Markus König

Markus König
Ruhr-Universität Bochum | RUB

Professor

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252
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (252)
Conference Paper
BIM-based construction scheduling is becoming increasingly important in research and practice due to the availability of the appropriate tools. However, it is characterized by a low level of detail and a lack of semantics, which is why the contained knowledge is hardly used for further analyses. Linked Building Data (LBD) is an intensively studied...
Article
The construction industry is one of the sectors with the highest accident rates. To prevent accidents, construction workers receive occupational safety training and safety instructions. However, experience-based learning of dangerous situations is hardly possible or justifiable in reality. Virtual reality (VR) simulations can be a potential solutio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The majority of innovative approaches in the realm of the retrospective generation of building information models for existing structures deal with geometry extraction from point clouds or engineering drawings. However, many building-specific or object-specific attributes for the enrichment of building models cannot be inferred from these geometric...
Conference Paper
The lifecycle of a building is characterized by precise compliance with regulatory specifications for both traditional planning as well as digital planning methods such as Building Information Modeling (BIM). Currently, this regulatory information is mostly available in the unstructured and non-machine-readable form of guidelines, regulations, and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Building Information Modeling (BIM) provides an excellent opportunity to digitally document and visually display construction projects' information throughout their whole lifecycle. Another recent technology that is fostering the digital transformation of the construction sector is blockchain-based smart contracts. In combination with BIM models, s...
Article
Full-text available
The construction industry is characterized by the diversity of its processes, whereby persons involved in changing project communities are confronted with a changing interplay of software applications. Therefore, planning workflows, and especially the exchange of information between stakeholders, need to be formalized. The automation and execution...
Conference Paper
Digital methods such as Building Information Modeling (BIM) offer significant potential in the operation phase of a building but, therefore, require digital as-built models of the existing structures as a prerequisite. The existing building records have to be transferred into a digital model. For this retro-digitization purpose, Computer Vision (CV...
Article
Digital twin for the automated production of precast concrete elements. Using precast concrete elements in construction has many advantages, such as cost and planning reliability, precision, and efficiency. In most cases, the production of precast concrete elements is not fully automated. There are many manual work steps that prevent a further incr...
Article
Full-text available
The development of digital transformation in the construction industry has led to the increasing adoption of smart contracts. As programmable applications to automatically write, verify, and enforce transaction conditions, smart contracts can be used in different areas mainly to improve automation level, information security, and built digital envi...
Article
The application of effective exploration techniques in mechanized tunneling is crucial in order to obtain a knowledge of the subsoil prior to drilling. We present a three-staged method, which seeks to image the excavation environment in detail, also reducing the computational demand of common exploration techniques. The algorithm combines two appro...
Article
The automatic recognition of cracks is an essential requirement for the cost‐efficient maintenance of concrete structures, such as bridges, buildings, and roads. It should allow the localization and the determination of the crack type and the evaluation of the crack severity by providing information on the shape, orientation, and crack area and wid...
Article
In the operating phase of a road tunnel, not only maintaining or increasing the availability in the network but the economic optimization regarding the life cycle costs of the structure are also important priorities. A consistent application of the Building Information Modelling (BIM) methodology can theoretically make a useful and targeted contrib...
Article
Full-text available
Modularized construction with precast concrete elements has many advantages, such as shorter construction times, higher quality, flexibility, and lower costs. These advantages are mainly due to its potential for prefabrication and series production. However, the production processes are still craftsmanship, and automation rarely occurs. Fundamental...
Article
In a series of short articles, we presented selected research results of the Collaborative Research Centre "Interaction Modeling in Mechanized Tunnelling" at the Ruhr-Universität Bochum in the journal Tunnel in 2021. In this concluding part, the authors summarise their work, focusing on the transfer potential for a practical application in tunnelli...
Conference Paper
The use of Building Information Modeling (BIM) for the planning and construction of infrastructures has increased significantly in recent years. However, there is currently a lack of flexible concepts for the management and use of BIM models for asset management, considering existing systems and processes. A major challenge is how the BIM models ca...
Chapter
Ein wichtiger Bestandteil der BIM-Methodik ist die Betrachtung der Prozesse, bei denen digitale Bauwerksinformationen erstellt, verändert, verwendet und weitergeben werden. Die Planung und Koordination dieser BIM-Prozesse ist unter anderem eine Aufgabe des Gesamtkoordinators. Es muss festgelegt werden, welche Aufgaben von welchen Personen in welche...
