Markus Raab

Markus Raab
Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln | DSHS · Department of Performance Psychology

PhD in Cognitive Psychology, PhD in Movement Science

About

227
Publications
122,263
Reads
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4,856
Citations
Introduction
Professor of Psychology, School of Applied Sciences London South Bank University London, UK
Additional affiliations
June 2013 - present
London South Bank University
Position
  • Professor
January 2009 - present
Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln
Position
  • Professor
April 2008 - December 2015
Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln
Position
  • Professor of Psychology, Head of Department of Performance Psychology

Publications

Publications (227)
Article
Full-text available
The more distant two consecutive stimuli are presented, the longer the temporal interstimulus interval (ISI) between their presentations is perceived (kappa effect). The present study aimed at testing whether the kappa effect not only affects perceptual estimates of time, but also motor action, more specifically, interception. In a first step, the...
Article
It has been recently suggested that research on human multitasking is best organized according to three research perspectives, which differ in their focus on cognitive structure, flexibility, and plasticity. Even though it is argued that the perspectives should be seen as complementary, there has not been a formal approach describing or explaining...
Article
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Batting and catching are real-life examples of interception. Due to latencies between the processing of sensory input and the corresponding motor response, successful interception requires accurate spatiotemporal prediction. However, spatiotemporal predictions can be subject to bias. For instance, the more spatially distant two sequentially present...
Article
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Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation are widely used to test the involvement of specific cortical regions in various domains such as cognition and emotion. Despite the capability of stimulation techniques to test causal directions, this approach has bee...
Article
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The aim of this study was to explore when experts trust their intuition. The Take‐The‐First heuristic suggests that experts generate a few options based on option validity that match the current situation and probably pick the first one they generated. In chess, the rated quality of moves can be used to analyze fast and slow decisions. We provided...
Article
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When switching between different tasks, the initiation of task switches may depend on task characteristics (difficulty, salient cues, etc.) or reasons within the person performing the task (decisions, behavioral variability, etc.). The reasons for variance in switching strategies, especially in paradigms where participants are free to choose the or...
Article
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Interoception is an often neglected but crucial aspect of the human minimal self. In this perspective, we extend the embodiment account of interoceptive inference to explain the development of the minimal self in humans. To do so, we first provide a comparative overview of the central accounts addressing the link between interoception and the minim...
Article
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The aim of this study was to examine the impact of predictability on dual-task performance by systematically manipulating predictability in either one of two tasks, as well as between tasks. According to capacity-sharing accounts of multitasking, assuming a general pool of resources two tasks can draw upon, predictability should reduce the need for...
Article
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Cognition plays a key role in sports performance. This meta-analytic review synthesizes research that examined the relationship between cognitive functions, skills, and sports performance. We identified literature by searching Cochrane Library, APA PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science. We included studies conducted on competitive athletes, assessed...
Article
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The visual system is said to be especially sensitive towards spatial but lesser so towards temporal information. To test this, in two experiments, we systematically reduced the acuity and contrast of a visual stimulus and examined the impact on spatial and temporal precision (and accuracy) in a manual interception task. In Experiment 1, we blurred...
Article
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Human behavior is often assumed to be irrational, full of errors, and affected by cognitive biases. One of these biases is base-rate neglect, which happens when the base rates of a specific category are not considered when making decisions. We argue here that while naïve subjects demonstrate base-rate neglect in laboratory conditions, experts teste...
Article
We investigated the influence of providing football goalkeepers with kicker’s prior preferences on anticipation and gaze behaviour to explore the interaction of top-down and bottom-up cognitive processing. Forty participants (20 experienced goalkeepers and 20 novices) were asked to anticipate the direction of penalty kicks in three experimental con...
Article
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In most of our daily activities and in team sports, we interact with other individuals and do not act in isolation. Using a social variant of the standard two-choice Simon task, this study aims to test if competitive/cooperative processing modes (i.e., metacontrol states) change the degree of bodily self-other integration between two persons in joi...
Chapter
Im Sport werden von verschiedenen Akteuren in verschiedenen Situationen Entscheidungen getroffen und Probleme gelöst. In diesem Kapitel wird beschrieben wie Entscheidungs- und Problemlöseprozesse theoretisch erklärt werden, wie empirische Studien diese Phänomene und Effekte im Sport abbilden und zu welchen Ergebnissen sie kommen. Weiterhin wird dar...
