Markus Brauer

Markus Brauer
University of Wisconsin–Madison | UW · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

146
Publications
94,286
Reads
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4,857
Citations
Introduction
I received my Ph.D. at the University of Colorado at Boulder, USA. After being assistant professor in the Psychology Department at the University of Konstanz, Germany, I joined the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. I am currently professor and researcher at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. My areas of research include group and inter-group processes.
Additional affiliations
August 2011 - present
University of Wisconsin–Madison
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (146)
Article
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This paper synthesizes the efforts of an interdisciplinary, University-convened communication task force in the U.S. that used science communication theory to develop an effective strategy during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. We outline recommendations for researchers and practitioners who are, or are interested in, implementing theory...
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Although several theories posit that information seeking is related to better psychological health, this logic may not apply to a pandemic like COVID-19. Given uncertainty inherent to the novel virus, we expect that information seeking about COVID-19 will be positively associated with emotional distress. Additionally, we consider the type of news m...
Article
Gamification, the application of game design principles to a nongaming context, has been used to promote pro-environmental behaviors. Such principles have been implemented in board games, team competitions, electronic games, smartphone apps, and in apps that researchers developed primarily to collect data. We review the games and apps that have bee...
Article
Purpose Despite more than half a century of academic research, relatively few methods have been shown to reliably improve intergroup relations in the real world. This paper aims to use a social marketing approach to design a pro-diversity intervention in a university setting. Design/methodology/approach We conducted extensive qualitative, quantita...
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We review recent developments in the literature on diversity and inclusion in higher education settings. Diversity interventions increasingly focus on changing behaviors rather than mental constructs such as bias or attitudes. Additionally, there is now a greater emphasis on the evaluation of initiatives aimed at creating an inclusive climate. When...
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Vaccine hesitancy has been a growing public health issue, but during COVID-19, understanding vaccine hesitancy and promote vaccine favorability takes on a troubling immediacy. With the growing political polarization on scientific issues, the COVID-19 vaccine-related sentiment has recently been divided across ideological lines. This study aims to un...
Article
The veterinary medical workforce is increasingly female; occupational feminization often transfers stereotypes associated with the predominant gender onto the profession. It is unknown whether within veterinary medicine a feminized public image is a possible contributor to the reduction in male applicants to training programs. The influence of ster...
Article
In a rapidly changing public health crisis such as COVID-19, researchers need innovative approaches that can effectively link qualitative approaches and computational methods. In this article, computational and qualitative methods are used to analyze survey data collected in March 2020 ( n = 2,270) to explore the content of persuasive messages and...
Article
Despite the fact that social distancing is an effective mean to slow the spread of COVID-19, individuals often fail to practice this behavior. Major US news media provided information to the public about social distancing after COVID-19 was declared a pandemic, potentially spurring this preventative health practice. Using data from a representative...
Article
A recent “rural resentment” hypothesis holds that the rise of conservative politicians in the state of Wisconsin is explained by rural residents’ resentment of beneficiaries of economic advantages, especially government employees (Cramer, Katherine J. 2016. The Politics of Resentment: Rural Consciousness in Wisconsin and the Rise of Scott Walker. U...
Preprint
A recent “rural resentment” hypothesis holds that the rise of conservative politicians in the state of Wisconsin is explained by rural residents’ resentment of beneficiaries of economic advantages, especially government employees (Cramer 2016a). We tested a national rural resentment hypothesis using survey methodology. 3820 respondents representing...
Article
Discrimination has persisted in our society despite steady improvements in explicit attitudes toward marginalized social groups. The most common explanation for this apparent paradox is that due to implicit biases, most individuals behave in slightly discriminatory ways outside of their own awareness (the dispersed discrimination account). Another...
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Understanding how individuals perceive the barriers and benefits of precautionary actions is key for effective communication about public health crises, such as the COVID-19 outbreak. This study used innovative computational methods to analyze 30,000 open-ended responses from a large-scale survey to track how Wisconsin (U.S.A.) residents' perceptio...
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There is a dearth of empirically validated pro-diversity methods that effectively create a more inclusive social climate. We developed two scalable interventions that target people’s perceptions of social norms by communicating to them that their peers hold pro-diversity attitudes and engage in inclusive behaviours. We tested the interventions in s...
Preprint
Discrimination has persisted in our society despite steady improvements in explicit attitudes toward marginalized social groups. The most common explanation for this apparent paradox is that due to implicit biases, most individuals behave in slightly discriminatory ways outside of their own awareness (the dispersed discrimination account). Another...
Article
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Prejudice researchers have proposed a number of methods to reduce prejudice, drawing on and, in turn, contributing to our theoretical understanding of prejudice. Despite this progress, relatively few of these methods have been shown to reliably improve intergroup relations in real-world settings, resulting in a gap between our theoretical understan...
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Shame and guilt proneness are negative emotional dispositions that diverge in their behavioral responses. After a wrongdoing, shame tends to have a maladaptive influence on behavior, and guilt tends to have an adaptive influence on behavior. The current study sought to investigate shame and guilt tendencies among children and adolescents in a real-...
