Markus Kemmelmeier

Markus Kemmelmeier
University of Nevada, Reno | UNR · Interdisciplinary Social Psychology Ph.D. Program & Department of Sociology

Ph.D.

About

128
Publications
96,314
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9,193
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Introduction
Markus Kemmelmeier is currently the Director of the Interdisciplinary Social Psychology Ph.D. Program . Markus does research in Social Psychology, Cultural Psychology, Political Psychology and Quantitative Social Research Methods.
Additional affiliations
July 2014 - present
University of Nevada, Reno
Position
  • Professor of Sociology and Social Psychology
July 2014 - June 2017
University of Nevada, Reno
Position
  • Professor
July 2007 - present
University of Nevada, Reno
Position
  • Associate Professor of Sociology and Social Psychology

Publications

Publications (128)
Article
Objective: We hypothesized (1) perceived harm beliefs and intention to use e-cigarette attitudes will become more negative post-exposure to the intervention (2) this change will generalize to more negative beliefs and intention toward regular cigarettes and marijuana. Methods: MANOVAs of students' perceptions of harm beliefs and intention toward...
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The feasibility of implicitly assessing medical student burnout was explored, using the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), to measure longitudinal student burnout over the first two years of medical school and directly comparing it with an existing explicit measure of burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory; MBI). Three successive cohorts...
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The current cross-cultural study examined the construct of workaholism across European and Asian cultures during the pandemic caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A total of 2,617 recipients, aged 18–80 years from three Asian countries (China, India, and Indonesia) with higher levels of collectivistic values, and three European countries...
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Rape arrests are higher in US states wherein residents more typically endorse honor values. Because honor values reflect an association between reputation and self-worth, which is based on one's ability to uphold traditional gender norms, one should expect that women who endorse honor values are motivated to conceal a sexual assault. However, honor...
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Populism is on the rise with various movements having electoral breakthroughs. Most social-science research on populism has focused primarily on party tactics and rhetoric, and a definition for the term itself; only recently has populism emerged as a psychological construct. We contribute to this growing literature with two studies (n = 456 and n =...
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Researchers theorize cultural change as societal adaptation to the environment. But where does the environment come from? Here we advance conceptual and analytical tools for a more dynamic framework of cultural change and emphasize that people create their own environment, to which they adapt through cultural change. First, we draw on the theory of...
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Our study draws from research on person-environment fit to investigate how conservative and liberal students sort themselves into different academic environments, and to what extent they succeed in them. We hypothesize that the apparent influence of students’ conservatism on course choice and GPA is mediated by the nature of their ambition. Our dat...
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Although masks (face coverings) are a prime tool in fighting airborne pathogens, during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States the use of masks encountered resistance based on existing patterns of cultural division. We argue that mask wearing must be understood basis on existing cultural frames assessed at both the individual level and the stat...
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Autonomous vehicles (AV) promise a reduction in the number of deadly traffic accidents. However, should accidents occur, attributions of responsibility are complicated by the fact that there is a human agent (driver) and a non-human agent (AV), and thus responsibility is likely shared between parties. In two studies, participants (n = 310 and n = 2...
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Across cultures, darker skin tone is associated with lower social status. We propose that Black politicians are subject to skin tone biases in US newspapers, with hostile biases resulting in them being portrayed as more dark‐skinned. We hypothesized that such biases occur as a function of negative racial attitudes. We contrast this with an ingroup...
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Although masks (face coverings) are a prime tool in fighting airborne pathogens, during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States the use of masks encountered resistance based on existing patterns of cultural division. We argue that mask wearing must be understood basis on existing cultural frames assessed at both the individual level and the stat...
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Subjective well-being is a universal and vital element of human flourishing. The WHO-5 is one of the most widely used scales for assessing general well-being and depression. Despite translations in over 30 languages, no comprehensive study has thus far examined the measurement equivalence of the WHO-5 across countries and time. Lack of measurement...
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Communism substantially shaped the values and beliefs of those who grew up under its regime. We argue that, after the Soviet Union’s collapse and the rapid transition to democracy and capitalism, many older people in post-communist countries continued to abide by an “ethos of equality” that was part of their socialization. These individuals continu...
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Youth in Catalonia are caught in the middle of a hotly contested political conflict over the region’s possible independence from Spain. Focusing on a large sample of secondary school students (n = 1550; 24.6% immigrants) from 30 schools, we use multilevel modelling to investigate identification with competing national identities and their implicati...
