Markus Glatzel

Markus Glatzel
University of Hamburg | UHH · Department of Neuropathology

MD

About

440
Publications
52,567
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Introduction
Markus Glatzel currently works at the Institute of Neuropathology, University of Hamburg. Markus does research in Neuropathology with the aim to better understand and classify dementias.
Additional affiliations
January 2006 - present
Institute of Neuropathology
Position
  • University Medical Center Hamburg - Eppendorf
January 2006 - present
University Medical Center Hamburg - Eppendorf
Position
  • Managing Director
May 1997 - January 2006
Universität Zürich

Publications

Publications (440)
Article
Background In severe cases, SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), often treated by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). During ECMO therapy, anticoagulation is crucial to prevent device-associated thrombosis and device failure, however, it is associated with bleeding complications. In COVID-19, additional...
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Background Autopsy studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Controversies remain about whether the clinical presentation is due to direct organ damage by SARS-CoV-2 or secondary effects, such as overshooting immune response. SARS-CoV-2 detection in tissues by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) or electron mi...
Article
Purpose/Objective Multiple tumorous lesions in one pituitary gland are rare and mostly described in case reports. Their incidences and combinations are defined in larger collectives. Therefore, we analyzed our large collection for double tumors and combinations of tumors, cysts, and inflammation. Methods The German Registry of Pituitary Tumors, in...
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The use of autopsies in medicine has been declining. The COVID-19 pandemic has documented and rejuvenated the importance of autopsies as a tool of modern medicine. In this review, we discuss the various autopsy techniques, the applicability of modern analytical methods to understand the pathophysiology of COVID-19, the major pathological organ find...
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We describe in vivo follow-up PET imaging and postmortem findings from an autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease (ADAD) PSEN1 E280A carrier who was also homozygous for the APOE3 Christchurch (APOE3ch) variant and was protected against Alzheimer’s symptoms for almost three decades beyond the expected age of onset. We identified a distinct anatomical...
Preprint
Importance As SARS-CoV-2 infections have been shown to affect the central nervous system, it is crucial to investigate associated alterations of brain structure and neuropsychological sequelae to help address future health care needs. Objective To determine whether a mild to moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with alteration of brain stru...
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The severe acute respiratory syndrome-corona virus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of human coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since its identification in late 2019 SARS-CoV-2 has spread rapidly around the world creating a global pandemic. Although considered mainly a respiratory disease, COVID-19 also encompasses a variety of neuropsychiatric s...
Article
Myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE) is a heterogeneous disease regarding histopathology and outcome. The underlying molecular biology is poorly understood, and markers that reliably predict the patients’ clinical course are unknown. We assembled a cohort of 185 tumors classified as MPE based on DNA methylation from pediatric, adolescent, and adult patie...
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We studied small vessel disease (SVD) pathology in Familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) subjects carrying the presenilin 1 (PSEN1) p.Glu280Ala mutation in comparison to those with sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD) as a positive control for Alzheimer's pathology and Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalo...
Article
Background Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in cell-cell communication, and tumor-derived EVs circulating in patient blood can serve as biomarkers. Here, we investigated the potential role of plasma EVs in meningioma patients for tumor detection and determined whether EVs secreted by meningioma cells reflect epigenetic, genomic a...
Preprint
Dynamic microtubules transiently polymerize into dendritic spines, however intracellular factors that regulate this process and their functional role at synapses are hardly understood. Using live imaging, electrophysiology, and glutamate uncaging, we show that the microtubule-severing complex katanin is located at individual spine synapses, partici...
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), may lead to acute and chronic neurological symptoms (NeuroCOVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 may spread from the respiratory tract to the central nervous system as the central nervous system (CNS) of certain patients dying from COVID-19 shows virus-relat...
Article
Background Myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE) is a heterogeneous disease regarding histopathology and outcome. The underlying molecular biology is poorly understood, and markers that reliably predict the patients’ clinical course are unknown. Methods We assembled a cohort of 185 tumors classified as MPE based on DNA methylation. Methylation patterns,...
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β-Site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1) is the major described β-secretase to generate Aβ peptides in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, all therapeutic attempts to block BACE1 activity and to improve AD symptoms have so far failed. A potential candidate for alternative Aβ peptides generation is the metalloproteinase meprin...
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X-linked dystonia–parkinsonism (XDP) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder that manifests as adult-onset dystonia combined with parkinsonism. A SINE-VNTR-Alu (SVA) retrotransposon inserted in an intron of the TAF1 gene reduces its expression and alters splicing in XDP patient-derived cells. As a consequence, increased levels of the TAF1 intron ret...
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Inflammatory pituitary lesions account for 1.8% of all specimens from the German Pituitary Tumor Registry. They occure in 0.5% of the autoptical specimens and in 2.2% of the surgical cases. Women are significantly more often affected than men and are often younger when first diagnosed. In general, primary and secondary inflammation can be distingui...