Article
The physiological response to stress is intertwined with, but distinct from, the subjective feeling of stress, although both systems must work in concert to enable adaptive responses. We investigated 1,065 participants from the Midlife in the United States 2 study who completed a self-report battery and a stress-induction procedure while physiologi...
Preprint
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The National Institutes of Health uses small groups of scientists to judge the quality of the grant proposals that they receive, and these quality judgments form the basis of its funding decisions. In order for this system to fund the best science, the subject experts must, at a minimum, agree as to what counts as a “quality” proposal. We investiga...
Article
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Many granting agencies allow reviewers to know the identity of a proposal’s principal investigator (PI), which opens the possibility that reviewers discriminate on the basis of PI race and gender. We investigated this experimentally with 48 NIH R01 grant proposals, representing a broad range of NIH-funded science. We modified PI names to create sep...
Article
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Researchers and practitioners have proposed numerous methods to reduce prejudice and create more positive attitudes toward members of other groups. However, empirical support for the effectiveness of these methods is mixed at best. Here, we propose that intergroup attitudes tend to be highly resistant to change, and thus, any method aiming to chang...
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When witnessing an uncivil, immoral, or discriminatory behavior, bystanders have the opportunity to “speak up” and confront the perpetrator about his/her act. We examined whether the closeness of the relationship between the bystander and the perpetrator affects the bystander's reaction. We asked middle schoolers, high schoolers and university stud...
Preprint
Many granting agencies allow reviewers to know the identity of a proposal’s Principal Investigator (PI), which opens the possibility that reviewers discriminate on the basis of PI race and gender. We investigated this experimentally with 48 NIH R01 grant proposals, representing a broad spectrum of NIH-funded science. We modified PI names to create...
Article
Full-text available
Obtaining grant funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is increasingly competitive, as funding success rates have declined over the past decade. To allocate relatively scarce funds, scientific peer reviewers must differentiate the very best applications from comparatively weaker ones. Despite the importance of this determination, litt...
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This research examined the personality characteristics of individuals who ‘speak up’ and confront perpetrators of norm transgressions. We tested whether those who intervene tend to be ‘bitter complainers’ or ‘well-adjusted leaders’. In four studies (total N = 1,003), we measured several individual differences that are directly implicated by at leas...
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In this article we address a number of important issues that arise in the analysis of nonindependent data. Such data are common in studies in which predictors vary within “units” (e.g., within-subjects, within-classrooms). Most researchers analyze categorical within-unit predictors with repeated-measures ANOVAs, but continuous within-unit predictor...
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Violators of cooperation norms may be informally punished by their peers. How such norm enforcement is judged by others can be regarded as a meta-norm (i.e., a second-order norm). We examined whether meta-norms about peer punishment vary across cultures by having students in eight countries judge animations in which an agent who over-harvested a co...
Article
In scientific grant peer review, groups of expert scientists meet to engage in the collaborative decision-making task of evaluating and scoring grant applications. Prior research on grant peer review has established that inter-reviewer reliability is typically poor. In the current study, experienced reviewers for the National Institutes of Health (...
Article
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We show that entertainment-education reduces prejudice and does so more effectively than several established prejudice reduction methods. In Experiment 1, participants exposed to an educational television sitcom with diverse, yet relatable Arab/Muslim characters had lower scores on implicit and explicit measures of prejudice than participants expos...
Article
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Implicit preferences are malleable, but does that change last? We tested 9 interventions (8 real and 1 sham) to reduce implicit racial preferences over time. In 2 studies with a total of 6,321 participants, all 9 interventions immediately reduced implicit preferences. However, none were effective after a delay of several hours to several days. We a...
Article
Full-text available
Implicit preferences are malleable, but does that change last? We tested nine interventions (eight real and one sham) to reduce implicit racial preferences over time. In two studies with a total of 6,321 participants, all nine interventions immediately reduced implicit preferences. However, none were effective after a delay of several hours to seve...
Article
Recent research suggests that inducing fixed (rather than malleable) beliefs about groups leads to more negative attitudes toward out-groups. The present paper identifies the underlying mechanism of this effect. We show that individuals with a fixed belief about groups tend to construe intergroup settings as threatening situations that might reveal...
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Research shows that pacifiers disrupt infants’ mimicry of facial expressions. This experiment examines whether pacifiers interfere with caretakers’ ability to mimic infants’ emotions. Adults saw photographs of infants with or without a pacifier. When infants had pacifiers, perceivers showed reduced EMG activity to infants’ smiles. Smiles of infants...
Chapter
Dieses Buch will einen Beitrag dazu leisten, eine Lücke in der Ausbildung zahlreicher Lehrender und Forscher an Universitäten zu schließen. Denn obwohl sie einen erheblichen Teil ihrer Arbeitszeit mit der Lehre verbringen, haben viele dieses Metier nicht gelernt (McGaw et al. 2010). Dieses Manko wirft zweierlei Probleme auf. Zum einen führt es zu F...
