Markus Frischhut

Markus Frischhut
MCI Management Center Innsbruck · Department of Management & Law

16.97
 · 
Dr. iur.

About

71
Publications
4,884
Reads
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67
Citations
Research Experience
Position
  • European Union law Business law Scientific working Database research
September 2016 - September 2016
MCI Management Center Innsbruck
Position
  • Jean Monnet Professor "EU Ethics & Values, especially in the field of digitalization"
Education
March 2001 - September 2001
Schloss Hofen, Zentrum für Wissenschaft und Weiterbildung
Field of study
  • EU law
February 2000 - June 2002
Leopold Franzens Universität Innsbruck
Field of study
  • EU law
October 1999 - March 2001
Schloss Hofen, Zentrum für Wissenschaft und Weiterbildung
Field of study
  • EU law

Publications

Publications (71)
Book
Full-text available
This study, commissioned by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, provides an overview of transparency and integrity-related elements in the current EU setting, covering both substantive elements (including, in particular, conflict of interest and revolving-...
Chapter
Digitisation and other forms of new technologies present us with new challenges. Laws often lag behind this need for regulation. There have been numerous references to "ethics" in EU law in recent years. At the same time, numerous documents worldwide on artificial intelligence and robotics refer to principles and values. This article examines the r...
Article
Medical ethics is a field of expertise that has developed alongside increasingly powerful technologies that have changed medical practice significantly over the past decades. From artificial ventilation and the possibility of resuscitation after cardiac arrest in the 1960s to big data-driven genomic medicine of today, modern medicine is loaded with...
Presentation
Full-text available
This presentation is about the right to health care in EU law, focussing on Art. 35 CFR (based on a comparison with the ECHR and WHO law), other health-related rights (cross-border healthcare), as well as the question of rights of third-country-nationals under EU law.
Article
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In seiner Rsp. hat der EuGH aus der (passiven) Dienstleistungsfreiheit Rechte von PatientInnen in der grenzüberschreitenden Gesundheitsversorgung entwickelt, die 2011 in einer Richtlinie (2011/24/EU) kodifiziert worden sind. Daneben finden sich ähnliche Rechte in der Verordnung über die soziale Sicherheit (883/2004/EG). Diese drei Rechtsgrundlagen...
Article
Full-text available
The effective collection and management of personal data of rapidly migrating populations is important for ensuring adequate healthcare and monitoring of a displaced peoples’ health status. With developments in ICT data sharing capabilities, electronic personal health records (ePHRs) are increasingly replacing less transportable paper records. ePHR...
Chapter
This chapter moves from the general task of defining integrity, to the more specific issue of identifying the status quo of ethics and values in the particular context of the European Union (EU). Here, diversity seems to hinder a consistent philosophical understanding, that is, a constitutional ideal, of ethics and morality in EU law and its politi...
Presentation
Full-text available
Status quo In the EU, ethics (see also Pirs & Frischhut, 2019, forthcoming) has to be seen against the background of the common values, especially human dignity (‘last resort’ for threat situations, which are not even foreseeable today; Borowsky, 2019, p. 125), and the fundamental rights (Frischhut, 2019). Just as the values of the EU lead to mutu...
Article
Full-text available
1 | INTRODUC TI ON Collecting and maintaining health data of a rapidly migrating population in times of crisis is, amongst other things, important for ensuring adequate healthcare and accurate monitoring of a displaced and vulnerable peoples' health status. With developments in data sharing capabilities in ICT (eHealth), electronic personal health...
Presentation
Full-text available
Vortrag "Künstliche Intelligenz und Robotik – einige Überlegungen aus unionsrechtlicher Perspektive", auf der Fachtagung "Künstliche Intelligenz und Robotik als theologisch-ethische Herausforderung", organisiert vom Institut für Islamische Theologie und Religionspädagogik an der Universität Innsbruck | Zusammenfassende Thesen: Im EU Recht ist Ethi...
