Markus Grabka

Markus Grabka
German Institute for Economic Research | DIW Berlin

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174
Publications
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3,113
Citations
Citations since 2017
30 Research Items
1501 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300
20172018201920202021202220230100200300
20172018201920202021202220230100200300

Publications

Publications (174)
Article
Full-text available
Pre-vaccine SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence data from Germany are scarce outside hotspots, and socioeconomic disparities remained largely unexplored. The nationwide representative RKI-SOEP study (15,122 participants, 18–99 years, 54% women) investigated seroprevalence and testing in a supplementary wave of the Socio-Economic-Panel conducted predominantly...
Article
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus, spread across Germany within just a short period of time. Seroepidemiological studies are able to estimate the proportion of the population with antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 infection (seroprevalence) as well as the level of undetected infections, which are not captured in official figures. In the seroepidemiological s...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the gender wealth gap with a focus on pension wealth and statutory pension rights. By taking into account employment characteristics of women and men, we are able to identify the extent to which the redistributive effect of pension rights reduces the gender wealth gap. The data for our analysis come from the German Socio-Economic Panel (...
Article
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Background: Evidence on the relationship between socioeconomic position (SEP) and infections with SARS-CoV-2 is still limited as most of the available studies are ecological in nature. This is the first German nationwide study to examine differences in the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections according to SEP at the individual level. Methods: The ‘CORONA...
Article
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Families’ economic wealth is a resource that can provide children with crucial advantages early in their lives. Prior research identified substantial variation of wealth levels between different family types with children from single-parent families being most disadvantaged. The causes of this disadvantage, how much the disadvantage varies between...
Preprint
Full-text available
Pre-vaccine SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence data from Germany are scarce outside hotspots, and socioeconomic disparities remained largely unexplored. The nationwide RKI-SOEP study with 15,122 adult participants investigated seroprevalence and testing in a supplementary wave of the Socio-Economic-Panel conducted predominantly in October-November 2020. Sel...
Article
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The aim of the project SOEP-RV is to link data from participants in the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) survey to their individual Deutsche Rentenversicherung (German Pension Insurance) records. For all SOEP respondents who give explicit consent to record linkage, SOEP-RV creates a linked dataset that combines the comprehensive multi-topic SOEP...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Evidence on the relationship between socioeconomic position (SEP) and infections with the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is still limited as most of the available studies are ecological in nature. This is the first German nationwide study to examine differences in the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections according to SEP at the individual level. Metho...
Article
Full-text available
The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has spread rapidly across Germany. Infections are likely to be under-recorded in the notification data from local health authorities on laboratory-confirmed cases since SARS-CoV-2 infections can proceed with few symptoms and then often remain undetected. Seroepidemiological studies allow the estimation of the proportion i...
Article
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Das Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 hat sich in kurzer Zeit bundesweit ausgebreitet. In den Meldedaten der Gesundheitsämter zu laborbestätigten Infektionsfällen ist von einer Untererfassung des Infektionsgeschehens auszugehen, da Infektionen häufig unentdeckt bleiben, zum Beispiel weil sie symptomarm verlaufen. In seroepidemiologischen Studien kann der Bevö...
Technical Report
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Die Corona-Krise verändert nahezu alle Aspekte des gesellschaftlichen Lebens in Deutschland und weltweit. Die mit der Eindämmung des Virus verbundenen Maßnahmen wie Kontaktbeschränkungen, „Social Distancing“ und die Schließung von Schulen, Geschäften, Restaurants und kulturellen Einrichtungen beeinflussen dabei insbesondere das soziale Miteinander...
Article
We provide a concise introduction to a household-panel data infrastructure that provides the international research community with longitudinal data of private households in Germany since 1984: the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). We demonstrate the comparative strength of the SOEP data in answering economically-relevant questions by highlightin...
Article
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High‐wealth individuals are typically underrepresented or completely missing in population surveys. The lack of comprehensive national registers on high‐wealth individuals in many countries challenged previous attempts to remedy this under‐representation. In a novel research design, we draw on public data on the shareholding structures of companies...
Article
The present paper analyzes how the statutory minimum wage introduced on January 1, 2015, has affected working hours in Germany up to 2016. The data used come from the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), which provides not only contractual working hours but also actual hours worked. Using a difference-in-differences estimation approach, we find a significa...
