Marla Spivak

Marla Spivak
University of Minnesota Twin Cities | UMN · Department of Entomology

About

137
Publications
74,171
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8,603
Citations
Citations since 2016
41 Research Items
5144 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800

Publications

Publications (137)
Article
In recent decades, there has been an increase in people learning about and practicing beekeeping in rural, peri-urban and urban across the United States. Yet, much recent honey bee research focuses on the biotic (e.g., mites and viruses) and abiotic (e.g., pesticides and management practices) factors contributing to colony loss. However, beekeepers...
Article
Full-text available
To examine changes in bee communities and bee-flower relations in the Prairie Pothole Region of the Northern Great Plains, we compared bee specimens and their floral associations collected in eastern North Dakota during 2010-2012 to bee specimens and their floral associations collected from the same region during 1910-1920 by pioneering naturalist...
Preprint
Full-text available
The turfgrass lawn is a common feature of urban and suburban communities, often accounting for the largest green spaces by area in these landscapes. Flowering species within turfgrass lawns have the potential to serve as a source of forage for bee pollinators in urban and suburban areas. We intentionally introduced low-growing flowers to turfgrass...
Article
Full-text available
Honey bee colony losses in the US have exceeded acceptable levels for at least a decade, leaving beekeepers in need of management practices to improve colony health and survival. Here, an empirical Best Management Practice (BMP) regimen was tested, comprised of the top four management practices associated with reduced colony mortality in backyard b...
Article
Full-text available
Honey bees use several strategies to protect themselves and the colony from parasites and pathogens. In addition to individual immunity, social immunity involves the cumulative effort of some individuals to limit the spread of parasites and pathogens to uninfected nestmates. Examples of social immunity in honey bees that have received attention inc...
Article
An in-depth analysis of how pathogen prevalence among both bees and flowers changes over the course of a growing season reveals the complex dynamics of how infection risk changes with species diversity, abundance and phenology.
Article
Full-text available
Throughout a honey bee queen’s lifetime, she is tended to by her worker daughters, who feed and groom her. Such interactions provide possible horizontal transmission routes for pathogens from the workers to the queen, and as such a queen’s pathogen profile may be representative of the workers within a colony. To explore this further, we investigate...
Article
Full-text available
Honeybees have developed many unique mechanisms to help ensure the proper maintenance of homeostasis within the hive. One method includes the collection of chemically complex plant resins combined with wax to form propolis, which is deposited throughout the hive. Propolis is believed to play a significant role in reducing disease load in the colony...
Article
Full-text available
Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are valued for the pollination services that they provide. However, colony mortality has increased to unsustainable levels in some countries, including the United States. Landscape conversion to monocrop agriculture likely plays a role in this increased mortality by decreasing the food sources available to honey...
Article
We use the term social-medication to describe the deliberate consumption or use of plant compounds by social insects that are detrimental to a pathogen or parasite at the colony level, result in increased inclusive fitness to the colony, and have potential costs either at the individual or colony level in the absence of parasite infection. These cr...
Article
Full-text available
Failure of the queen is often identified as a leading cause of honey bee colony mortality. However, the factors that can contribute to “queen failure” are poorly defined and often misunderstood. We studied one specific sign attributed to queen failure: poor brood pattern. In 2016 and 2017, we identified pairs of colonies with “good” and “poor” broo...
Article
Full-text available
Pollinators, including honey bees, are responsible for the successful reproduction of more than 87% of flowering plant species: they are thus vital to ecosystem health and agricultural services world-wide. To investigate honey bee exposure to pesticides, 168 pollen samples and 142 wax comb samples were collected from colonies within six stationary...
Article
Although both managed and unmanaged bees are important pollinators of crops and wild plants, efforts to address questions about landscapes that best support pollinators often focus on either wild pollinators or honey bees. This study examined if there was concordance between the success of wild bee communities and managed honey bee colonies at site...
Article
Full-text available
Honey bees have immune defenses both as individuals and as a colony (e.g., individual and social immunity). One form of honey bee social immunity is the collection of antimicrobial plant resins and the deposition of the resins as a propolis envelope within the nest. In this study, we tested the effects of the propolis envelope as a natural defense...
Chapter
Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), like many social insects, have collective behavioral defenses called “social immunity” to help defend and protect the colony against pathogens and parasites. One example of social immunity is the collection of plant resins by honey bees and the placement of the resins on the interior walls of the nest cavity, where i...
Article
Full-text available