Chapter
Building Information Modeling ist inhärent verknüpft mit grundlegenden Fragen des Informations- und Datenmanagements in Bauprojekten. Insbesondere die modellgestützte Kollaboration bei der Planung und Ausführung von BIM-basierten Projekten stellt hohe Anforderungen an das Datenmanagement, da die beteiligten Akteure entsprechend ihrer individuellen...
Chapter
Die Planung, Erstellung und auch der Betrieb von Bauwerken erfordern die Zusammenarbeit einer Vielzahl von Beteiligten, die untereinander im ständigen Informationsaustausch stehen. Viele ihrer Arbeits- und Kommunikationsprozesse können durch die einheitlich strukturierten Bauwerksmodelle unmittelbar verbessert werden. Zur Unterstützung der Zusammen...
Chapter
Das Kapitel fasst den aktuellen Stand der Umsetzung von Building Information Modeling zusammen und geht auf noch zu lösende Fragestellungen ein. Zudem gibt es einen Ausblick auf die zu erwartenden Entwicklungen in der nahen und fernen Zukunft. Dabei werden Konzepte wie Digitale Zwillinge, Künstliche Intelligenz und Robotergestütztes Bauen beleuchte...
Chapter
Mengen spielen bei der Planung und Ausführung eines Bauprojekts eine zentrale Rolle und müssen effizient, sicher und nachvollziehbar berechnet sowie ausgewertet werden können. Die Mengenermittlungen werden in der Regel in verschiedenen Phasen des Projekts und zu unterschiedlichen Zwecken durchgeführt. Der konventionelle Ansatz zur Durchführung eine...
Chapter
Der Entwurf und die Planung von Bauwerken ist ein fortschreitender Prozess, bei dem zunächst vage und grobe Informationen sukzessive weiter ausgearbeitet werden und an Bestimmtheit, Genauigkeit, Detailliertheit und Zuverlässigkeit gewinnen. In der konventionellen Planung, bei der technische Zeichnungen das wesentliche Mittel der Informationsweiterg...
Chapter
Building Information Modeling (BIM) basiert auf der durchgängigen Nutzung eines digitalen Bauwerksmodells über den gesamten Lebenszyklus eines Bauwerks – vom Entwurf, über die Planung und Ausführung bis zum Betrieb. Das Verfahren geht einher mit dem Ziel eines deutlich verbesserten Datenaustauschs und der dadurch erzielbaren Steigerung der Planungs...
Chapter
Anhand der international gültigen Normenreihe DIN EN ISO 19650 sowie der VDI-Richtlinienreihe 2552 werden Konzepte zur Organisation des Informationsmanagements mit BIM im Bauwesen beschrieben. Ein besonderer Fokus wird dabei auf die Auftraggeber-Informationsanforderungen (AIA) sowie den BIM-Abwicklungsplan (BAP) gelegt. Die in den AIA seitens der a...
Chapter
Zur umfassenden digitalen Modellierung eines Bauwerks sind neben geometrischen Eigenschaften auch semantische Informationen erforderlich. Hierzu zählen beispielsweise Angaben zum Herstellungsverfahren, zu Baustoffen und Materialen, sowie zu Nutzungseigenschaften von Räumen. Zur Beschreibung und Strukturierung dieser Informationen werden verschieden...
Chapter
Die Digitalisierung und somit auch Building Information Modeling gewinnt im Tunnelbau zunehmend an Bedeutung. Diverse nationale als auch internationale Arbeitsgruppen und Forschungsvorhaben setzten sich mit dem Thema auseinander und entwickeln Lösungsansätze sowie Richtlinien. Auftraggeber haben diverse BIM-Strategien und Roadmaps veröffentlicht, d...
Article
Construction accounts for up to 25% of all occupational fatalities. About half are being struck by and caught-in/between objects or vehicles, resulting from insufficient or delayed detection of pedestrian workers. Research has proposed detecting visibility-related close calls in order to alarm the involved personnel and prevent negative consequence...
Chapter
Full-text available
Building Information Modeling (BIM) beruht auf dem Konzept der durchgängigen Nutzung eines digitalen Bauwerksmodells über den gesamten Lebenszyklus eines Bauwerks – vom Entwurf, über die Planung und Ausführung bis zum Betrieb. Es geht einher mit dem Ziel eines deutlich verbesserten Datenaustauschs und der dadurch erzielbaren Steigerung der Planungs...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the growing popularity of blockchain technology in the construction industry, smart contracts are becoming increasingly common. A smart contract is a self-executing contract, which contains if-then rules that automatically execute certain processes when certain conditions are met. Such smart contracts serve as programmable blockchain applicati...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the construction industry, contractors require precise knowledge of design restrictions originating from regulatory documents and contract specifications. For the automatic compliance checking of the building design regarding these rules, they have to be converted from the representation in natural language to a machine-readable format. This tas...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents two frameworks for the application of blockchain technology with Building Information Modeling in the design and construction phase, and further explores their coupling for the management of digital assets with a use case demonstration. The research shows that the implementation of blockchain and smart contracts is context depen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The information delivery in BIM-based construction projects regarding predefined exchange requirements is crucial for the quality of information. Information modeling using Linked Building Data receives increasing attention as it may overcome current interoperability issues. Hence, this information needs to satisfy requirements defined in business...
