Markus Zeitlinger

Markus Zeitlinger
Medical University of Vienna | MedUni Vienna · Section of Pharmacokinetics / Pharmacogenetics and Imaging

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304
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Publications

Publications (304)
Article
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Purpose Clinical research relies on data from patients and volunteers, yet the target sample size is often not achieved. Here, we assessed the perception of clinical research among clinical trial participants to improve the recruitment process for future studies. Methods We conducted a single-center descriptive and exploratory study of 300 current...
Article
Meropenem is a broad spectrum carbapenem used for the treatment of cerebral infections. There is a need for data describing meropenem pharmacokinetics (PK) in the brain tissue to optimize therapy in these infections. Here, we present a meropenem PK model in the central nervous system and simulate dosing regimens. This was a population PK analysis o...
Article
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Background/introduction: Plasma protein binding (PPB) continues to be a key aspect of antibiotic development and clinical use. PPB is essential to understand several properties of drug candidates, including antimicrobial activity, drug-drug interaction, drug clearance, volume of distribution, and therapeutic index. Focus areas of the review: In th...
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Background: To date, no oral antiviral drug has proven to be beneficial in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Methods: In this randomized, controlled, open-label, platform trial, we randomly assigned patients ≥18 years hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia to receive either camostat mesylate (CM) (considered standard-of-care) or lopinavir/ritonavi...
Article
Background Tedizolid is a novel oxazolidinone antibiotic. Considering the higher antibacterial effect in immunocompetent compared with immunosuppressed animals, it is not recommended in immunocompromised patients. Objectives In this study, we assessed the ‘pure’ pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) relationship for tedizolid against Enterococcus...
Article
Antibiotic resistance presents an incessant threat to our drug armamentarium that necessitates novel approaches to therapy. Over the past several decades, investigation of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PKPD) principles has substantially improved our understanding of the relationships between the antibiotic, pathogen, and infected patient. Ho...
Article
The objectives of this study were the identification in (morbidly) obese and nonobese patients of (i) the most appropriate body size descriptor for fosfomycin dose adjustments and (ii) adequacy of the currently employed dosing regimens. Plasma and target site (interstitial fluid of subcutaneous adipose tissue) concentrations after fosfomycin admini...
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Background: In patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), Staphylococcus aureus frequently colonizes lesions and is hypothesized to be linked to disease severity and progression. Treatments that reduce S. aureus colonization without significantly affecting the skin commensal microbiota are needed. Methods and findings: In this study, we tested ATx201...
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Objective: For meropenem 40%T > MIC is associated with optimal killing of P. aeruginosa and E. coli . However, it is unknown how the distribution of %T > MIC through a treatment day impacts the antimicrobial effect in vitro . Therefore, we investigated the in vitro antibiotic activity of meropenem, precisely if 40%T > MIC is achieved in one single...
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The pathophysiology of sepsis alters drug pharmacokinetics, resulting in inadequate drug exposure and target-site concentration. Suboptimal exposure leads to treatment failure and the development of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, we seek to optimize antimicrobial therapy in sepsis by selecting the right drug and the correct dosage. A prerequi...
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Background: Concerns have been expressed about the interchangeability of innovator and generic antifungals in their activity and chemical stability. Materials/methods: The activity of two different antimycotics was tested, each with one originator and two generics. For voriconazole, the originator VFEND® (Pfizer) and the generics (Ratiopharm and...
Article
Background: Preclinical data suggested anti-inflammatory properties of tedizolid. Objectives: To investigate the influence of tedizolid on the cytokine response to the human endotoxin challenge and the effect of endotoxaemia on the pharmacokinetics and protein binding of tedizolid. Methods: In this cross-over trial, 14 male healthy volunteers...
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Convalescent plasma is a suggested treatment for Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), but its efficacy is uncertain. We aimed to evaluate whether the use of convalescent plasma is associated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with Covid-19.In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched randomized controlled trials investigating t...
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Rapid antigen detection devices for SARS-CoV-2 represent a valuable tool for monitoring the spread of infection. However, the reliability of the tests depends largely on the test performance and the respective sampling method.
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There is evidence that Staphylococcus aureus colonisation is linked to severity of atopic dermatitis. As no gold standard for S. aureus sampling on atopic dermatitis skin lesions exists, this study compared three commonly used methods. In addition, effectiveness of standard skin disinfection to remove S. aureus colonisation from these inflamed skin...