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are constantly dealing with threats from pathogens, pests, pesticides and poor nutrition. It is critically important to understand how honey bees’ natural immune responses (individual immunity) and collective behavioral defenses (social immunity) can improve bee health and productivity. One form of social immunity in hon...
Article
Taxonomic identification of pollen has historically been accomplished via light microscopy but requires specialized knowledge and reference collections, particularly when identification to lower taxonomic levels is necessary. Recently, next-generation sequencing technology has been used as a cost-effective alternative for identifying bee-collected...
Article
Full-text available
Propolis is one of the most fascinating honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) products. It is a plant derived product that bees produce from resins that they collect from different plant organs and with which they mix beeswax. Propolis is a building material and a protective agent in the bee hive. It also plays an important role in honey bee social immunit...
Article
Full-text available
Many factors can negatively affect honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) health including the pervasive use of systemic neonicotinoid insecticides. Through direct consumption of contaminated nectar and pollen from treated plants, neonicotinoids can affect foraging, learning, and memory in worker bees. Less well studied are the potential effects of neonicot...
Article
The Northern Great Plains region of the US annually hosts a large portion of commercially managed U.S. honey bee colonies each summer. Changing land use patterns over the last several decades have contributed to declines in the availability of bee forage across the region, and the future sustainability of the region to support honey bee colonies is...
Article
Full-text available
Hygienic behaviour is a complex trait that gives Apis mellifera L. resistance against brood diseases. Variability in the expression of hygienic behaviour is evidenced at the colony-level and is explained by the proportion and propensity of individual worker bees that engage in hygienic activities. We investigated the temporal performance and the dy...
Article
Full-text available
We previously characterized and quantified the influence of land use on survival and productivity of colonies positioned in six apiaries and found that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more land in uncultivated forage experienced greater annual survival, and generally more honey production. Here, detailed metrics of honey bee health were assessed...
Data
Primer sequences used for gene expression analysis. Colony level expression: viruses and reference gene, RPS5; Individual bee level expression: nutritional and immune genes and reference gene, ß-Actin. (DOCX)
Data
Nosema spore levels, 2010–2013. Treatment with Fumagillin was done each February and September. Asterisks denote significant differences among sites on a given sample date. (TIFF)
Data
ANOVA results for all colony and individual bee measures, 2010–2012. Results are for measures quantified in September unless otherwise indicated. (DOCX)
Data
Other nutritional and immune measures. Individual bee measures quantified but not found to be informative for statistical modeling included the nutritional measures insulin-like peptide1 (a) and the size of the hypopharyngeal glands (b). Immune-related measures included gene expression of hymenoptaecin (c) and abaecin (d). (TIFF)
Data
Minimum data used for statistical modeling analyses. (CSV)
Data
Colony adult population size, 2010–2013. Asterisks denote significant differences among sites on a given sample date. (TIFF)
Data
In-hive pollen storage, September 2010–2012. Letters denote significant differences among sites within each year. (TIFF)
Data
Varroa mite infestation levels, 2010–2013. Treatment with miticide occurred each September. Asterisks denote significant differences among sites on a given sample date. (TIFF)
Data
Annual honey production, 2010–2012. Honey production is the mean kg honey per colony at each site. (DOCX)
Data
Tukey HSD comparisons of site x year interactions. Comparisons shown are those that were significant at p < 0.05 within a given date. (DOCX)
Data
Hypopharyngeal gland size and lipid stores for 7-day old nurse bees by site (mean ± s.e.), 2010–2013. Asterisks denote significant differences among sites on a given sample date. (TIFF)
Article
Full-text available
Honey bees, as social insects, rely on collective behavioral defenses that produce a colony level immune phenotype, or social immunity, which in turn impacts the immune response of individuals. One behavioral defense is the collection and deposition of antimicrobial plant resins, or propolis, in the nest. We tested the effect of a naturally constru...
Article
Full-text available
There have been very few studies on hygienic behaviour as a mechanism of resistance to American foulbrood since Park, Woodrow, Rothenbuhler, and Rothenbuhler's students published their seminal work. The studies outlined in this part of the review form the core of information from which all later studies on hygienic behaviour have been based.
Article
Full-text available
Part I of this review summarized the initial research on hygienic behaviour of honey bees, Apis mellifera. This early work that concerned hygienic behaviour as a mechanism of resistance to American foulbrood (AFB) has been the foundation for all subsequent research on hygienic behaviour. In Part II, research on hygienic behaviour in relation to oth...
Conference Paper
In this study, the effects of colony level nutrition on individual worker bees are investigated. Seven-day-old nurse bees from colonies differentially protein-supplemented were subsequently challenged with an immune elicitor, lipopolysaccharide. Twenty-four hours later, bees were assessed for hemolymph protein and hemocyte levels, and nutritional a...
Conference Paper
