Markus Christen

Markus Christen
University of Zurich | UZH · UZH Digital Society Initiative & Institute of Biomedical Ethics and History of Medicine

PD Dr. sc. ETH

About

202
Publications
59,616
Reads
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1,195
Citations
Introduction
Research interests: Ethics & Technology: Normative issues of artificial intelligence, big data and cybersecurity / Empirical Ethics: Developing and applying measures for moral competences and moral reasoning / Neuroethics: Ethical issues of brain interventions / Serious Moral Games: Use of video games for dilemma training & prosocial behavior training / Data Analysis Methodologies: Text mining, clustering, data visualization research & pattern recognition.
Additional affiliations
January 2017 - present
University of Zurich
Position
  • Group Leader
Description
  • See http://www.ibme.uzh.ch/en.html
July 2016 - present
University of Zurich
Position
  • Managing Director
Description
  • See www.dsi.uzh.ch
January 2014 - December 2016
University of Zurich
Position
  • Senior Researcher & Research Network Manager
Education
July 2010 - December 2015
University of Zurich
Field of study
  • Biomedical Ethics
October 2001 - August 2006
ETH Zurich
Field of study
  • Neuroinformatics
October 1989 - May 1996
Universität Bern
Field of study
  • Philosophy, Physics, Mathematics, Biology

Publications

Publications (202)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While artificial intelligence (AI) is increasingly applied for decision-making processes, ethical decisions pose challenges for AI applications. Given that humans cannot always agree on the right thing to do, how would ethical decision-making by AI systems be perceived and how would responsibility be ascribed in human-AI collaboration? In this stud...
Article
Full-text available
Background Psychiatric neurosurgery is experiencing a revival. Beside deep brain stimulation (DBS), several ablative neurosurgical procedures are currently in use. Each approach has a different profile of advantages and disadvantages. However, many psychiatrists, ethicists, and laypeople are sceptical about psychiatric neurosurgery. Methods We ide...
Article
Full-text available
The current humanitarian use of drones is focused on two applications: disaster mapping and medical supply delivery. In response to the growing interest in drone deployment in the aid sector, we sought to develop a resource to support value sensitivity in humanitarian drone activities. Following a bottom-up approach encompassing a comprehensive lit...
Article
Full-text available
Clients may feel trapped into sharing their private digital data with insurance companies to get a desired insurance product or premium. However, private insurance must collect some data to offer products and premiums appropriate to the client’s level of risk. This situation creates tension between the value of privacy and common insurance business...
Article
Full-text available
The initial online publication contained a typesetting mistake in the author information. The original article has been corrected.
Article
Full-text available
Here, we provide an ethical analysis of discrimination in private insurance to guide the application of non-discriminatory algorithms for risk prediction in the insurance context. This addresses the need for ethical guidance of data-science experts, business managers, and regulators, proposing a framework of moral reasoning behind the choice of fai...
Article
Full-text available
Serious games have emerged as a promising new form of education and training. Even though the benefits of serious games for education are undisputed, there is still a further need for research on the efficacy of such games. The main goal of our research is to examine the effectiveness of a serious moral game—uFin: The Challenge—that was designed to...
Article
Full-text available
In order to manage ethical challenges in organizations and the workplace, moral sensitivity (MS)—the ability to identify and ascribe importance to moral issues when they arise in the workplace—is seen as the key prerequisite by researchers and professionals. However, despite the importance of MS, satisfactory reliable and valid measures to assess t...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Women’s mobile health (mHealth) is a growing phenomenon in the mobile applications (apps) global market. An increasing number of women around the globe use apps with so-called female technology (femtech). Given the often private and sensitive nature of the data collected by such apps an ethical assessment from the perspective of data pri...
Article
Background: Women's mobile health (mHealth) is a growing phenomenon in the mobile app global market. An increasing number of women worldwide use apps geared to female audiences (female technology). Given the often private and sensitive nature of the data collected by such apps, an ethical assessment from the perspective of data privacy, sharing, a...