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What is the relationship between environment and democracy? The framework of cultural evolution suggests that societal development is an adaptation to ecological threats. Pertinent theories assume that democracy emerges as societies adapt to ecological factors such as higher economic wealth, lower pathogen threats, less demanding climates and fewer...
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The current study examined the relationship between juror cognitive processing (measured by need for cognition [NFC]), attorney credibility, evidence strength, and civil litigation verdicts (liability, likelihood of causation, and compensatory damages). Participants (N = 446) viewed a videotaped mock civil trial in which the credibility of the atto...
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Focusing on youth attitudes during a time of political upheaval in Catalonia, we study 1438 high school students, aged 15-16, nested within 30 high schools. Using multilevel analyses, we examine their perceptions of the importance of voting across different election types (independence referendum, local, subnational, national, supernational) and in...
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This research explores the social-cognitive factors which lead both women and men to pursue ventures consistent with their gendered social identity, therefore, reinforcing the gender gap in entrepreneurship. We measured the self-assessments of individuals presented with experimentally manipulated entrepreneurial opportunities that were either consi...
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Importance The I-PASS training bundle has been shown to improve communication errors during medical student and resident handoffs but has not been explored in the context of interprofessional care. Objective We examined the impact of an interprofessional I-PASS training on communication accuracy and completeness during the delivery of nurse-physic...
Chapter
This chapter examines the process and context of teaching intercultural competence and its potential benefits. Based on a pragmatic analysis of the culture concept, we conceptualize intercultural competence in keeping with contemporary theoretical proposals. An overview of current research demonstrates the utility of the concept, even if there are...
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Many countries around the world embrace freedom and democracy as part of their political culture. However, culture is at least in part a human response to the ecological challenges that a society faces; hence, it should not be surprising that the degree to which societies regulate the level of individual freedom is related to environmental circumst...
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The overwhelming majority of rapes goes unreported. To better understand the sociocultural mechanisms behind why underreporting may occur, three studies (total n = 1,481) examine how women's endorsement of honor values influence the perceptions of rape. Using vignettes that varied the closeness of the perpetrator of a sexual assault (i.e., stranger...
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Western educational systems are often insufficiently prepared for the ethnic, religious, and linguistic diversity resulting from immigration. In Catalonia, one of the wealthiest regions of Spain, a diverse, recent, and large-scale immigration coincides with a popular nationalist movement and increasingly salient national identifications. Focusing o...
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How humans view their local birds influences the habitat quality for the birds. Humans that enjoy birds will often consider them when altering landscapes or may enhance their own property to benefit the birds (e.g. maintaining birdfeeders, keeping cats indoors). Human perceptions of hawks are unique as hawks predatory and much larger than most othe...
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Political orientation influences support for free speech, with liberals often reporting greater support for free speech than conservatives. We hypothesized that this effect should be moderated by cultural context: individualist cultures value individual self-expression and self-determination, and collectivist cultures value group harmony and confor...
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According to the World Health Organization, a major barrier to suicide prevention work is the social stigma surrounding suicide. Since clinical research has long shown that shame and guilt are often involved in suicide and suicide ideation, the present two studies explore the extent to which individuals associate shame and guilt with suicide ideati...
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In light of recent challenges to the strength model of self-control, our study re-examines the effects of self-control training on established physical and self-report measures of self-control. We also examined whether beliefs about the malleability of self-control qualify any training effects. Participants in the training condition were assigned t...
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Cultural differences in suicide can be indicative of varying social pressures placed on individuals. High suicide rates in U.S. honor cultures have been proposed to reflect pressures associated with maintaining one’s reputation. We extend this argument by highlighting that honor concerns differentially impact individuals based on gender, ethnicity,...
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Critics of deception in research allege harm to society, the discipline of psychology, the researchers and participants. However, neither empirical findings nor a ‘reasonable-person’ test seem to support those allegations. By and large, researchers who use deception consider its costs and benefits, and the kind and degree of deceit that is typicall...
Data
This data is support of the manuscript "How reliable are the effects of self-control training?: A re-examination using self-report and physical measures"
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This paper introduces the special section “Cultural differences in questionnaire responding” and discusses central topics in the research on response biases in cross-cultural survey research. Based on current conceptions of acquiescent, extreme, and socially desirable responding, the author considers current data on the correlated nature of respons...
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Previous research into gender and creativity has provided little evidence for consistent differences between men and women in creative performance. This research revisits this topic by proposing a person × situation approach, arguing that gender differences in creative performance only occur in certain contexts, but not others. Based on the assumpt...