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Several studies investigated diclofenac tissue concentrations using microdialysis (MD). However, thorough evaluations of the optimal MD setup for diclofenac are unavailable. Thus, this in vitro MD study aimed to compare different setups to improve quantitative recovery of diclofenac. In forward and reverse in vitro MD experiments with diclofenac at...
Article
Objectives SARS‐CoV‐2-induced COVID-19 has led to exponentially rising mortality, particularly in immunosuppressed patients, who inadequately respond to conventional COVID-19 vaccination. Methods In this blinded randomised clinical trial, we compare the efficacy and safety of an additional booster vaccination with a vector versus mRNA vaccine in n...
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Background and Objective In microdose studies, drug pharmacokinetics is measured in humans after administration of subtherapeutic doses. While previous microdose studies focused primarily on plasma pharmacokinetics, we set out to evaluate the feasibility of microdosing for a pharmacokinetic assessment in subcutaneous tissue and epithelial lining fl...
Article
Introduction Pathogen-focused, randomized, controlled trials (PF-RCT) are important in the fight against carbapenem-resistant (CR) Gram-negative infections. Some recently approved antibiotics and older generic antibiotics with activity against CR Gram-negative bacteria were investigated in PF-RCTs in a variety of infections. Areas covered We searc...
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Background and ObjectivesA quantitative evaluation of the PK of meropenem, a broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic, in plasma and interstitial space fluid (ISF) of subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese patients is lacking as of date. The objective of this study was the characterisation of meropenem population pharmacokinetics in plasma and ISF in obese...
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Antibiotic dosing strategies are generally based on systemic drug concentrations. However, drug concentrations at the infection site drive antimicrobial effect, and efficacy predictions and dosing strategies should be based on these concentrations. We set out to review different translational pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) approaches from...
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid‐19) is associated with a hypercoagulable state. It has been hypothesized that higher‐dose anticoagulation, including therapeutic‐dose and intermediate‐dose anticoagulation, is superior to prophylactic‐dose anticoagulation in the treatment of Covid‐19. This meta‐analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of higher‐dos...
Article
Voriconazole (VRC) pharmacokinetics, in particular its complex metabolism, is still not fully understood which challenges its optimal therapeutic use. To increase knowledge on the pharmacokinetics of this antifungal drug, it is essential to broaden the perspective and expand in vitro and clinical in vivo investigations in particular to aspects such...
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Purpose AT04A and AT06A are two AFFITOPE® peptide vaccine candidates being developed for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia by inducing proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9)-specific antibodies. This study aimed to investigate safety, tolerability, antibody development, and reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc)...
Preprint
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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus–2 (SARS–CoV–2)–induced coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID–19) has led to exponentially rising mortality, particularly in immunosuppressed patients, who inadequately respond to conventional COVID–19 vaccination. In this blinded randomized clinical trial (EudraCT 2021–002348–57) we compare the efficacy and s...
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Precision dosing of piperacillin/tazobactam in obese patients is compromised by sparse information on target-site exposure. We aimed to evaluate the appropriateness of current and alternative piperacillin/tazobactam dosages in obese and nonobese patients. Based on a prospective, controlled clinical trial in 30 surgery patients (15 obese/15 nonobese...
Article
Background Inadequate antibiotic exposure in cerebral infections might have detrimental effects on clinical outcome. Commonly, antibiotic concentrations within the CSF were used to estimate cerebral target levels. However, the actual pharmacological active unbound drug concentration beyond the blood–brain barrier is unknown. Objectives To compare...
Article
Background: Ceftaroline fosamil, a 5th generation cephalosporin antibiotic with activity against MRSA, is currently approved for the treatment of pneumonia and complicated skin and soft tissue infections. However, pharmacokinetic data on free lung tissue concentrations in critical patient populations are lacking. Objectives: The aim of this stud...
Article
Objective: Lidocaine 5% patches are approved for the treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia in adults. Little information is available on the penetration of lidocaine into skin and skin-related soft tissue, which are thought to be closer to the site where lidocaine exerts its pharmacological action on neuronal structures. This pilot study investigat...
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Ablative fractional laser treatment facilitates epidermal drug delivery, which might be an interesting option to increase the topical efficacy of biological drugs in a variety of dermatological diseases. This work aims at investigating safety and tolerability of this new treatment approach in patients with plaque-type psoriasis. Eight patients with...
Article
This work is dedicated to the memory of Hartmut Derendorf (1953 – 2020), a pioneer of modern pharmacokinetics and valued mentor of this project. Purpose Septic infants/neonates need effective antibiotic exposure but dosing recommendations are challenging as the pharmacokinetics in this age is highly variable. For vancomycin which is used as a stan...