Article
Full-text available
The use of drones (or unmanned aerial vehicles, UVAs) in humanitarian action has emerged rapidly in the last decade and continues to expand. These so-called 'humanitarian drones' represent the first wave of robotics applied in the humanitarian and development contexts, providing critical information through mapping of crisis-affected areas and time...
Article
Full-text available
Crews operating remotely piloted aircrafts (RPAs) in military operations may be among the few that truly experience tragic dilemmas similar to the famous Trolley Problem. In order to analyze decision-making and emotional conflict of RPA operators within Trolley-Problem-like dilemma situations, we created an RPA simulation that varied mission contex...
Article
Full-text available
Color is key for the visual encoding of data, yet its use reportedly affects decision making in important ways. We examined the impact of various popular color schemes on experts' and lay peoples' map-based decisions in two, geography and neuroscience, scenarios, in an online visualization experiment. We found that changes in color mappings influen...
Article
Full-text available
Moral sensitivity, the ability to notice ethical problems, is a key competence for health professionals. Failures to notice ethical problems can cause false treatments or the exposure of patients to severe health risks without their informed consent. In this viewpoint we argue that the training and testing of moral sensitivity among health professi...
Article
Der Aufruf zur Stärkung der Cybersicherheit fokussiert haupt- sächlich auf technische Aspekte. Man neigt dazu, ethische und rechtliche Dilemmata zu unterschätzen, mit denen sich Cyber- sicherheits-Praktiker*innen wie CERTs bei ihrer täglichen Ar- beit konfrontiert sehen.
Article
Full-text available
Increasingly complex and autonomous systems require machine ethics to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks to society arising from the new technology. It is challenging to decide which type of ethical theory to employ and how to implement it effectively. This survey provides a threefold contribution. First, it introduces a trimorphic taxono...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this contribution, we present the conception of the serious moral game uMed: Your Choice for the training of medical students’ moral sensitivity and resoluteness. First, we offer an overview of the moral competences that we aim to train through the game: an empathic concern for relevant groups; an awareness of one’s susceptibility to biases and...
Chapter
The question of whether neuroscience has normative implications or not becomes practically relevant when neuromodulation technologies are used with the aim of pursuing normative goals. The historical burden of such an endeavor is grave and the current knowledge of the neural foundations of moral capacities is surely insufficient for tailored interv...
Article
Full-text available
Luciano Floridi was not the first to discuss the idea of group privacy, but he was perhaps the first to discuss it in relation to the insights derived from big data analytics. He has argued that it is important to investigate the possibility that groups have rights to privacy that are not reducible to the privacy of individuals forming such groups....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Up to date, more than 80 codes exist for handling ethical risks of artificial intelligence and big data. In this paper, we analyse where those codes converge and where they differ. Based on an in-depth analysis of 20 guidelines, we identify three procedural action types (1. control and document, 2. inform, 3. assign responsibility) as well as four...
Book
Full-text available
Computer werden leistungsfähiger und können komplizierte Probleme immer schneller lösen. Gleichzeitig stehen, dank Internet und Smartphones, grosse Mengen an Daten zur Verfügung. Beides fördert die Entwicklung von künstlicher Intelligenz (KI). Anspruchsvolle Aufgaben, an denen bisherige Computerprogramme gescheitert sind, löst künstliche Intelligen...
Preprint
Full-text available
Increasingly complex and autonomous systems require machine ethics to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks to society arising from the new technology. It is challenging to decide which type of ethical theory to employ and how to implement it effectively. This survey provides a threefold contribution. Firstly, it introduces a taxonomy to ana...
Preprint
Full-text available
Increasingly complex and autonomous systems require machine ethics to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks to society arising from the new technology. It is challenging to decide which type of ethical theory to employ and how to implement it effectively. This survey provides a threefold contribution. Firstly, it introduces a taxonomy to ana...
Book
Full-text available
This open access book provides the first comprehensive collection of papers that provide an integrative view on cybersecurity. It discusses theories, problems and solutions on the relevant ethical issues involved. This work is sorely needed in a world where cybersecurity has become indispensable to protect trust and confidence in the digital infras...