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Background Autopsies are an important tool in medicine, dissecting disease pathophysiology and causes of death. In COVID-19, autopsies revealed e.g., the effects on pulmonary (micro)vasculature or the nervous system, systemic viral spread, or the interplay with the immune system. To facilitate multicentre autopsy-based studies and provide a central...
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The prion protein is a multifunctional protein that exists in at least two different folding states. It is subject to diverse proteolytic processing steps that lead to prion protein fragments some of which are membrane-bound whereas others are soluble. A multitude of ligands bind to the prion protein and besides proteinaceous binding partners, inte...
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Importance: Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is a rapidly lethal disease. Rapid, accurate diagnosis is imperative for epidemiological surveillance and public health activities to exclude treatable differentials and facilitate supportive care. In 2017, the International CJD Surveillance Network diagnostic criteria were revised to incorpora...
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The prion protein (PrP) is a broadly expressed glycoprotein linked with a multitude of (suggested) biological and pathological implications. Some of these roles seem to be due to constitutively generated proteolytic fragments of the protein. Among them is a soluble PrP form, which is released from the surface of neurons and other cell types by acti...
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Pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include deposition and accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ), neurofibrillary tangle formation, and neuronal loss. Pathogenesis of presymptomatic disease stages remains elusive, although studies suggest that the early structural and functional alterations likely occur at neuronal dendritic spines. Presymp...
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Neurological complications are common in COVID-19. Although SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in patients’ brain tissues, its entry routes and resulting consequences are not well understood. Here, we show a pronounced upregulation of interferon signaling pathways of the neurovascular unit in fatal COVID-19. By investigating the susceptibility of human i...
Preprint
Background Autopsy studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Controversies remain whether the clinical presentation is due to direct organ damage by SARS-CoV-2 or secondary effects, e.g. by an overshooting immune response. SARS-CoV-2 detection in tissues by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) or electron micro...
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Full-text available
The current pandemic with Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 has been taking on new dynamics since the emergence of new variants last fall, some of them spreading more rapidly. Many countries currently find themselves in a race to ramp up vaccination strategies that have been initiated and a possible third wave of the pandemic from new...
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Background High-density oligomers of the prion protein (HDPs) have previously been identified in brain tissues of patients with rapidly progressive Alzheimer’s disease (rpAD). The current investigation aims at identifying interacting partners of HDPs in the rpAD brains to unravel the pathological involvement of HDPs in the rapid progression. Metho...
Article
The prion protein (PrPC) is a central player in neurodegenerative diseases, such as prion diseases or Alzheimer’s disease. In contrast to disease-promoting cell surface PrPC, extracellular fragments act neuroprotective by blocking neurotoxic disease-associated protein conformers. Fittingly, PrPC release by the metalloprotease ADAM10 represents a pr...
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Intraocular medulloepithelioma (IO-MEPL) is a rare embryonal ocular neoplasm, prevalently occurring in children. IO-MEPLs share histomorphological features with CNS embryonal tumors with multilayered rosettes (ETMRs), referred to as intracranial medulloepitheliomas. While Sonic hedgehog (SHH) and WNT signaling pathways are crucial for ETMR pathogen...
Article
The majority of meningiomas are benign but approximately 20% of display an aggressive behavior, resulting in significant patient morbidity and mortality. Standard monitoring after meningioma resection relies on serial MRI examinations, which are time-consuming, expensive and provide no information on molecular alterations that may indicate progress...
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can damage cerebral small vessels and cause neurological symptoms. Here we describe structural changes in cerebral small vessels of patients with COVID-19 and elucidate potential mechanisms underlying the vascular pathology. In brains of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected indivi...
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Purpose The identification of prognostically and therapeutically relevant molecular markers is fundamental to the further development of personalised therapies in brain tumours. Current therapeutic options for the treatment of gliomas rely mainly on surgical resection and the inhibition of tumour cell proliferation by irradiation and chemotherapy....
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Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic with significant mortality. Accurate information on the specific circumstances of death and whether patients died from or with SARS-CoV-2 is scarce. To distinguish COVID-19 from non-COVID-19 deaths, we performed a...
Preprint
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Multiple tumorous lesions with an adenoma make up 1.4 % (232 cases) in the large collection of the German Registry of Pituitary Tumors. 2.0% of all PitNETs are associated with a second lesion. Within the selected cases synchronous multiple pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs) account for 17,3%, PANCH cases for 14.7%, PitNETs and posterior lobe...
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Background Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic with significant mortality. Accurate information on the specific circumstances of death and whether patients died from or with SARS-CoV-2 is scarce. Methods To distinguish COVID-19 from non-COVID-19 deat...
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Up to 40% of advance lung, melanoma and breast cancer patients suffer from brain metastases (BM) with increasing incidence. Here, we assessed whether circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood can serve as a disease surrogate, focusing on CD44 and CD74 expression as prognostic markers for BM. We show that a size-based microfluidic approach...