Article
Brain microdialysis samples of intensive care patients treated with the essential anesthetics ketamine, midazolam and propofol were investigated. Importantly, despite decades of clinical use, comprehensive human cerebral pharmacokinetic data of these drugs is still missing. To encounter this apparent lack of knowledge, we combined cerebral microdia...
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The widely expressed and poly-specific ABC transporters breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) and P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) are co-localized at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and have shown to limit the brain distribution of several clinically used ABCB1/ABCG2 substrate drugs. It is currently not known to which extent these transporters, which are a...
Article
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Background: Elimination of a drug during renal replacement therapy is not only dependent on flow rates, molecular size and protein binding, but is often influenced by difficult to predict drug membrane interactions. In vitro models allow for extensive profiling of drug clearance using a wide array of hemofilters and flow rates. We present a bovine...
Article
Objectives To investigate ceftolozane/tazobactam pharmacokinetics (PK) in plasma and interstitial space fluid (ISF) of muscle and subcutaneous tissue and establish a population PK model. Methods Eight healthy volunteers received four IV doses of 1000/500 mg ceftolozane/tazobactam q8h in a prospective, open-labelled PK study. ISF concentration–time...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ocular pharmacokinetics, bio-distribution and local tolerability of γ-cyclodextrin (γCD) based irbesartan 1.5% eye drops and candesartan 0.15% eye drops after single and multiple topical administration in rabbit eyes. In this randomized, controlled study, a total number of 59 New Zealand White albino ra...
Article
Objectives The efficacy of an anti-infective drug is influenced by its protein binding (PB), since only the free fraction is active. We hypothesized that PB may vary in vitro and in vivo, and used clindamycin, a drug with high and concentration-dependent PB to investigate this hypothesis. Methods Six healthy volunteers received a single intravenou...
Article
Objectives To assess plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of cefazolin and metronidazole in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery and non-obese patients undergoing intra-abdominal surgery. Patients and methods Fifteen obese and 15 non-obese patients received an IV short infusion of 2 g cefazolin and 0.5 g metronidazole for perioperative prophy...
Article
Introduction: Increasing resistance of gram-negative bacteria poses a serious threat to global health. Thus, efficacious and safe antibiotics against resistant pathogens are urgently needed. Cefiderocol, a siderophore cephalosporin, addresses this unmet need. Areas covered: For this article, we screened all preclinical and clinical studies on ce...
Article
OBJECTIVE Intrahospital transport for CT scans is routinely performed for neurosurgical patients. Particularly in the sedated and mechanically ventilated patient, intracranial hypertension and blood pressure fluctuations that might impair cerebral perfusion are frequently observed during these interventions. This study quantifies the impact of intr...
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Purpose Systematic comparison of analysis methods of clinical microdialysis data for impact on target-site drug exposure and response. Methods 39 individuals received a 500 mg levofloxacin short-term infusion followed by 24-h dense sampling in plasma and microdialysate collection in interstitial space fluid (ISF). ISF concentrations were leveraged...
Article
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Purpose To assess in healthy volunteers the whole-body distribution and dosimetry of [ ¹¹ C]metoclopramide, a new positron emission tomography (PET) tracer to measure P-glycoprotein activity at the blood-brain barrier. Procedures Ten healthy volunteers (five women, five men) were intravenously injected with 387 ± 49 MBq of [ ¹¹ C]metoclopramide af...
Article
Background: Generic drug preparations do not require the same degree of scrutiny as the originally licensed preparation before they can be approved for clinical use. The permitted tolerance limits for bioequivalent preparations might be associated with clinically relevant differences for drugs with a narrow therapeutic index, such as local anaesth...
Article
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Background: This controlled clinical study aimed to investigate the impact of obesity on plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of meropenem. Methods: Obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2) and age-/sex-matched nonobese (18.5 kg/m2 ≥ BMI ≤ 30 kg/m2) surgical patients received a short-term infusion of 1000-mg meropenem. Concentrations were determin...
Article
Objectives: Continuous infusion (CON) of fosfomycin has been proposed as potentially advantageous in certain clinical scenarios. However, no clinical data on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of fosfomycin after CON are available to date. This study aimed at investigating the PK of fosfomycin after CON and compare it with intermittent infusion (INT) of fos...
Article
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The antiemetic and gastroprokinetic drug metoclopramide is a weak substrate of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and displays central nervous system (CNS) side effects (i.e. extrapyramidal symptoms, tardive dyskinesia) caused by dopamine D2 receptor blockade in the basal ganglia. These side effects occur with a...