Article
The “Code of Ethics for Data-Based Value Creation” is aimed at companies and organizations that offer services or products based on data. Its purpose is to systematically address the ethical issues that arise in the creation or use of such products and services. To this end, concrete recommendations are made, based on three ethical and three proced...
Article
Full-text available
The call to build up cybersecurity capacities across nations still has mainly a technical focus. One tends to underestimate ethical and legal dilemmas that cybersecurity practitioners such as CERTs (Computer Emergency Response Teams) face in their daily work. This contribution outlines some of these dilemmas and points to the work of the European C...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter presents several ethical frameworks that are useful for analysing ethical questions of cybersecurity. It begins with two frameworks that are important in practice: the principlist framework employed in the Menlo Report on cybersecurity research and the rights-based principle that is influential in the law, in particular EU law. It is a...
Article
Full-text available
Moral sensitivity, understood as an individual’s capability of identifying and ascribing importance to moral issues when they arise, is often considered a key competence in professional life and a precondition of ethical behavior. With a focus on business settings, this article presents a new measure to assess individual’s sensitivity to moral and...
Article
Full-text available
Intellectual humility can be broadly construed as being conscious of the limits of one’s existing knowledge and capable of acquiring more knowledge, which makes it a key virtue of the information age. However, the claim “I am (intellectually) humble” seems paradoxical in that someone who has the disposition in question would not typically volunteer...
Chapter
Business applications relying on processing of large amounts of heterogeneous data (Big Data) are considered to be key drivers of innovation in the digital economy. However, these applications also pose ethical issues that may undermine the credibility of data-driven businesses. In our contribution, we discuss ethical problems that are associated w...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Cybersecurity in healthcare has become an urgent matter in recent years due to various malicious attacks on hospitals and other parts of the healthcare infrastructure. The purpose of this paper is to provide an outline of how core values of the health systems, such as the principles of biomedical ethics, are in a supportive or conflicting...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we outline the structure and content of a code of ethics for companies engaged in data-based business, i.e. companies whose value propositions strongly depends on using data. The code provides an ethical reference for all people in the organization who are responsible for activities around data. It is primarily targeting private indu...
Article
Full-text available
Evolutionary systems theory identifies niches as key developmental inheritances for animals. The human evolved developmental niche (EDN) is characterized by positive touch, responsiveness, play, and social togetherness and provides the responsive, relational dynamism that optimizes development. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of the human...
Presentation
The presentation introduces a search & rescue scenario for autonomous ethical decision making support.
Preprint
Full-text available
In this chapter, we analyze questions pertaining to the use of predictive models based on big data from the point of view of Allen Buchanan’s ‘morality of inclusion”. Here we discuss to potential ethical risks of big data that are normally not discussed in the literature. We illustrate ethical threats of big data for the morality of inclusion with...
Preprint
Full-text available
Luciano Floridi was not the first to discuss the idea of group privacy, but he was perhaps the first to discuss it in relation to the insights derived from big data analytics. He has argued that it is important to investigate the possibility that groups have rights to privacy that are not reducible to the privacy of individuals forming such groups....
Article
Full-text available
Here we provide an ethical analysis of discrimination in private insurance to guide the application of non-discriminatory algorithms for risk prediction in the insurance context. This addresses the need for ethical guidance of data-science experts and business managers. The reference to private insurance as a business practice is essential in our a...
Article
Full-text available
Definitive (and shortened) version published in Italian as a book chapter in "Per cosa lottare. Le frontiere del progressismo", edited by Enrico Biale and Corrado Fumagalli, Fondazione Giangiacomo Feltrinelli, Milano
Article
Full-text available
Paper is open access: https://ercim-news.ercim.eu/en116/r-s/how-to-include-ethics-in-machine-learning-research
Article
Full-text available
In unserem Beitrag fassen wir drei Themen einer jüngst veröffentlichten Studie zur Technikfolgenabschätzung ziviler Drohnen zusammen. Erstens legen wir dar, dass der Rechtsbegriff der Drohne unklar geregelt ist und dass eine technische Definition des Begriffs „Drohne“ der falsche Weg ist. Wir präsentieren eine alternative Einbindung des Drohnenbegr...