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Authoritarianism refers to a construct originally created to understand individual differences associated with intolerance, prejudice, and support of fascist ideology. Almost since its inception, the construct has been widely criticized, with shortcomings being identified in theory and measurement. A consensus, dominant in the literature of the las...
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Citation: Kemmelmeier M (2015) The closed-mindedness that wasn't: need for structure and expectancy-inconsistent information. Front. Psychol. 6:896. Social-cognitive researchers have typically assumed that individuals high in need for structure or need for closure tend to be closed-minded: they are motivated to resist or ignore information that is...
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Based on the cross-cultural research linking individualism-collectivism and self-enhancement, this research examines regional pattern of self-enhancement in Ukraine. Broadly speaking, the western part of Ukraine is mainly Ukrainian speaking and historically oriented towards Europe, whereas Eastern Ukraine is mainly Russian speaking and historically...
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We know that there are cross-cultural differences on psychological variables, such as individualism/collectivism. But it has not been clear which of these variables show relatively the greatest differences. The Survey of World Views project operated from the premise that such issues are best addressed in a diverse sampling of countries representing...
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We know that there are cross-cultural differences in psychological variables, such as individualism/ collectivism. But it has not been clear which of these variables show relatively the greatest differences. The Survey of World Views project operated from the premise that such issues are best addressed in a diverse sampling of countries representin...
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We explore different contexts and mechanisms that might promote or alleviate the gender effect in risk aversion. Our main result is that we do not find gender differences in risk aversion when the choice is framed as a willingness-to-accept (WTA) task. When the choice is framed as a willingness-to-pay (WTP) task, men are willing to pay more and thu...
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Terrorist attacks committed in 2003 by Turkish Islamist extremists threatened the social identity of Turkish Muslims by associating them with terrorism. Using a 2 × 3 experimental design, we categorized Turkish respondents and terrorists as members of a shared superordinate group (“Muslims”) or as members of separate subgroups. When sharing superor...
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Using two multilevel analyses of residents in 12 (1992 Eurobarometer; N = 3,902) and 22 (2006 European Social Survey, N = 38,867) European societies, respectively, we examined loneliness as a function of dominant cultural values. Levels of loneliness were higher in collectivistic compared with individualistic societies, but societies differed in te...
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Osterman and Brown (2011) demonstrated that U.S. honor states had higher rates of suicide than non-honor states and related this phenomenon to the higher incidence of depression and a reduced readiness to seek antidepressive treatment in honor states. The present study critiques their research and re-examines the origin of the association between h...
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According to a conversational approach, survey respondents provide answers they believe to be relevant to an interaction. Norenzayan and Schwarz (1999) demonstrated that participants provide dispositional accounts for an action to a personality researcher, but contextual accounts to a social scientist. Two studies sought to replicate this finding a...
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White Americans higher in prejudice were less likely to vote for Barack Obama than other Americans. Recent research also demonstrated that supporters and opponents of Mr. Obama engaged in skin tone biases, i.e. they perceive Mr. Obama’s skin tone as lighter or darker in line with more positive or negative views of him. Across two studies we hypothe...
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The construct of individualism–collectivism (IND-COL) has become the definitive standard in cross-cultural psychology, management, and related fields. It is also among the most controversial, in particular, with regard to the ambiguity of its dimensionality: Some view IND and COL as the opposites of a single continuum, whereas others argue that the...
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Objectives: This research examined worry in medical students at various stages of training with reference to worries related to academic and clinical training, finances and relationships with peers. The study focused on gender differences in worries, testing the notion that being married or being in a long-term or cohabitating relationship with a...
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The United States is one of the most culturally diverse societies. Research has documented numerous differences in cultural orientations across U.S. ethnic/racial groups. But with continual intergroup interactions and increasing influxes of non–European Americans, it remains unclear to what extent these cultural differences persist in the long term...
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Objective: Alexithymia is increasingly recognized in a number of psychiatric disorders, but a possible relationship between alexithymia and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been studied. It is not known if psychostimulants decrease symptoms of both ADHD and alexithymia. This relationship is examined in a small natural-i...
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The present research examines the implications of psychological essentialism for attitudes toward same-sex marriage (SSM), a hotly contested policy issue. Based on the literature on psychological essentialism, we tested the novel proposition that negative SSM attitudes are the result of essentialist thinking about the institution of marriage itself...