Article
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In antimicrobial drug development, in vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing is conducted in standard growth media, such as Mueller–Hinton broth (MHB). These growth media provide optimal bacterial growth, but do not consider certain host factors that would be necessary to mimic the in vivo bacterial environment in the human body. The present revie...
Article
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There is an urgent need to identify optimal antiviral therapies for COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2. We have conducted a rapid and comprehensive review of relevant pharmacological evidence, focusing on (1) the pharmacokinetics (PK) of potential antiviral therapies; (2) coronavirus-specific pharmacodynamics (PD); (3) PK and PD interactions between pro...
Article
Background: The antibiotic temocillin has recently been rediscovered as a promising therapeutic option against MDR Gram-negative bacteria. However, some aspects of the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of the drug are still to be elucidated: subcutaneous administration of temocillin might be of interest as an alternative to the intravenous route in sel...
Article
PurposeThis Position Paper aims to review and discuss the available data on therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antibacterials, antifungals and antivirals in critically ill adult patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). This Position Paper also provides a practical guide on how TDM can be applied in routine clinical practice to improve therapeut...
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Development of new antibacterial agents is necessary as drug-resistant bacteria are a threat to global health. In Europe, the European Medicines Agency has been guiding this development process for more than two decades. We investigated preclinical and clinical pre-approval studies to illuminate the current authorization process with emphasis on ph...
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Background: Linezolid is used for the treatment of soft tissue infections in critically ill patients. However, data for characterizing the pharmacokinetics (PK) and assessing whether effective concentrations are reached at the target site are lacking. We hypothesized that current dosing regimens do not lead to effective concentrations in the plasma...
Article
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Objectives To characterise linezolid population pharmacokinetics in plasma and interstitial space fluid of subcutaneous adipose tissue (target-site) of obese compared to non-obese patients and to determine dosing regimens enabling adequate therapy using Monte Carlo simulations. Methods In this prospective, parallel group, open-label, controlled si...
Article
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In vitro pharmacodynamic models are used to optimize in vivo dosing regimens in antimicrobial drug development. One limiting factor of such models is the lack of host factors such as corpuscular blood components as erythrocytes which have already been shown to impact activity of antibiotics and/or growth of the pathogen. However, the impact of thro...
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Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic indices of antiinfective drugs should be referenced to free drug concentrations. In the present study, clindamycin, flucloxacillin or tedizolid have been determined in human plasma by HPLC‐UV. The drugs were separated isocratically within 3‐6 min at a C18 column using mixtures of phosphate buffer/acetonitrile of pH 7...
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Background The broad antibacterial spectrum of piperacillin/tazobactam makes the combination suitable for the treatment of nosocomial bacterial central nervous system (CNS) infections. As limited data are available regarding piperacillin CNS exposure in patients without or with low-grade inflammation, a clinical study was conducted (1) to quantify...
Article
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The preferable route for treatment of peritoneal dialysis related peritonitis remains the intraperitoneal administration of antibiotics admixed to peritoneal dialysis fluids. It is important to know whether the administered drug is compatible with the PD fluids and its container. In the present study the compatibility of aztreonam with four commerc...
Article
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Background Although fungal infections play a central role in severely ill and immunosuppressed patients, in contrast to antibiotics immunomodulatory effects of antifungals have not been sufficiently investigated. The present study sets out to compare the effect of different antimycotics on immunologic reaction towards mold in vitro. Materials/meth...
Article
Objectives: Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) considerations are at the heart of defining susceptibility breakpoints for antibiotic therapy. However, current approaches follow a fragmented workflow. The aim of this study was to develop an integrative pharmacometric approach to define MIC-based breakpoints for killing and suppression of resis...
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About one-sixth of the world’s population is affected by a neglected tropical disease as defined by the World Health Organization and Center for Disease Control. Parasitic diseases comprise most of the neglected tropical disease list and they are causing enormous amounts of disability, morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs worldwide. The burde...
Article
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During human diamine oxidase (DAO) ELISA development we noticed that in serum DAO concentrations appear to be higher when compared to plasma. Neutrophils contain DAO in the specific granules and we hypothesized that DAO is released from neutrophils during serum coagulation. If activation of neutrophils can release DAO, its concentrations might be e...
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Background: P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) are two efflux transporters expressed at the blood-brain barrier which effectively restrict the brain distribution of the majority of currently known anticancer drugs. High-grade brain tumors often possess a disrupted blood-brain tumor barrier (BBTB) leading to enhance...