Conference Paper
Building Information Modeling (BIM) is increasingly used throughout the construction industry as a crucial tool for project management. In order to use BIM throughout the entire life cycle of a building, aspects of production, maintenance and renovation of the structure must not be neglected, especially if the share of industrial prefabrication wit...
Article
Full-text available
Construction projects usually involve signing various contracts with specific billing procedures. In practice, dealing with complex contract structures causes significant problems, especially with regard to timely payment and guaranteed cash flow. Furthermore, a lack of transparency leads to a loss of trust. As a result, late or non-payment is a co...
Article
Purpose A principle prerequisite for designing and constructing an underground structure is to estimate the subsurface's properties and obtain a realistic picture of stratigraphy. Obtaining direct measure of these values in any location of the built environment is not affordable. Therefore, any evaluation is afflicted with uncertainty, and we need...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The as-built information is rarely stored in a structured, machine-readable, and model-based way. Semantically enriched IFC models can help to achieve vendor-neutral storage and processing of information from the construction phase. This paper analyses exemplarily the documentation of concreting during construction and specifies the Building Concre...
Article
Full-text available
Building in heavy rain is seldom beneficial, but common practice on site. It promotes inaccuracies and impairs the use of modern but sensible high-performance materials and costs time, since disruption in construction frequently causes complicated returns to the planning process. Nevertheless, a handcrafted production process is still considered th...
Article
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Partial least squares structural equation model-ing (PLS-SEM) is a modern multivariate analysis technique with a demonstrated ability to estimate theoretically established cause-effect relationship models. This technique has been increasingly adopted in construction management research over the last two decades. Accordingly, a critical review of st...
Chapter
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Zusammefassung Die digitale Transformation der Bauindustrie ist bereits in vollem Gang. Für die Planung und Umsetzung des Arbeitsschutzes in Bauprojekten werden die digitalen Möglichkeiten aktuell noch nicht konsequent genutzt. DigiRAB entwickelt smarte Prozesse und Technologien für das sichere Arbeiten auf Baustellen. Hierzu gehören (1) digitales...
Article
Bauen im Regen, eine katastrophale Vorstellung, doch Praxis auf Baustellen. Es bringt Ungenauigkeit, behindert den Einsatz moderner Hochleistungswerkstoffe und kostet Zeit, da Störungen im Bauprozess oft umständliche Rückläufe in den Planungsprozess bedeuten. Dennoch gilt der handwerklich geprägte Bauprozess als unvermeidlich, da jedes Bauwerk indi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Building Information Modeling (BIM) represents the application of digital building models to improve project-wide collaboration. With the help of building information models, elements with tendering information, construction work to be carried out, quantities to be processed, planned times and subcontractors commissioned can be described in an inte...
Chapter
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The technology of Building Information Modeling (BIM) promises a significant increase in productivity in the design, construction and operation of buildings and infrastructure facilities. In the entire world, the AEC industry is starting to transform itself by moving from 2D drawings to digital building models that do not only represent 3D geometry...
Chapter
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Planning data of construction projects consist of distributed data in the manner of building models and accompanying heterogeneous information models. For data drops, these models can be stored and linked within an information container using link sets. When using open standards and file formats, link sets are often created and maintained manually,...
Article
Full-text available
Large infrastructure projects involving the construction of tunnels in urban areas constitute complex, integrated and multi-disciplinary systems, which require building and construction information modelling as well as computational design assessment tools for decision making during all project phases and during their complete life cycle. Even if t...
Book
Building Information Modeling (BIM) ist eine innovative Technologie, die auf der durchgängigen Verwendung digitaler Bauwerksmodelle für alle Planungs-, Ausführungs- und Betriebsprozesse beruht. Das Buch erläutert ausführlich die informationstechnischen Grundlagen der BIM-Methode und vermittelt dem Leser fundiertes Wissen zu allen wesentlichen Aspek...