Article
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In diesem Wochenbericht wird die Entwicklung der Wohnkostenbelastung von Haushalten mit einer Referenzperson ab 65 Jahren in Deutschland seit 1996 untersucht. Vor allem Mieterhaushalte sind von der starken Zunahme dieser Kosten betroffen. Im Ergebnis hat sich in dieser Altersgruppe der Anteil der Mieterhaushalte, die eine Mietbelastungsquote (einsc...
Article
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This paper evaluates the short-run impact of the introduction of a statutory minimum wage in Germany on the hourly wages and monthly earnings of workers targeted by the reform. We first provide detailed descriptive evidence of changes to the wage structure in particular at the bottom of the distribution and distinguish between trends for regularly...
Article
We examine the composition of augmented household wealth, the sum of net worth and pension wealth, in the United States and Germany. Pension wealth makes up a considerable portion of household wealth of about 48% in the United States and 61% in Germany. When pension wealth is included in household wealth, the Gini coefficient falls from 0.889 to 0....
Article
Beyond money and possessions, how are the rich different from the general population? Drawing on a unique sample of high‐net‐worth individuals from Germany (≥1 million Euro in financial assets; N = 130), nationally representative data (N = 22,981), and an additional online panel (N = 690), we provide the first direct investigation of the stereotypi...
Preprint
Beyond money and possessions, how are the rich different from the general population? Drawing on a unique sample of high net-worth individuals from Germany (≥1 million Euro in financial assets; N = 130), nationally representative data (N = 22,981), and an additional online panel (N = 690), we provide the first direct investigation of the stereotypi...
Article
The research on wealth inequality has generally focused on real and financial assets, while giving little attention to pension wealth: the present value of future pension entitlements from public and company pension schemes. This is surprising given the important role pension plans play in guaranteeing material security and well‐being for a majorit...
Article
Full-text available
Results of poverty analyses based on survey data are subject to statistical uncertainties and could be affected by systematic bias. Potential error sources occur in the pre data collection phase (e.?g. sampling), the data collection phase (e.?g. unit non response or item non response) as well as in the post data collection phase (e.?g. weighting or...
Article
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While cash housing benefits are generally included in household disposable income, the effect of social housing is not accounted for. This may provide a misleading picture of the impact of overall housing policies on inequality and poverty, as countries use different policies to help households meet their housing expenses. In this article, we prese...
Article
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The Household Finance and Consumption Survey (HFCS) provides information about household wealth (real and financial assets as well as liabilities) from 15 Euro-countries around the year 2010 (first wave). The survey will be the central dataset in this topic in the future. However, several aspects point to potential methodological constraints regard...
Article
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Bis 2010 hatten 27 bis 40 Prozent aller Haushalte in den Euro-Ländern geerbt oder eine Schenkung erhalten. Darunter fallen nur Transfers, die von außerhalb des eigenen Haushalts kamen. Der Gegenwartswert dieser Transfers lag durchschnittlich zwischen 85 000 Euro und 274 000 Euro je nach Land. Die Summe aller Erbschaften und Schenkungen entspricht...
Article
The EU-wide survey “Statistics on Income and Living Conditions” (EU-SILC) is extremely important for international social science research and policy advice. It is therefore crucial to ensure that the data are of the highest quality and international comparability. This paper is aimed at identifying unexpected developments in income levels, income...
Article
The topic of rising income inequality does not only gain in relevance since the two prominent reports by the OECD (Growing unequal? Income Distribution and Poverty in OECD Countries, Paris 2008; Divided we stand—Why inequality keeps rising, Paris 2011) but rather since the financial crisis. So far there is only scarce empirical evidence–besides a r...
Article
Full-text available
The Household Finance and Consumption Survey (HFCS) provides information about household wealth (real and financial assets as well as liabilities) from 15 Euro‐countries after the financial crisis of 2007/8. The survey will be the central dataset in this topic in the future. However, several aspects point to potential methodological constraints reg...
Chapter
Die Finanzmarkt- und anschließende Wirtschaftskrise Ende der 2000er Jahre hatte den größten wirtschaftlichen Einbruch seit dem 2. Weltkrieg in einer Vielzahl von Ländern zur Folge. Zur Bewältigung dieser Krise wurden von verschiedenen Regierungen Konjunkturpakete geschnürt, um den wirtschaftlichen Abschwung und entsprechende Folgen für die Bevölker...
Article
We investigate two determinants of the price sensitivity of health plan demand: the size of the choice set and the salience of premium differences. Using variation in both features in the German Social Health Insurance (SHI) and information on health plan switches of retirees in the German Socio Economic Panel, augmented with information on individ...