Article
Introduction In many countries, the number of organ donations after circulatory determination of death (DCDD) is increasing, although various aspects of DCDD are critically discussed in medical ethics. In our work, we identify ethically relevant aspects of the DCDD—in particular regarding preparatory measures and the irreversibility of the death cr...
Article
Full-text available
Human endeavors such as promoting science or creating art have a close connection to underlying values and virtues. For example, creativity, curiosity or objectivity provide orientation when working as scientist or artist, outlining the ultimate aim of practitioners active in those domains. The appreciation and interpretation of domain values are e...
Chapter
Full-text available
To make good decisions, people must be able to identify the ethical features of a situation, i.e., to notice when and how the welfare of others and ethical values are at stake. In the work of military and law enforcement officers, moral sensitivity is of special importance, due to an especially stressful working environment and the severe consequen...
Article
Full-text available
Fünfzehn Jahre nach ihrer Entstehung ist die Neuroethik ein internationales wissenschaftliches Feld mit enormer Dynamik. Innerhalb weniger Jahre wurden eigene Kongresse, Zeitschriften, Forschungsförderprogramme, Fachgesellschaften und Institute gegründet. Gleichwohl besteht erheblicher Dissens über die Definition und den Gegenstandsbereich dieses n...
Article
This study explored the use of wearable devices to track self-recorded health data and the willingness to share this data with re- searchers. Participants aged ≥ 50 years (n = 1,013) were interviewed in a representative telephone survey. Results indicated that 43.3% of all participants used one or more mobile devices (activity tracker, smartwatch,...
Article
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Chapter
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Zunehmend diskutiert man in der Wissenschaft, wie Videospiele zur gezielten Förderung von ethischem Verhalten eingesetzt werden können. Doch die konkrete Umsetzung dieser Idee ist mit diversen Schwierigkeiten verbunden und braucht seriöse Forschung. Seit einigen Jahren zeigt sich ein bemerkenswerter Wandel in der Beurteilung von Videospielen aus de...
Chapter
In this chapter we discuss how external ethics advisors can contribute to securing fundamental ethical, legal, and social values in neuroscientific research. The context is the role of the work of advisors in the Human Brain Project (HBP), based on experiences from members of the (former) Ethics, Legal and Social Aspects Committee, and the current...
Chapter
Wie bilden Menschen moralische Urteile – und welche Ethik ist die richtige? Eine Gruppe junger Philosophen hält die Trennung von empirischer Forschung und Moraltheorie für überholt.
Chapter
Neuromodulation bezeichnet die gezielte, chronische und steuerbare Einflussnahme auf neuronale Prozesse mit dem Ziel, therapeutische Wirkungen zu erzeugen. Ein Paradebeispiel von Neuromodulation ist die tiefe Hirnstimulation (THS). THS wird am häufigsten für Bewegungsstörungen eingesetzt, zunehmend aber auch für weitere neurologische und psychiatri...
Article
Full-text available
We propose a multi-step evaluation schema designed to help procurement agencies and others to examine the ethical dimensions of autonomous systems to be applied in the security sector, including autonomous weapons systems.
Chapter
In the last two decades, we have experienced a tremendous growth of the digital infrastructure, leading to an emerging web ecosystem that involves a variety of new types of services. A characteristic element of this web ecosystem is the massive increase of the amount, availability and interpretability of digitalized information—a development for wh...
Chapter
In the debate on what constitutes acts of war in the cyber environment, some authors proposed to focus on the concept of cyberpeace. Christen and Bangerter question the attempts of defining cyberwar in terms of certain types of attacks. Instead, they suggest focusing on the transgressive nature of both digitalization and war, namely that they tend...
Article
Full-text available
This White Paper outlines how the ethical discourse on cybersecurity has developed in the scientific literature, which ethical issues gained interest, which value conflicts are discussed, and where the “blind spots” in the current ethical discourse on cybersecurity are located. The White Paper is based on an extensive literature with a focus on thr...