Markus Maier

Markus Maier
Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich | LMU · Department of Psychology

Dr. phil.

About

58
Publications
56,412
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Introduction
Markus A. Maier is a professor of psychology at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU) and is head of the research unit Emotion and Motivation. His research contributes to a better understanding of unconscious emotional and motivational processes and their impact on behavior planning and decision making. He is currently working on quantum-based models of consciousness and the relationship between mind, time, and matter. His research is mainly based on laboratory experiments.

Publications

Publications (58)
Article
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Objective . In the research presented here, quantum measurement is conceptualized as pragmatic information transfer when an intentional observer perceives motive-relevant quantum-based outcomes. Owing to the nature of pragmatic information as described in Lucadou’s Model of Pragmatic Information, this information transfer causes an observer-depende...
Article
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Quantum mechanics (QM) proposes that a quantum system measurement does not register a pre-existing reality but rather establishes reality from the super-position of potential states. Measurement reduces the quantum state according to a probability function, the Born rule, realizing one of the potential states. Consequently, a classical reality is o...
Article
Quantum-based psychophysical correlation models offer an attractive framework for predicting mind-matter interactions. We report a test of such interactions in the form of observer effects on quantum-based random number generator (QRNG) outcomes. Specifically, we tested the influence of certain motive states on related stimulus presentations chosen b...
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Forty percent of all general-practitioner appointments are related to mental illness, although less than 35% of individuals have access to therapy and psychological care, indicating a pressing need for accessible and affordable therapy tools. The ubiquity of smartphones offers a delivery platform for such tools. Previous research suggests that gami...
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The term “retroactive avoidance” refers to a special class of effects of future stimulus presentations on past behavioral responses. Specifically, it refers to the anticipatory avoidance of aversive stimuli that were unpredictable through random selection after the response. This phenomenon is supposed to challenge the common view of the arrow of t...
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According to standard quantum theory, the occurrence of a specifi c outcome during a quantum measurement is completely random (see Bell 1964). However, some authors refer to revised versions of quantum mechanics (e.g., Walker 2000, Penrose & Hameroff 2011, Mensky 2013, Stapp 2017), and propose that the human mind can actually infl uence the probabi...
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Research on forgiveness suggests that forgiveness is an emotion-focused coping process important for clinical settings as it can promote both physical and mental health (Worthington et al., 2005; Witvliet and McCullough, 2007). Investigating antecedents of forgiveness, empirical studies and theoretical models propose that attributions influence for...
Preprint
Read here: https://psyarxiv.com/bwsj5 According to standard quantum theory, the occurrence of a specific outcome during a quantum measurement is completely random (see Bell 1964). However, some authors refer to revised versions of quantum mechanics (e.g., Penrose & Hameroff 2011, Mensky 2013, Stapp 2017), and propose that the human mind can actual...
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This research examined an important applied question: whether viewing ambient green (relative to red) on the wall of a workspace would facilitate creativity. A methodologically sound experiment revealed no influence of green on creativity. Care must be taken when interpreting a null result, but these data do not provide support for the presence of...
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A vivid discussion revolves around the role of the human mind in the quantum measurement process. While some authors argue that conscious observation is a necessary element to achieve the transition from quantum to classical states during measurement (Wigner 1963), some go even further and propose a more active influence of the human mind on the pr...
Preprint
Full-text available
A vivid discussion revolves around the role of the human mind in the quantum measurement process. While some authors argue that conscious observation is a necessary element to achieve the transition from quantum to classical states during measurement (Wigner, 1963), some go even further and propose a more active influence of the human mind on the p...
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Intentional effects of human observation on the output of quantum-based random number generators (tRNG) have been studied for decades now. This research has been known as micro-psychokinesis (micro-PK) and many studies in the field reported evidence for mentally induced non-random deviations from chance. A most recent meta-analysis from Bösch et al...
Article
Recent large-scale replication projects suggest an amount of nonreplicable results in the scientific literature, in psychology but also in other sciences, which is concerning from our point of view. We analyze some causes for this situation, and argue that the change toward more research transparency ("open science") must be one consequence that sh...
Preprint
Full-text available
A vivid discussion revolves around the role of the human mind in the quantum measurement process. While some authors argue that conscious observation is a necessary element to achieve the transition from quantum to classical states during measurement (Wigner, 1963), some go even further and propose a more active influence of the human mind on the p...
Article
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The arousal theory of color proposes that red is associated with arousal. Research on the color-in-context theory, in turn, states that the context in which red is perceived influences its valence-related meaning and behavioral responses to it. This study faces and integrates these theories by examining the influence of red on both arousal and vale...
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Background: The desire for hastened death or wish to hasten death (WTHD) that is experienced by some patients with advanced illness is a complex phenomenon for which no widely accepted definition exists. This lack of a common conceptualization hinders understanding and cooperation between clinicians and researchers. The aim of this study was to de...