Book
Full-text available
This open access book seeks to identify the ethical spirit of European Union (EU) law, a context in which we can observe a trend towards increasing references to the terms ‘ethics’ and ‘morality.’ This aspect is all the more important because EU law is now affecting more and more areas of national law, including such sensitive ones as the patentabi...
Chapter
Full-text available
While lobbying can play an important role for democracy, it needs to find its limitations both in legal as well as ethical provisions. At EU level, we find such provisions mainly in Codes of conduct, a form of soft law. Besides rules on transparency, conflict of interests and the revolving doors phenomenon, these documents refer to ethical principl...
Chapter
While lobbying can play an important role for democracy, it needs to find its limitations both in legal and ethical provisions. At EU level, we find such provisions mainly in Codes of Conduct, a form of soft law. Besides rules on transparency, conflict of interests, and the revolving doors phenomenon, these documents refer to ethical principles mai...
Chapter
While the outcome sometimes might be the same, it is the way of reasoning which distinguishes these three theories.
Chapter
After this introduction into the relevant basics of normative ethics, let us turn to the status quo of EU law referring to ethics and morality. Following the hierarchy of EU law, let us first have a look at primary EU law.
Chapter
In European Union (EU) law, we can find more and more references in different legal documents to non-legal concepts such as ethics and morality.
Chapter
While objectives 1–3 have been dealt with in the chapters so far, this chapter is dedicated to objective 4. That is to say, whether we can identify a certain common horizontal (or rather a specific) pattern in referring to these terms of ethics and morality, and whether we can thus identify an ethical spirit based on an analysis of these legal text...
Chapter
The question whether references to ethics should be understood as an unconditional reference (to one or more philosophical theories), or only as pointing towards a certain idea (question No. 3), has already been answered in the previous chapter (in terms of the second option).
Chapter
Full-text available
While so far, this book was clearly about the legal situation as it stands, I now want to conclude with some own suggestions for improvement. Much has already been written about the multiple crisis of the EU. However, even if these crises did not exist, it would be high time to further develop a new Union, which is ‘inspired by an ethical spirit’.
Presentation
Full-text available
In several fields of both positive-, as well as of negative-integration, EU law (including the CJEU) refer to science, which addresses the question, whether this import of non-legal concepts should take place in an absolute or in a relative way. In line with what I have argued elsewhere for the integration of concepts of ethics and morality into EU...
Presentation
Full-text available
Access to healthcare within the EU varies significantly, as competences for public health are mainly those of the Member States (Art. 168 TFEU). However, both the Court of Justice of the EU, as well as soft- (common values and principles) and hard-law (harmonization in selected fields) have had some noteworthy impact; both on national health system...
Presentation
Full-text available
While lobbying can play an important role for democracy, it needs to find its limitations both in legal as well as ethical provisions. At EU level, we find such provisions mainly in Codes of conduct, a form of soft law. Besides rules on transparency, conflict of interests and the revolving doors phenomenon, these documents refer to ethical principl...
Article
Full-text available
Between September 2015 and March 2016, Europe saw a massive influx of refugees and migrants, which has been described as the greatest mass movement of persons across Europe since World War II. Although numbers have decreased since then, the challenge is not over yet and given the future development on the African continent, this situation could eas...
Presentation
Full-text available
Access to healthcare within the EU varies significantly, as competences for public health are mainly those of the Member States (Art. 168 TFEU). However, both the Court of Justice of the EU, as well as soft- (common values and principles) and hard-law (harmonization in selected fields) have had some noteworthy impact; both on national health system...
Presentation
Full-text available
Ethik, Moral und auch Religion stehen in einem offensichtlichen Zusammenhang. Doch auch das Recht der Europäischen Union (EU) verweist in den letzten Jahren vermehrt auf diese Begrifflichkeiten und rückt damit in den Mittelpunkt dieser Debatte. Welche Rolle spielen Ethik und Moral in der EU, gibt es dazu substantielle Aussagen, und welche Rolle spi...