Chapter
Analysen zur Einkommenslage im Alter und insbesondere zur Altersarmut stoßen auf ein weit verbreitetes öffentliches Interesse. Das Alterssicherungssystem hat sich durch Reformen der vergangenen Jahre grundlegend verändert, was zu einer größeren Unsicherheit im Hinblick auf die Höhe des zu erwartenden Einkommens beim Übergang in den Ruhestand führt...
Article
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While most studies on wealth inequality focus on the inequality between households, this paper examines the distribution of wealth within couples. For this purpose, we make use of unique individual level micro data from the German socio-economic panel study. In married and cohabiting couples men’s net worth, on average, is 33,000 euros higher than...
Article
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Due to the increasing proportion of older people in the general population epidemiologists are interested in identifying which factors determine healthy ageing. For this reason within the German Society for Epidemiology we founded the working group ‘Epidemiology of Ageing’ in 2011. The working group organised a workshop to present useful datasets o...
Chapter
Pension entitlements—whether statutory, occupational, or private—represent a considerable source of wealth. But despite the importance of this wealth component in obtaining unbiased wealth estimates, it has not been adequately investigated in research on wealth distributions. This chapter aims to show the relevance and magnitude of public pension w...
Article
Using population representative survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) and administrative pension records from the Statutory Pension Insurance, the authors compare four statistical matching techniques to complement survey information on net worth with social security wealth (SSW) information from the administrative records. The uni...
Article
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Durch den Anstieg des Anteils älterer Menschen an der Gesamtbevölkerung ist es auch für die Epidemiologie von besonderem Interesse, welche Faktoren gesundes Altern beeinflussen. 2011 wurde daher innerhalb der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Epidemiologie (DGEpi) eine Arbeitsgruppe ,,Epidemiologie des Alterns“ gegründet. Im Juni 2013 wurde durch die AG e...
Article
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This paper presents and compares trends in income inequality in Switzerland and Germany from 2000 to 2009 using harmonized data from the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) and the Swiss Household Panel (SHP). Whereas in Germany inequality has increased substantially during this period, in Switzerland inequality in market incomes has increased only margina...
Article
This chapter aims to give a comprehensive view of the joint impact of two components of investment income, namely (monetary) capital income (CI) and (nonmonetary) imputed rent (IR). It uses more than twenty waves of consistently measured income data from the German Socio-Economic Panel. After describing the microdata used and the methods applied to...
Article
In diesem Beitrag wird die Entwicklung relativer Einkommensaltersarmut seit der deutschen Wiedervereinigung bis zum Jahr 2010 untersucht. Dies geschieht sowohl in Quer- als auch in Längsschnittperspektive. Die Ergebnisse der Analysen geigen, dass das Altersarmutsrisiko in Deutschland inzwischen geringer ist als andere Armutsrisiken – etwa als jenes...
Article
In most industrialized countries, the work and family patterns of the baby boomers characterized by more heterogeneous working careers and less stable family lives set them apart from preceding cohorts. Thus, it is of crucial importance to understand how these different work and family lives are linked to the boomers’ prospective material well-bein...
Article
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In Deutschland werden die Geburtskohorten der 1956 bis 1965 Geborenen als Babyboomer bezeichnet. Diese Gruppe kennzeichnet sich nicht nur durch eine überdurchschnittliche Kohortenstärke aus, sondern diese waren Profiteure des Ausbaus des Wohlfahrtsstaates und deren Kindheit und Jugend: waren durch einen Zeitraum wirtschaftlicher Prosperität und pol...
Article
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Die Lebensläufe der deutschen Babyboomer (geboren zwischen 1956 und 1965) unterscheiden sich deutlich von denen vorangegangener Kohorten. Insgesamt zeigt sich eine zunehmende Vielfalt der Erwerbsverläufe. Insbesondere in Ostdeutschland sind diese von Brüchen geprägt, mit häufigeren oder längeren Phasen der Arbeitslosigkeit. Diese Entwicklung hat Fo...
Article
Cette contribution présente et compare l’évolution des inégalités de revenus en Suisse et en Allemagne de 2000 à 2009 sur la base de données harmonisées du SOEP et du PSM. Si les inégalités ont fortement augmenté en Allemagne, elles n’ont que peu augmenté en Suisse concernant les revenus du travail et même légèrement diminué en matière de revenu di...