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Some theories in physics and beyond argue that the emergence of an arrow of time is strongly related to conscious experience. Few approaches—known under the term quantum models of the mind- even claim that consciousness creates time. In the following we will provide theoretical arguments and empirical evidence showing that the arrow of time disappe...
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In this paper we applied for the first time the no-signaling in time (NSIT) formalism discussed by Kofler and Brukner (2013) to investigate temporal entanglement between binary human behavioral unconscious choices at t1 with binary random outcomes at t2. NSIT consists of a set of inequalities and represents mathematical conditions for macro-realism...
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To forgive and forget is a well-known idiom, which has rarely been looked at empirically. In the current experiment, we investigated differences between emotional and decisional forgiveness on forgetting. The present study provides the first empirical support that emotional forgiveness has a strong influence on subsequent incidental forgetting. Spe...
Article
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In this paper we applied the no-signaling in time (NSIT) formalism discussed by Kofler and Brukner to investigate temporal entanglement between binary human behavioral unconscious choices at t1 with binary random outcomes at t2. NSIT consists of a set of inequalities and represents mathematical conditions for macro-realism which require only two me...
Article
Background Qualitative research suggests that the wish to hasten death (WTHD) in the advanced stages of disease is mainly related to overall suffering. This quantitative study explores the relationship between the WTHD and psychological and physical factors, including survival, in patients with advanced cancer.Methods Cross-sectional study of 101 a...
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Color research has shown that red is associated with avoidance of threat (e.g., failure) or approach of reward (e.g., mating) depending on the context in which it is perceived. In the present study we explored one central cognitive process that might be involved in the context dependency of red associations. According to our theory, red is supposed...
Article
During the past decades, several theories have been proposed that relate quantum mechanics to information processing in the human mind. These theories predict that the arrow of time has no direction during unconscious processing states. Across 7 experiments, we tested whether masked negative stimuli presented in the future lead to an unconscious av...
Article
This research examined the joint influence of emotion expression (pride vs. shame) and color (red vs. blue) on female and male perceptions of the attractiveness and social position of a male target. In female perceivers, we observed an Emotion Expression x Color interaction: for women viewing a man displaying pride, the color red increased their pe...
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Contrary to predictions from Expected Utility Theory and Game Theory, when making economic decisions in interpersonal situations, people take the interest of others into account and express various forms of solidarity, even in one-shot interactions with anonymous strangers. Research in other-regarding behavior is dominated by behavioral economical...
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Research has shown that social support and materialism can both serve as coping mechanisms, reducing individuals’ experiences of physical and social pain (Zhou and Gao in Psychol Inq 19(3–4):127–144, 2008). We extend this paradigm by testing the buffering effects of secure attachment and material reward on a specific form of social psychological pa...
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Color is a ubiquitous perceptual stimulus that is often considered in terms of aesthetics. Here we review theoretical and empirical work that looks beyond color aesthetics to the link between color and psychological functioning in humans. We begin by setting a historical context for research in this area, particularly highlighting methodological is...
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Francis (2013) tested for and found evidence of publication bias in 1 of the 3 focal relations examined in Elliot et al. (2010), that between red and attractiveness. He then called into question the research as a whole and the field of experimental psychology more generally. Our reply has 3 foci. First, we attend to the bottom line regarding the re...
Chapter
Color is a ubiquitous perceptual stimulus, yet relatively little empirical and even less theoretical work exists on color and psychological functioning. The research that has been conducted has tended to lack the scientific precision and rigor evident in other areas of inquiry in psychology. In response, we have set out to develop a general model o...
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Recent research has shown that the color red can influence psychological functioning. In the present research we tested the hypothesis that red influences impression formation related to another person’s abilities. We conducted three experiments examining the influence of red on the evaluation of male target persons. In Experiment 1, participants v...
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A basic premise of the recently proffered color-in-context model is that the influence of color on psychological functioning varies as a function of the psychological context in which color is perceived. Some research has examined the appetitive and aversive implications of viewing the color red in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts, respec...
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The present research sought to extend the nascent literature on color and psychological functioning by examining whether perception of the color green facilitates creativity. In four experiments, we demonstrated that a brief glimpse of green prior to a creativity task enhances creative performance. This green effect was observed using both achromat...
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Numerous studies indicate that observing or knowing about another's action automatically activates the same motor representations that are active when we perform the other's action by ourselves. We investigated how affect influences this mirror mechanism. Based upon findings that positive affect encourages and negative affect impairs spreading acti...
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In many nonhuman species of vertebrates, females are attracted to red on male conspecifics. Red is also a signal of male status in many nonhuman vertebrate species, and females show a mating preference for high-status males. These red-attraction and red-status links have been found even when red is displayed on males artificially. In the present re...