Chapter
Während in traditionellen Kognitionsansätzen das Gehirn als die zentrale Instanz von Repräsentationen verstanden wird, werden in Embodied-Cognition-Ansätzen die Wechselwirkungen zwischen Kognition, Bewegung und Wahrnehmung als Grundlage von Repräsentationen angenommen. Repräsentationen werden im Sport meist durch Instruktionen versprachlicht. Die i...
Article
Full-text available
Interoception is an often neglected but crucial aspect of the human minimal self. In this perspective, we extend the embodiment account of interoceptive inference to explain the development of the minimal self in humans. To do so, we first provide a comparative overview of the central accounts addressing the link between interoception and the minim...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this paper is to explore how an embodied view can redirect our understanding of decision making. To achieve this goal, we contribute a developmental embodied choice perspective. Our perspective integrates embodiment and bounded rationality from a developmental view in which the body provides cues that are used in abstract choices. Hereb...
Article
The comparison to other athletes and the resulting effects on emotion, motivation and effort investment are a natural and integral part of sports performance. The current study tested a bias toward upward comparison in athletes. Further it tested how comparison processes influence motivation (i.e., self-improvement motivation, coasting, disengageme...
Article
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Auditory and visual percepts are integrated even when they are not perfectly temporally aligned with each other, especially when the visual signal precedes the auditory signal. This window of temporal integration for asynchronous audiovisual stimuli is relatively well examined in the case of speech, while other natural action-induced sounds have be...
Article
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Diverse empirical studies have examined particularities of atypical behavior of the intellectually disabled (ID) population, and just a few theoretical approaches have been empirically tested to further understand the reasons for such atypical behavior (see Berghs et al., 2016, for medical, human rights, and social views about this topic). It is su...
Article
In two experiments, horizontal and vertical orientated sounds moved in parabolas. Participants had to touch a screen to indicate where and when a virtual moving ball would cross a visible line. We predicted that due to the sensitivity of the auditory system to temporal information, manipulations of pitch should affect temporal errors more than spat...
Article
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Research in sport pedagogy and its applied recommendations are still characterized by a contrast between the different learning theories from psychology. Traditional theories and their corresponding approaches to the specific case of teaching and learning “how to play [team sports like soccer]” are subject to compatibilities and incompatibilities....
Article
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Human motor skills are exceptional compared to other species, no less than their cognitive skills. In this perspective paper, we suggest that “movement matters!,” implying that motor development is a crucial driving force of cognitive development, much more impactful than previously acknowledged. Thus, we argue that to fully understand and explain...
Article
Efforts in optimizing transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) are crucial to further develop its potential in improving cognitive and autonomic regulation. The present study focused on this topic. The aim was to compare for the first time the main stimulation areas of the ear currently used in studies with tVNS, taking cognitive as well as ne...
Article
Most studies on sport officials ignore the variance of the data in terms of individual differences. Here we highlight the need to focus on these differences in refereeing as the main point and goal of the current review. We argue that the study of individual differences is important for referee selection, development and performance evaluation. We...
Article
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In this study we investigated the effect of predictability on dual-task performance in two experiments. In the first experiment 33 participants separately practiced a continuous tracking task and an auditory reaction time task. Both tasks had a repeating element that made them predictable; in the tracking task this was a repeating segment, and in t...
Chapter
This chapter argues from an evolutionary perspective that cognition which includes making choices should be defined as “situated activity” (holistic) rather than the traditional basic approach (separated). Embodied choices uncover the evolutionary links between the motor system, perception, and decision-making. Thus the motor system evolves much ea...
Chapter
This chapter is an introduction to the concept of embodied choices. Embodied choices will be defined as rules of thumb or shortcuts that take sensorimotor experiences into account. These rules of thumb are meaningful when limited time and resources force people to decide quickly between two or more options. A second aspect covered in this chapter i...
Chapter
This chapter deals with individual differences in embodied choices, for example, depending on whether you are living in a western or eastern society or you are left- or right-handed. Moreover, the question whether women and left-handers have better intuition is solved and how the body influence creative choices. Does the body influence multitasking...
Chapter
This chapter deals with the role of heuristics in decision-making. Heuristics are like shortcuts, enabling humans to make decisions under constrained conditions. For example, the recognition heuristic indicates that if you recognize one option over the other, you always choose the one you recognize. The recognition heuristic and other heuristics ar...