Pesticides are debated as a major contributing factor to bee losses worldwide. Systemic insecticides such as neonicotinoids, which can translocate to the nectar and pollen of treated plants, may be a source of bee toxicity during foraging. Currently, the EPA has proposed a new risk assessment procedure for systemic insecticides and is undergoing a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The use of plant resins in nest building by honey bees (Apis mellifera) is a critical yet relatively unexplored factor in bee health. Called ‘propolis’ by beekeepers, these complex mixtures of antimicrobial compounds provide important immune benefits to the colony. Bees utilize a variety of resinous plants that differ in antimicrobial properties, b...
Article
Propolis is a substance derived from antimicrobial plant resins that honey bees use in the construction of their nests. Propolis use in the hive is an important component of honey bee social immunity and confers a number of positive physiological benefits to bees. The benefits that bees derive from resins are mostly due to their antimicrobial prope...
Article
Full-text available
The University of Minnesota Insect Collection holds a rich collection of bees from Itasca State Park, MN, from 1937 and 1938. This collection formed the historical baseline data for comparison with a new survey conducted from 2011 to 2013, to measure changes in bee species over the last 75 yr. Bees were collected with timed net surveys and trap nes...
Article
Full-text available
Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is a widespread RNA virus of honey bees that has been linked with colony losses. Here we describe the transmission, prevalence, and genetic traits of this virus, along with host transcriptional responses to infections. Further, we present RNAi-based strategies for limiting an important mechanism used by IAPV to...
Article
Full-text available
The deposition of antimicrobial plant resins in honey bee, Apis mellifera, nests has important physiological benefits. Resin foraging is difficult to approach experimentally because resin composition is highly variable among and between plant families, the environmental and plant-genotypic effects on resins are unknown, and resin foragers are relat...
Article
Full-text available
A major hindrance to the study of honey bee pathogens or the effects of pesticides and nutritional deficiencies is the lack of controlled in vitro culture systems comprised of honey bee cells. Such systems are important to determine the impact of these stress factors on the developmental and cell biology of honey bees. We have developed a method in...
Article
Full-text available
Persistent exposure to mite pests, poor nutrition, pesticides, and pathogens threaten honey bee survival. In healthy colonies, the interaction of the yolk precursor protein, vitellogenin (Vg), and endocrine factor, juvenile hormone (JH), functions as a pacemaker driving the sequence of behaviors that workers perform throughout their lives. Young be...
Article
Full-text available
American foulbrood is one of the most devastating diseases of the honey bee. It is caused by the spore-forming, Gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. The recent updated genome assembly and annotation for this pathogen now permits in-depth molecular studies. In this paper, selected techniques and protocols for American foulbrood r...
Article
Full-text available
Here we cover a wide range of methods currently in use and recommended in modern queen rearing, selection and breeding. The recommendations are meant to equally serve as standards for both scientific and practical beekeeping purposes. The basic conditions and different management techniques for queen rearing are described, including recommendations...
Article
Full-text available
Chalkbrood and stonebrood are two fungal diseases associated with honey bee brood. Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis, is a common and widespread disease that can result in severe reduction of emerging worker bees and thus overall colony productivity. Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus spp. that are rarely observed, so the impact on colony hea...
Article
Full-text available
Here we cover a wide range of methods currently in use and recommended in modern queen rearing, selection and breeding. The recommendations are meant to equally serve as standards for both scientific and practical beekeeping purposes. The basic conditions and different management techniques for queen rearing are described, including recommendatio...
Article
Full-text available
Here we cover a wide range of methods currently in use and recommended in modern queen rearing, selection and breeding. The recommendations are meant to equally serve as standards for both scientific and practical beekeeping purposes. The basic conditions and different management techniques for queen rearing are described, including recommendatio...
Conference Paper
Persistent exposure to mite pests, poor nutrition, pesticides, and pathogens threaten the productivity and survival of honey bees in the U.S. We investigated the effects of infection with an emerging fungal pathogen, Nosema ceranae, on physiological and hormonal factors underlying the division of labor in worker honey bees. Young bees perform as nu...
Conference Paper
The goal of this study is to determine the overall strength, resiliency, and survival of commercial migratory honey bees during the summer when they are located in agricultural landscapes in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota and during the winter months when the colonies are moved to California for almond pollination. Colony and individual...
Conference Paper
Several factors have contributed to honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) decline in the US for the past five years including systemic neonicotinyl insecticides pervasively used in agriculture and ornamental plants to target various insect pests. Neonicotinoids can induce detrimental sub-lethal effects on individual worker bees such as impaired foraging, l...