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Apologies are important in social interactions. Study 1 investigated participants' reactions after being insulted by a confederate and receiving no apology, a voluntary apology, a coerced apology with consequences (i.e., explicitly coerced apology), or a coerced apology without consequences (i.e., implicitly coerced apology). Receiving any apology...
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Past research has frequently made the assumptions that creativity is an individual, rather than social, behavior; that the factors shaping creative behavior influence everyone in the same way; and that these factors always have the same influence regardless of the situation. This research challenges all 3 of these assumptions. In an experiment, par...
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This special issue brings together contemporary research and theories that advance our understanding of culture as a process. The papers are loosely grouped by the types of cultural processes they address. Overall, the papers in this special issue offer a glimpse at state-of-the-art theory and research in cultural and cross-cultural psychology, whi...
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Weber’s Protestant Ethic hypothesis holds that elements of theology gave Protestants a cultural affinity with the economic demands of early market capitalism, particularly compared with their Catholic neighbors, which led to more rapid economic development in nations where Protestant culture was dominant. Previous research has found inconsistent su...
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Using Hallin's (1994) analysis of soundbites in network television news coverage as a model, we track the quoting practices of five American newspapers during the transition to modern news (1876-1916). We find that despite variation in the size, geographic location, and partisan orientation of these newspapers, trends in their quoting practices mov...
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Psychotherapists often experience stress while providing psychotherapy, in particular when working with difficult presentations such as suicidality. As part of a larger study on the treatment of recently suicidal college students with borderline traits, 6 therapists in training collected their own salivary samples for alpha-amylase (AA) and cortiso...
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The present research examines the interplay between individual differences in need for structure, social beliefs, and gender. It is well documented that need for structure, that is, a preference for structure and simplicity in one's thinking, predicts authoritarianism and ethnocentrism. Further, women tend to score lower in authoritarianism and eth...
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Two studies examined the relationship between authoritarianism, cognitive style and heuristic processing. Focusing on Epstein’s (2003) cognitive-experiential self-theory, Study 1 shows that authoritarianism is related to Epstein’s dimension of faith in intuition, but not need for cognition, even when controlling for individual differences in need f...
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Defendants often provide accounts that minimize their responsibility for the accused offense. Jurors attribute responsibility to defendants and decide legal outcomes based on the given account. The current research examined the effects of accounts (i.e., excuse, justification, denial, and no explanation) and the defendant's remorse display (i.e., r...
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This article examines the link between culture and divorce attitudes using country-level data of the International Social Survey Programme 1994. Outside of examining the favorability of attitudes, we distinguish different types of attitudes based on whether the consequences of marital dissolution on children were considered when evaluating the acce...
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Following the November 2003 attacks in Turkey by Turkish Islamist extremists, we designed an experiment to assess the religious identification of Turkish Muslim students using the inclusion/exclusion model of social judgment and social identity theory as general frameworks. Students (n = 193) were randomly assigned to experimental groups and then c...
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Carl Ward Backman, a long-time fellow of the American Psychological Association, died at his home in Reno, Nevada, on February 16, 2008. He was 84. After earning a doctorate in sociology, he joined the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) in 1955. There he remained until his death, serving as a professor, department chair, director of social psychology...
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The American flag is a frequently displayed national symbol in the United States. Given its high visibility and importance, the present research examines the consequences of exposure to the flag on Americans' sense of national attachment. We hypothesized that the flag would increase patriotism, defined as love and commitment to one's country, and n...
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In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the city of New Orleans witnessed an emerging conflict between the residents who survived the storm and the rescuers charged with assisting them. This particular type of inter-group conflict has not been documented before, as it uniquely entails survivors acting against their very self-interest, and rescuers s...
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Two studies tested one linear and two curvilinear hypotheses concerning the relationship between political conservatism-liberalism and cognitive ability. Study 1, focusing on students at a selective US university (n = 7279), found support for the idea that some dimensions of conservatism are linked to lower verbal ability, whereas other dimensions...
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Competition is a pervasive aspect of human life. Yet the values and attitudes that people have concerning competition vary widely, from the belief that it underpins the social order to the belief that it corrodes positive social ties. This research examines the structural and cultural roots of these attitudes across societies. Contrasting predictio...
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There is an ongoing discussion in the social sciences as to the implications of a culture of individualism. Whereas some say that individualism undermines prosocial motivation by sanctioning selfishness, others argue that individualist values highlight individual responsibility and community engagement. Focusing on cultural variations within the Un...
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Kemmelmeier (2007) challenges the notion of conversational basis of the dilution effect by providing a reanalysis of Igou and B