of graphical literacy for 22 students who used an online multimedia environment--Knowledge Forum®--across two years (grades 3 and 4) to advance their theories in science and history. Students received no instruction in graphical literacy and were free to express their ide...
Conference Paper
In this paper we introduce a suite of analytic tools to enable users of Knowledge Forum to monitor various participation and collaboration patterns, with almost instantaneous feedback to ongoing processes. Tools for semantic analysis of content similarly provide just-in-time assessment (e.g., vocabulary overlap for different documents or Knowledge...
Article
In this paper we use visualizations of the contributions of students to a collective knowledge space to examine semantic near neighbors and suggest how visualization tools might help users gain insight and control over the processes and means for knowledge building.