Article
COVID-19 can cause severe neurological symptoms, but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. Here, we interrogated the brain stem and olfactory bulb in COVID-19 patients postmortem using imaging mass cytometry to understand the local immune response at a spatially resolved, high-dimensional single-cell level and compared their imm...
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Familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies (FENIB) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by point mutations in the gene for neuroserpin, a serine protease inhibitor of the nervous system. Different mutations are known that are responsible for mutant neuroserpin polymerization and accumulation as inclusion bodies in many c...
Preprint
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The cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a central player in neurodegenerative diseases caused by protein misfolding, such as prion diseases or Alzheimer's disease (AD). Expression levels of this GPI-anchored glycoprotein, especially at the neuronal cell surface, critically correlate with various pathomechanistic aspects underlying these diseases, such...
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Purpose Presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in human retinal biopsies (RBs) was previously reported by us. In this consecutive study, we analysed RB and optic nerve biopsies (ONBs) in deceased patients with confirmed COVID-19 assessing viral RNA load, possible virus replication and infectivity. Patients and methods In this case series, 14 eyes of 14 deceas...
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Zusammenfassung Die gesundheitlichen Auswirkungen der Coronavirus-Krankheit 2019 (COVID-19) durch die Infektion von SARS-CoV‑2 (Schweres-Akutes-Respiratorisches–Syndrom-Coronavirus 2) werden mit der Ausbreitung der Pandemie immer deutlicher. Neben der Lunge sind auch andere Organe betroffen, welche die Morbidität und Mortalität deutlich beeinflusse...
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Neuroserpin is a serine protease inhibitor that regulates the activity of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in the nervous system. Neuroserpin is strongly expressed during nervous system development as well as during adulthood, when it is predominantly found in regions eliciting synaptic plasticity. In the hippocampus, neuroserpin regulates d...
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Introduction The pathophysiological significance of the Fabry‐related, non‐classical variant p.D313Y still remains to be solved. This study assesses the involvement of the peripheral nervous system with respect to small fiber neuropathy and neuropathic pain in female patients carrying p.D313Y. Methods This study examined 9 females carrying the Fab...
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Purpose: To analyze the co-expression of the intermediate filaments GFAP and cytokeratin in 326 pituitary adenomas with regard to the distribution pattern, the subtype of the adenoma and clinical prognostic data. Methods: Tissue from 326 pituitary adenomas and 13 normal anterior pituitaries collected in the Institute of Neuropathology, Universit...
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Presenilin-1 (PSEN1) mutations cause familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD) characterized by early age of onset (AoO). Examination of a large kindred harboring the PSEN1-E280A mutation reveals a range of AoO spanning 30 years. The pathophysiological drivers and clinical impact of AoO variation in this population are unknown. We examined brains of 23 pa...
Article
Background: Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling has recently been developed into a tool that allows tumor classification in central nervous system tumors. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released by tumor cells and contain high molecular weight DNA, rendering EVs a potential biomarker source to identify tumor subgroups, stratify patients and mo...
Article
Importance Current recommendations are to avoid tissue for corneal transplant from donors with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or those who were recently exposed to COVID-19 owing to the lack of knowledge about the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in corneal tissues. Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 in corneal tiss...
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Diffuse midline glioma (DMG) is a devastating disease that is defined by its localization, by the diffuse growth of astrocytic tumor cells, and by K27M mutations within Histone H3 proteins. In a large series of such tumor samples (n=83), we show here that 12 % of these cases (n=10) harbor concomitant hotspot mutations within FGFR1 or BRAF. Respecti...
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The purpose of this study is to examine alterations of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) in oligo-symptomatic patients carrying the Fabry related GLA-gene variant p.A143T by Magnetic Resonance Neurography (MRN) and skin biopsy. This prospective study assessed dorsal root ganglia (DRG) volume L3 to S2, vascular permeability of the DRG L5, S1, and...
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Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden unexpected death of an infant < 1 year of age that remains unexplained after comprehensive workup including complete autopsy and investigation of the circumstances of death. The triple risk hypothesis posits that SIDS results as a combination of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the background...
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The HER2-positive breast cancer subtype (HER2 +-BC) displays a particularly aggressive behavior. Anti-HER2 therapies have significantly improved the survival of patients with HER2 +-BC. However, a large number of patients become refractory to current targeted therapies, necessitating the development of new treatment strategies. Epigenetic regulator...
Preprint
Stroke and central nervous system dysfunction are cardinal symptoms in critically ill corona virus disease 19 (COVID-19) patients. In an autopsy series of 32 COVID-19 patients, we investigated whether carotid arteries were infected with SARS-CoV-2 by employing genomic, virologic, histochemical and transcriptomic analyses. We show that SARS-CoV-2 pr...
Article
Background: Prominent clinical symptoms of COVID-19 include CNS manifestations. However, it is unclear whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, gains access to the CNS and whether it causes neuropathological changes. We investigated the brain tissue of patients who died from COVID-19 fo...