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Color may not only be pleasing to the eye, but may also carry important associations relevant for psychological functioning. Two experiments were conducted to test for basic hue-meaning associations, controlling for lightness and chroma. Specifically, we used a reaction time paradigm to test for links between red and green, and words that varied in...
Article
Recent research has shown that a two second glimpse of color can have an important influence on affect, cognition, and behavior. The present research examined whether perceiving color is necessary to produce an effect on psychological functioning or whether the mere act of processing a color word might be sufficient. Specifically, four experiments...
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Three experiments were conducted on color preference using a spontaneous selection paradigm with infant participants. Experiment 1 demonstrated that participants prefer red over green in a friendly laboratory environment. Experiment 2 demonstrated that participants' preference for red varies with the context in which the color is presented: Red is...
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When a visual stimulus is quickly followed in time by a second visual stimulus, we are normally unable to perceive it consciously. This study examined how affective states influence this temporal limit of conscious perception. Using a masked visual perception task, we found that the temporal threshold for access to consciousness is decreased in neg...
Article
This research tests whether the perception of red in an achievement context evokes avoidance behavior without conscious awareness and also examines the context specificity of the hypothesized red effect. In Experiment 1, participants were briefly shown red or green on the cover of an analogies test that they would ostensibly take (an achievement co...
Article
The authors propose a theoretical model linking achievement goals and achievement emotions to academic performance. This model was tested in a prospective study with undergraduates (N = 213), using exam-specific assessments of both goals and emotions as predictors of exam performance in an introductory-level psychology course. The findings were con...
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This research examines the hypothesis that an attentional process grounded in avoidance motivation-local relative to global processing-mediates the negative effect of red on intellectual performance. This hypothesis was tested in a series of experiments using two approaches to documenting mediation. Experiment 1 established that the perception of r...
Article
Color is a ubiquitous perceptual experience, yet little scientific information about the influence of color on affect, cognition, and behavior is available. Accordingly, we have developed a general model of color and psychological functioning, which we present in this article. We also describe a hypothesis derived from this model regarding the infl...
Article
Recent studies on affective priming with the naming task have revealed an influence of trait anxiety on the direction of affective priming effects (e.g., Berner & Maier, 20045. Berner , M. P. and Maier , M. A. 2004 . The direction of affective priming as a function of trait anxiety when naming target words with regular and irregular pronunciation ....
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This research focuses on the relation between color and psychological functioning, specifically, that between red and performance attainment. Red is hypothesized to impair performance on achievement tasks, because red is associated with the danger of failure in achievement contexts and evokes avoidance motivation. Four experiments demonstrate that...
Article
A theoretical model linking achievement goals to discrete achievement emotions is proposed. The model posits relations between the goals of the trichotomous achievement goal framework and 8 commonly experienced achievement emotions organized in a 2 (activity/outcome focus) × 2 (positive/negative valence) taxonomy. Two prospective studies tested the...
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The neural basis of human attachment security remains unexamined. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and simultaneous recordings of skin conductance levels, we measured neural and autonomic responses in healthy adult individuals during a semantic conceptual priming task measuring human attachment security "by proxy". P...
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This research examines the effect of achievement goals on performance attainment and the moderating role of performance contingencies. Results from 3 experiments strongly support the authors' hypotheses. Performance-avoidance goals undermined performance relative to performance-approach and mastery goals, regardless of contingency condition. Perfor...
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This study aimed to investigate the relationship between attachment state of mind and perceptual processing of social and non-social, affective, and neutral material. A total of 57 young adults completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) plus an experimental task in which their perceptual thresholds to different types of pictures were assessed....
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Internal working models of attachment (IWMs) are presumed to be largely unconscious representations of childhood attachment experiences. Several instruments have been developed to assess IWMs; some of them are based on self-report and others on narrative interview techniques. This study investigated the capacity of a self-report measure, the Invent...
Article
Results from an affective priming experiment confirm the previously reported influence of trait anxiety on the direction of affective priming in the naming task (Maier, Berner, & Pekrun, 2003): On trials in which extremely valenced primes appeared, positive affective priming reversed into negative affective priming with increasing levels of trait a...
Article
Among the most influential models of automatic affective processing is the spreading activation account (Fazio, Sanbonmatsu, Powell, & Kardes, 1986). However, investigations of this model by different research groups using the pronunciation task in an affective priming paradigm yielded contradictory results. Whereas one research group reported cong...
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This study looks at adolescents’ emotion regulation patterns during a joint problem-solving situation with a friend, based on data from a longitudinal study. Specifically concurrent attachment representation, as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview and earlier infant-father and infant-mother attachment patterns, as assessed by the strange sit...

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