Chapter
This chapter deals with the question, why body conditions and the environment influence our choices. Therefore this chapter summarizes plenty of research and combines it with own experiences. One famous study cited is the one by Strack and colleagues [12] concerning the facial feedback effect: Subjects had to rate the funniness of cartoons which ei...
Chapter
This chapter covers first time choices, for example, the first time voting a political party or making climate choices. As studies show that city dwellers have an increased risk for developing anxiety or mood disorders compared with people living in less urban areas, action should be taken. Cities and local communities need to fight for more green...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the concept of embodied cognition that is the base for embodied choices. Therefore, this chapter summarizes different perspectives of how our bodies and movements shape our thinking. Examples are given from language and other abstract concepts to concrete movement behaviors and how they shape our thoughts. One famous thought...
Chapter
This chapter explains why judges in gymnastics who experienced the movements themselves gave more favorable judgments than those without any experience. Studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation to inhibit the motor area confirmed that the effect is not due to long-term perceptual experience but the experience of the movement itself. Another...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the empirical evidence that the body is more involved in our choices than one would think. As most of this research stems from controlled laboratory experiments, the Chapter 6 primarily describes findings that directly transfer to daily life. Examples discussed in this chapter are medical decisions to decide on how to trust...
Chapter
This chapter illustrates the ability of the body to use one and not the other heuristic depending on the available information. On the other hand the brain can trick us as well, as the Moon Illusion or the Müller-Leyer Illusion show. In the preceding chapters, it was demonstrated that behavior influences decision, but behavior can also influence ot...
Chapter
This chapter answers the question of how to train embodied choices. An important avenue for improving embodied choices is to provide learning experiences that allow the body to use its full capacity. A study of primary school children who were learning the clock demonstrates that imitating the clock through whole body movements leads to a superior...
Chapter
This chapter provides the reader with a summary of the most important results or take-home messages one should remember after reading this book. For each of the 10 previous chapters, a rule is provided that summarizes the general heuristic attached to decisions in many areas under conditions of limited time and knowledge. The 10 rules are as follow...
Chapter
This chapter answers the question of how to cope with uncertainty. The COVID-19 pandemic is used to illustrate how uncertain and dynamic information influences choices of individuals, groups, or societies. Providing examples of reliable sources of information and rate decisions of governments as a reaction of growing infection rates allows the read...
Article
This paper puts forward the position that the cognitivist approach adopted in research on decision making in team sports leads to a disconnection from the actual environment of play. The argument is structured as a narrative review of 60 articles that were analyzed to identify the most recent concepts related to the following topics or combinations...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of delayed auditory feedback on action evaluation and execution of real-life action-induced sounds apart from language and music is still poorly understood. Here, we examined how a temporal delay impacted the behavioral evaluation and neural representation of hurdling and tap-dancing actions in a functional magnetic resonance imaging...
Book
This book focuses on judgment and decision-making from an embodied cognition perspective that is how our bodies influence how we think, decide, and act. I coined the term embodied choices for the fact that indeed the body plays a major role in our daily choices, even often as an unnoticed player. Understanding judgment and decision-making without b...
Article
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This study examined the effect of instructions and feedback on the integration of two tasks. Task-integration of covarying tasks are thought to help dual-task performance. With complete task integration of covarying dual tasks, a dual task becomes more like a single task and dual-task costs should be reduced as it is no longer conceptualized as a d...
Article
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Visual information and prior knowledge represent two different sources of predictability for tasks which each have been reported to have a beneficial effect on dual-task performance. What if the two were combined? Adding multiple sources of predictability might, on the one hand, lead to additive, beneficial effects on dual-tasking. On the other han...
Article
Embodied Cognition approaches suggest that movements influence the understanding of abstract concepts such as time. It follows that moving the arms as watch hands should boost children’s learning to read the clock. In a school setting, we compared three learning conditions: an embodied (movement) condition, an interactive App condition, and a text...
Article
Judgment and decision making in sporting officials is a challenging task that involves the use of context. Although process models of decision making describe decision contexts, none of the existing models explains when sports officials use rule-driven decision making, or game management. The basic idea of our work is that referees use a subjective...
Poster
The poster presents the first empirical findings regarding the research question raised in our published review. The study assessed how visual blur and contrast impact participants' temporal and spatial representations. An experimental setup with a larger touchscreen in combination with Psychopy script has been used as a method. The results show th...
Poster
The poster presents the first empirical findings regarding the research question raised in our published review, concerning auditory stimuli. The study assessed how auditory stimuli (Pitch) impact participants' temporal and spatial representations. An experimental setup with a larger touchscreen in combination with Psychopy script and five loudspea...