Chapter
Full-text available
This contribution depicts quality of care and patient safety in EU cross-border healthcare. While EU primary law requires a high level of health protection, it is basically soft law which has shaped the content of quality of care and patient safety. Similarly as in patient mobility in general, different CJEU cases have paved the way, with more deta...
Book
Full-text available
In the meantime, the law of the European Union (EU) has reached a considerable compass and influences the national laws to a significant extent. This manual at hand shall explain the fundamentals of EU law in a short and precise way by means of some noteworthy examples. The most important aspects of the EU shall be presented in a clear and easily c...
Book
Full-text available
Das Recht der Europäischen Union (EU) hat mittlerweile einen bedeutenden Umfang erreicht und beeinflusst das nationale Recht in erheblichem Ausmaß. Das vorliegende Skriptum soll die Grundlagen des Rechts der EU anhand anschaulicher Beispiele kurz und präzise darstellen. In übersichtlicher und leicht verständlicher Weise sollen dabei die wichtigsten...
Presentation
Full-text available
Dieser Vortrag behandelt die Rolle von Ethik und Moral in der EU. Dabei wird die Rolle von Moral im EU-Primärrecht, die (implizite) Rolle von Ethik und Moral im Kontext der EU Institutionen (im Bereich Lobbying), sowie die Rolle von Ethik und Moral im EU-Sekundärrecht thematisiert. Ausgehend von diesem Status quo wird anhand von aktuellen Beispiele...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: Increasingly, EU law (both Primary and, in particular, Secondary law) refers to non-legal concepts such as ethics and/or morality, without providing sufficient clarity on the understanding of these concepts (Frischhut, 2015). As EU directives (in case of Secondary law) require implementation into national law, there is a research gap wi...
Presentation
Full-text available
In times of multiple crises, the migration and refugee crisis is one that already has strongly affected Europe and will continue to do so also in the nearer future. Immigration and terrorism are seen to be the most important issues facing the EU, according to a recent Eurobarometer survey. Multiple perspectives need to be taken into account when de...
Chapter
Full-text available
The chapter presents the historic development of EU communicable disease control law and policy since the 1990s, using the lens of European integration theory to explain why it is a case of some relatively common dynamics in European integration. It is a story of a developing network, institutional entrepreneurs, agenda-setting and alternative spec...
Article
The case-law of the Court of Justice (ECJ) on patient mobility was recently challenged by a ruling that a patient could go to Germany for treatment when facilities in Romanian hospitals were inadequate. Given the reported impact of austerity measures in the field of health care this raises the question; what is the impact of the ECJ’s ruling on how...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This contribution contrasts Joseph Carens’ book with EU law and tries to find out, in which way EU law corresponds to the claims of Carens. In EU documents, we find a lot of similarities to Carens’ ideas. However, there is, of course, still possible room for improvement (e.g. firewall in case of irregular migrants, non-discrimination). With his ide...
Research
Full-text available
Health systems in Europe face major challenges after the economic crisis and against the background of increasing health care costs. Also recent developments (e.g. migration) or biomedical advancements (e.g. in reproductive care) influence the standard of care states are willing to provide, while legal developments and human rights can further dete...
Presentation
Full-text available
In various legal documents, the European Union (EU) refers to “ethics” and “morality”, without providing a definition or even referring to a common understanding. However, if a certain activity is qualified as “unethical”, there can be important consequences. This presentation in the European Parliament focused both on EU Primary and Secondary law,...
Research
Full-text available
The case-law of the Court of Justice (ECJ) on patient mobility starting with the Kohll case (1998) has had a substantial impact on health systems, which has recently continued with the Petru case (2014). The Petru case concerned treatment received in Germany due to alleged inadequate treatment in a Romanian hospital. Other than the Advocate General...