Article
In trying to capture complete within-household heterogeneity, household panel surveys typically try to interview all adult household members. Following from this, such surveys tend to suffer from partial unit nonresponse (PUNR), that is, the nonresponse of at least one member of an otherwise participating household, most likely yielding an underest...
Article
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Seit dem Jahr 2000 sinken die von der Gesetzlichen Rentenversicherung (GRV) ausgezahlten individuellen Beträge fur männliche Neurentner. Wer heute in Rente geht, erhält im Schnitt sieben Prozent weniger als jemand, der noch vor zehn Jahren in den Ruhestand wechselte. Gleichzeitig nimmt die Zahl der Bezieher von Grundsicherung im Alter seit 2003 deu...
Article
This paper analyses the contribution of capital income to income inequality in a cross-national comparison. Using micro-data from the Cross-National Equivalent File (CNEF) for three prominent panel studies, namely the BHPS for the UK, the SOEP for West Germany, and the PSID for the USA, we use the factor decomposition method described by Shorrocks...
Article
Social security entitlements are a substantial source of wealth that grows in importance over the individual’s lifecycle. Despite its quantitative relevance, social security wealth has been thus far omitted from wealth inequality analyses. In Germany, it is the lack of adequate micro data that accounts for this shortcoming. The two main contributio...
Article
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In der letzten Dekade haben die Bruttostundenlöhne lediglich stagniert. Betroffen waren nicht nur einzelne Gruppen von Arbeitnehmern, vielmehr war die Lohnentwicklung übergreifend schwach. Das gilt sowohl hinsichtlich der Entgelte für Männer als auch der für Frauen, für Vollzeit- wie für Teilzeitbeschäftigte, und sowohl für einfache Arbeit als auch...
Article
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Die Bundesregierung plant einen "Regierungsdialog Rente", um dem Thema Altersarmut mehr Aufmerksamkeit zu sichern. Vor diesem Hintergrund legt das DIW Berlin neueste Analysen zur Einkommensverteilung in Deutschland auf Basis der Daten des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels (SOEP) vor. Sie zeigen, dass das generelle Armutsrisiko für ältere Menschen in Deuts...
Article
Economic research on the determinants of gender differences in economic outcomes particularly in income and consumption is well established. Extending these investigations to other outcomes such as wealth up till now has been limited due to lack of individual-level data. Using the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) we find a significant 'raw' gende...
Article
Most empirical distributional studies of well-being in developed countries rely on distributions of disposable income. From a theoretical point of view this practice is contentious since a household’s command over resources is determined not only by its spending power over commodities it can buy in the market but also on resources available to the...
Article
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In recent years, the social policy discussion in Germany—but elsewhere as well—has been heavily dominated by the issue of income inequality and rising poverty risk rates. Yet very little research has been done on the personal wealth distribution to date, not least of all due to the severe lack of appropriate data. Using representative micro-data fr...
Chapter
Using data on annual individual labor income from three representative panel datasets (German SOEP, British BHPS, Australian HILDA) we investigate a) the selectivity of item non-response (INR) and b) the impact of imputation as a prominent post-survey means to cope with this type of measurement error on prototypical analyses (earnings inequality, m...
Article
The EU is currently drawing up its agenda EU2020 for the next decade. In doing so, account must be taken of the successes and limitations of the Lisbon Agenda 2000-2009, notably the failure to achieve a decisive impact on the eradication of poverty and social exclusion. From the experience of the Lisbon Agenda, we learn that social policy and econo...
Article
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Die 1990 eingeführte Wirtschafts- und Währungsunion der BRD mit der DDR und schließlich die deutsche Wiedervereinigung war und ist für jede Statistik, die versucht die Lebensverhältnisse in Ost und West zu vergleichen, eine große Herausforderung. In seinem einleitenden Teil dokumentiert dieser Aufsatz die unmittelbar nach der Wiedervereinigung und...
Article
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Anwartschaften an Alterssicherungssysteme - gesetzliche, tarifliche und private - stellen erhebliche Vermögensbestände dar. Analysen zur personellen Vermögensverteilung haben dies bislang aus Datengründen allerdings nicht vollständig berücksichtigt. Nach neuen Berechnungen auf Basis der 2007 erhobenen Vermögensdaten des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels (...
Article
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The research agendas of psychologists and economists now have several overlaps, with behavioural economics providing theoretical and experimental study of the relationship between behaviour and choice, and hedonic psychology discussing appropriate measures of outcomes of choice in terms of overall utility or life satisfaction. Here we model the rel...