Article
Full-text available
Keeping an overview of all ongoing processes on construction sites is almost unfeasible, especially for the construction workers executing their tasks. It is difficult for workers to concentrate on their work while paying attention to other processes. If their workflows in hazardous areas do not run properly, this can lead to dangerous accidents. T...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Payment issues are necessary in the construction industry, often manifested by high levels of arrears and long-term payment delays. An automated payment could be a solution to speed-up the payment process after successful completions. In this paper, a framework is proposed for the automated payment via Building Information Modeling (BIM), Linked Da...
Conference Paper
In infrastructure projects like tunnel construction, an accurate determination of the surrounding geomaterials has considerable influence. In this regard, digital soil models are created based on the existing geological exploration data and the entire formation of the surrounding environment is interpolated. However, the limited number of investiga...
Article
In recent years, stochastic simulation has obtained increasing attention in geomechanics as it allows to consider uncertainties in geomaterials’ properties. Spatial uncertainties may influence simulation results and lead to either unsafe or uneconomic designs. By implementing stochastic random field algorithms in Finite-Element simulations, the imp...
Article
Construction resource tracking and monitoring is among the top priorities in an industry that is in continuous pursuit of reducing waste. The concept of applying real-time location sensing (RTLS) technology has already been introduced in commercial construction applications. These report in a business process the position of valuable construction r...
Article
Full-text available
Vision-based tracking systems enable the optimization of the productivity and safety management on construction sites by monitoring the workers' movements. However, training and evaluation of such a system requires a vast amount of data. Sufficient datasets rarely exist for this purpose. We investigate the use of synthetic data to overcome this iss...
Chapter
The planning of alignments in tunneling projects is a very complex and crucial process. It involves the consideration of numerous conditions and studies of different variants. Essential information depends upon the existing environment, i.e. on existing building structures and ground conditions. The collected information and results quantify metric...
Article
In current tunnelling practice, Finite Element (FE) simulations form an integral element in the planning and the design phase of mechanised tunnelling projects. The generation of adequate computational models is often time consuming and requires data from many different sources, in particular, when manually generated using 2D‐CAD drawings. Incorpor...
Article
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The early stages of building design involve the consideration of different design variants and their assessment regarding various performance criteria including energy consumption and costs. During the design process, the involved experts from different disciplines frequently exchange building information to develop a design that satisfies the proj...
Conference Paper
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Construction sites are hazardous environments due to the sites' complex and dynamic nature. Hazardous situations especially arise when construction workers collaborate with heavy machinery in the same working space. Pedestrian workers may be missed by the machine operators or get into blind spots. Such hazardous situations can lead to serious incid...
Article
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This paper presents a concept for parametric modelling of mechanized tunnelling within a state of the art design environment, as the basis for design assessments for different levels of details (LoDs). To this end, a parametric representation of each system component (soil with excavation, tunnel lining with grouting, Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) an...
Book
Die Bereitstellung digitaler Logistikmodelle zur Planung und Steuerung der Baustellenlogistik für die Vor-Ort-Montage von Großanlagen durch kleine und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) ist für eine effiziente Projektdurchführung zwingend erforderlich, findet aber bisher nur bedingt statt. Gründe sind fehlende informationstechnische Unterstützung u...
Article
Zusammenfassung Viele Tunnelbaustellen leiden unter logistikbedingten Verzögerungen. In vielen Fällen, in denen die tatsächlich erzielten Tagesleistungen sogar deutlich unter den geplanten Werten liegen, lassen sich die Ursachen in der zugrundeliegenden Planung der logistischen Systeme verorten. In diesen Fällen ist es für die Verantwortlichen notw...
Article
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Planning and scheduling in construction heavily depend on current information about the state of construction processes. However, the acquisition process for visual data requires human personnel to take photographs of construction objects. We propose using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAVs) for automated creation of images and point cloud data of parti...
Article
Full-text available
Mobile devices are a common target for augmented reality applications, especially for showing contextual information in buildings or construction sites. A prerequisite of contextual information display is the localization of objects and the device in the real world. In this paper, we present our approach to the problem of mobile indoor localization...
Article
Full-text available
The condition of municipal roads has deteriorated considerably in recent years, leading to large scale pavement distress such as cracks or potholes. In order to enable road maintenance, pavement distress should be timely detected. However, manual investigation, which is still the most widely applied approach towards pavement assessment, puts mainte...
Conference Paper
This paper presents an approach to optimize the reliability-based optimization design of a rock salt cavity. Liquid or gaseous energy resources can be stored in rock salt caverns which they are basically planned to peak shaving the strong fluctuation in the seasonal demands. The validation of their integrity and stability is a prerequisite in the g...