Article
Full-text available
In various (binding and non-binding) legal documents, the European Union (EU) refers to “ethics” and “morality”, without providing a definition or even referring to a common understanding. However, if a certain activity is qualified as “unethical”, there can be important consequences, such as stringent ethics reviews in case of the use of human ste...
Article
Full-text available
Since 1998, the European Court of Justice (EUCJ) has established a set of principles concerning patient mobility across Member States. At present, these principles are challenged against a new background, i.e., an enlarged EU and austerity-driven measures in the field of healthcare. This is even more relevant in view of the significant differences...
Research
VIII Encuentro Interautonómico Sobre Protección Jurídica del Paciente como Consumidor, Santander, Spain, Jun 18, 2015
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This presentation analyses some selected cases of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) of the EU in the field of assisted reproduction. Although those cases touched upon related fields of labour (Mayr) and patent law (Brüstle, International Stem Cell Corporation [ISC]), they nonetheless contained some important statements as regard the subject of In...
Research
Full-text available
General information on the Directive 2011/24/EU (Topic 1)
Book
Full-text available
Dieses Kurzlehrbuch bietet eine Einführung in die rechtlichen Grundlagen der EU. Die Struktur, Institutionen und Rechtsprinzipien der EU werden kompakt und übersichtlich dargestellt. Ein weiterer inhaltlicher Schwerpunkt wird auf Aspekte des EU-Rechts gelegt, die auch für Nichtjuristen interessant sind, wie Bürgerrechte, Entscheidungsprozesse und d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: In various legal (binding and non-binding) documents, the European Union (EU) refers to the concept of “ethics” (and / or “morality”), without providing a definition or at least indicating a certain understanding. However, if a certain activity is qualified as “unethical”, there can be important consequences, such as exclusion from fund...
Article
Das sowohl primär- als auch sekundärrechtlich (mehrfach) verankerte Recht auf Dokumentenzugang erfüllt für Unionsbürger sowie sonstige (natürliche und juristische) Personen eine wichtige (nicht nur demokratiepolitische) Funktion. Dieser Beitrag untersucht allgemeine Weiterentwicklungen dieses Rechts in der Rechtsprechung des EuGH und berücksichtigt...
Article
Full-text available
Link to Article: http://diepresse.com/home/recht/rechtwirtschaft/3897675/Patientenmobilitaet-auch-in-Zeiten-der-Krise?_vl_backlink=/home/recht/index.do
Article
Full-text available
Der EuGH hat seit 1998 das Recht der Patienten auf grenzüberschreitende medizinische Behandlungen bekräftigt und eine Balance zwischen der Zuständigkeit der Mitgliedstaaten für den Gesundheitsbereich und der (passiven) Dienstleistungsfreiheit finden müssen. Im vorliegenden Fall hat sich nun die Frage gestellt, ob dieser „Patientenmobilitäts-acquis“...
Article
Full-text available
http://www.imtj.com/articles/2012/eu-cross-border-healthcare-30139/
Book
Patientenmobilität ist z.B. anhand eines in Österreich bekannten Phänomens (Zahntourismus nach Ungarn und anschließende Frage der Kostenerstattung) einfach erklärt. Weniger einfach sind hingegen die aus mehreren Urteilen des Europäischen Gerichtshofs (EuGH) einzelfallbezogen entwickelten Rechte einerseits, sowie die sich aus der aktuellen Patienten...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
European Division of the UNESCO Chair in Bioethics: it encompasses around 30 units of the International Network of the UNESCO Chair in Bioethics. All these units are from Europe. The Division is headed by Vojin Rakic. He coordinates a Council of the European Division of the UNESCO Chair in Bioethics.The Council members include UNESCO unit heads from Finland (Helena Siipi), England (Baroness Ilora Finlay, John Sanders), Austria (Gabriele Werner Felmayer), Belgium (Sigrid Sterckx), Ireland (Oliver Feeney) and Iceland (Salvor Nordal).