Article
Full-text available
Presenting research and defining the relation between different areas of research (e.g., performance psychology and sport psychology) enhance the potential for cross‐fertilization on theoretical, methodological, and practical levels. This chapter clarifies the distinctions between performance psychology and sport psychology, and provides a general...
Article
Full-text available
Most human actions produce concomitant sounds. Action sounds can be either part of the action goal (GAS, goal-related action sounds), as for instance in tap dancing, or a mere by-product of the action (BAS, by-product action sounds), as for instance in hurdling. It is currently unclear whether these two types of action sounds-incidental or intentio...
Article
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Background Individuals are able to perform goal-directed behaviors thanks to executive functions. According to the neurovisceral integration model, executive functions are upregulated by brain areas such as the prefrontal and cingulate cortices, which are also crucially involved in controlling cardiac vagal activity. An array of neuroimaging studie...
Article
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The study examined the impact of visual predictability on dual-task performance in driving and tracking tasks. Participants (N = 27) performed a simulated driving task and a pursuit tracking task. In either task, visual predictability was manipulated by systematically varying the amount of advance visual information: in the driving task, participan...
Article
Full-text available
Competitive gaming, better known as electronic sports (esports), is rapidly growing in popularity. We systematically reviewed the available literature regarding the psychological aspects of esports using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) evidence-based reporting checklist and a Population, In...
Chapter
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Im Gegensatz zu klassischen, amodalen Kognitionstheorien, die das Gehirn als zentrale Instanz mentaler Repräsentationen und Kognition ansehen, postulieren Embodied-Cognition-Ansätze, dass Denkprozesse nicht unabhängig von Wahrnehmungs- und Bewegungsprozessen, sondern multimodal verkörperlicht sind. Im folgenden Kapitel werden die Ursprünge der Embo...
Article
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The present study investigated the effects of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation on cardiac vagal activity, the activity of the vagus nerve regulating cardiac functioning. We applied stimulation on the left cymba conchae and tested the effects of different stimulation intensities on a vagally-mediated heart rate variability pagerameter (i.e., t...
Article
Purpose: The concepts of creativity and intuition have been well studied in isolation, but less is known about their distinctive contributions to option generation in decision making. Method: We examined the relation between creative and intuitive decision making in two studies—one involving coaches and one involving soccer players—using video foot...
Article
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In this conceptual analysis contribution to the special issue on radical embodied cognition, we discuss how embodied cognition can exist with and without representations. We explore this concept through the lens of judgment and decision-making in sports (JDMS). Embodied cognition has featured in many investigations of human behavior, but no single...
Poster
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The poster presents further implications of the review published by the authors. The impact of the moderators (visual and auditory) on temporal and spatial representations have been discussed with the audience.
Presentation
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This symposium aims at a better understanding of cognitive and motor development, by addressing children enrolled in sports and physical activity. In particular, this symposium sheds light on the role of cognitive and motor functioning development for (sports) performance and health-related quality of life during childhood. Deepening the scientific...
Poster
Full-text available
This poster presented the recent findings of a review made by the authors. We were interested to assess empirical evidence regarding how to measure temporal and spatial representations. The authors have found a moderator, for instance, visual or auditory stimuli as the key factors for the results reported. Further considerations were discussed with...
Article
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Recent debates about strategies to enhance human cognition concerned mostly pharmacological, environmental, and genetic factors, as well as computerized cognitive training paradigms targeting healthy populations. We offer a new perspective on behavioral cognitive enhancement, arguing that embodied cognition represents a productive framework to expl...
Article
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Temporal and spatial representations are not independent of each other. Two conflicting theories provide alternative hypotheses concerning the specific interrelations between temporal and spatial representations. The asymmetry hypothesis (based on the conceptual metaphor theory, Lakoff and Johnson, 1980) predicts that temporal and spatial represent...
Article
Little is known about how children generate options for taking action in familiar situations or how they select which action option to actually perform. In this article, we explore the interplay between option generation and selection from a developmental perspective using sports as a testbed. In a longitudinal design with four measurement waves, w...
Article
Full-text available
Embodied cognition postulates a bi-directional link between the human body and its cognitive functions. Whether this holds for higher cognitive functions such as problem solving is unknown. We predicted that arm movement manipulations performed by the participants could affect the problem-solving solutions. We tested this prediction in quantitative...