Article
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Die EU-Kommission hat 2010 zum Europäischen Jahr gegen Armut und soziale Ausgrenzung ausgerufen. Ein Ziel dieser Aktion ist es, das öffentliche Bewusstsein für die Risiken von Armut und sozialer Ausgrenzung zu stärken und deren Ursachen und Auswirkungen besser zu verstehen. Neue Analysen zur Einkommensverteilung in Deutschland auf Basis der Daten d...
Article
Full-text available
Anwartschaften an Alterssicherungssysteme - gesetzliche, tarifliche und private - stellen erhebliche Vermögensbestände dar. Analysen zur personellen Vermögensverteilung haben dies bislang aus Datengründen allerdings nicht vollständig berücksichtigt. Nach neuen Berechnungen auf Basis der 2007 erhobenen Vermögensdaten des Sozio- oekonomischen Panels...
Article
Full-text available
Entitlements from old-age pension schemes - statutory, company, and private - represent a considerable source of wealth. For data-related reasons, analyses of the personal wealth distribution have so far failed to take this into account, however. According to recent calculations based on the 2007 data of the German Socio- Economic Panel (SOEP), the...
Article
For a long time, the social policy discussion in Germany has been heavily dominated by income inequality and poverty risk rates, while at the same time the analysis of personal wealth distribution was underdeveloped, last but not least due to a severe lack of appropriate data. Using representative micro data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Stu...
Article
Using representative and consistent microdata from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) from 1985-2007, we illustrate that capital income (CI = return on financial investments) and imputed rent (IR = return on investments in owner-occupied housing) have become increasingly important sources of economic inequality in Germany over the last tw...
Article
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In response to increasing health expenditures and a high number of physician visits, the German government introduced a copayment for ambulatory care in 2004 for individuals with statutory health insurance (SHI). Because persons with private insurance were exempt from the copayments, this health-care reform can be regarded as a natural experiment....
Article
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The positive association between moderate alcohol consumption and wages is well documented in the economic literature. Positive health effects as well as networking mechanisms serve as explanations for the “alcohol– income puzzle.” Using individual-based microdata from the SOEP for 2006, we confirm that this relationship exists for Germany as well....
Article
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Using representative income and time use-data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), we estimate non-monetary income advantages arising from home production and analyse their impact on economic inequality. As an alternative to existing measures, we propose a predicted wage approach based on a bias-adjusted measure of hours spent on home produ...
Article
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Das Sozio-oekonomische Panel (SOEP) ist als multidisziplinäres Haushaltspanel, das Informationen zu allen Personen, die in einem Panel-Haushalt leben, erhebt und damit alle Altersjahrgänge abdeckt, nach 25 Jahren Laufzeit auch zu einer Kohorten-Studie geworden. Der zunehmende Erfolg der Forschungsinfrastruktur-Einrichtung SOEP speist sich in erster...
Chapter
Die zuverlässige Erhebung von hohen Einkommen und des Vermögens gilt im Rahmen von Surveys als schwierig (Wagner und Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik 2003). Dabei werden neben der oft monierten zu geringen Stichprobengröße insbesondere Probleme bei der Erfassung der Ränder der Verteilungen, also von sehr niedrigen und sehr hohen Einkommen bzw. Vermögen, betont (W...
Article
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Unter Berücksichtigung neuer Informationen zu regionalen Preisniveaus in Deutschland fallen die realen Einkommensunterschiede zwischen West- und Ostdeutschland geringer aus als bisher berechnet. Nach Daten des Sozio-oekonomischen Panel (SOEP) und den vom Bundesamt für Bauwesen und Raumordnung zur Verfügung gestellten Preisinformationen waren die re...
Article
The aim of this paper is to estimate non-monetary income advantages arising from publicly provided education and to analyze their impact on the income distribution and on economic inequality in Germany. Using representative micro-data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) and taking into consideration regional and education-specific variation...
Article
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After 25 years as a multidisciplinary household panel containing information on all individuals residing in panel households and thus covering all age cohorts, the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) has become a true cohort study as well. The increasing success of the SOEP research infrastructure comes above all from the increasing analytical power...
Article
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Das individuelle Nettovermögen in Deutschland betrug zum Jahresbeginn 2007 im Durchschnitt rund 88 000 Euro und ist damit gegenüber 2002 um rund zehn Prozent gestiegen. Maßgeblich für diese Entwicklung war die Zunahme des Geldvermögens sowie der Vermögen aus privaten Versicherungen. Im Zusammenhang mit der insgesamt sehr ungleichen Verteilung des V...