Chapter
Aus dem bisher Gesagten haben Sie vielleicht den Eindruck gewonnen, dass der Aufwand für die Veranstaltungsvorbereitung steigen wird, denn ich habe Ihnen vorgeschlagen, mehr Zeit als bisher in die Eigenarbeit der Studierenden zu investieren. Und nun rate ich Ihnen außerdem, einen Seminarplan (bzw. eine Veranstaltungsbeschreibung) zu entwickeln, und...
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Dieses Kapitel ist eines der wichtigsten des gesamten Buches. Manche Leser denken vielleicht, ich schlage ihnen vor, mehr Zeit mit den Aufgaben zu verbringen, die mit der Lehre verbunden sind. Das wäre ein falscher Schluss. Mir liegt im Gegenteil daran, dass Sie Ihr Zeitbudget für Lehrtätigkeiten so begrenzen, dass Ihnen genügend Zeit für andere Di...
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Wenn es einen Termin gibt, der nicht misslingen sollte, dann ist es dieser. Am ersten Tag entscheidet sich das Wohl und Wehe des gesamten Semesters. Deshalb ist auch zu empfehlen, den Vorbereitungsaufwand nicht gleichmäßig über den gesamten Semesterverlauf zu verteilen, sondern der ersten Veranstaltung 250 % zu widmen und den übrigen Terminen 90 %...
Chapter
Die Beziehung zwischen Lehrkraft und Studierenden hat maßgeblichen Einfluss auf den Lernerfolg. Ein gutes Verhältnis zwischen dem Professor und den Studierenden – basierend auf Ehrlichkeit, gegenseitigem Respekt und emotionaler Zugewandtheit – ist von so grundlegender Bedeutung für die Effizienz des Hochschulunterrichts, dass uns daran gelegen sein...
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Gleich vorneweg noch eine Funktion, die Prüfungen nicht erfüllen sollten: diejenige, Kenntnisse und Fertigkeiten zu vermitteln, die nicht bereits in der Veranstaltung behandelt wurden. Auf diesen Punkt werde ich später noch zurückkommen.
Chapter
Wie lange, schätzen Sie, hören die Studierenden bei einer Vorlesung aufmerksam zu? Stellen Sie sich eine durchschnittliche Vorlesung vor, weder besonders brillant noch übermäßig langweilig. Nach wie vielen Minuten lässt die Aufmerksamkeit der Studierenden sichtbar (messbar) nach? Notieren Sie die Antwort in der folgenden Zeile:
Chapter
Als eine von wenigen Berufsgruppen in Deutschland unterliegen die Hochschullehrer keiner systematischen Qualitätskontrolle – wie sie in anderen Bereichen z. B. durch Vorgesetzte erfolgt. Aus diesem Grund ist es äußerst wichtig, dass wir unsere eigenen Lehrmethoden fortgesetzt daraufhin überprüfen, wie wir sie weiter optimieren können. Die Lektüre d...
Chapter
Das letzte Kapitel enthält statt einer Zusammenfassung einige Überlegungen zu den Perspektiven des Hochschulunterrichts in den nächsten beiden Jahrzehnten. Dazu beleuchte ich neuere Entwicklungen der letzten Jahre, die mir zukunftsträchtig erscheinen. Außerdem schildere ich aus meiner persönlichen Sicht, welche Änderungen für eine bessere Ausbildun...
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Aufgrund ihrer hohen didaktischen Wirksamkeit sollten Seminare im Zentrum der universitären Lehre stehen. Unter Seminaren verstehen wir hier auch Übungen und Praktika zu einer Vorlesung. Im Allgemeinen lassen die Teilnehmerzahlen dieser Veranstaltungen den engen Kontakt zwischen Studierenden und Lehrenden zu. Diese Nähe ist Voraussetzung für die vo...
Chapter
In diesem Buch werden hin und wieder Aussagen getroffen, die einige Leser überraschen werden. Das weiß ich, weil die Teilnehmenden meiner Workshops regelmäßig erstaunt sind. Hier also gleich die erste Zumutung: Ändern Sie Ihr Selbstverständnis als Dozentin oder Dozent an einer Hochschule. Hören Sie auf, „Informationsvermittler“ zu sein, und werden...
Article
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Loftus (Memory & Cognition 6:312-319, 1978) distinguished between interpretable and uninterpretable interactions. Uninterpretable interactions are ambiguous, because they may be due to two additive main effects (no interaction) and a nonlinear relationship between the (latent) outcome variable and its indicator. Interpretable interactions can only...
Article
Wenn es Ihnen wie den meisten Ihrer Kollegen geht, erhalten Sie als Dozent oder Doktorand keine Grundausbildung in Didaktik und Pädagogik für Ihre Hochschullehre. Es scheint, als ob die Fähigkeit, Studierende zu unterrichten und sie in ihrem Lernen zu fördern, eine Selbstverständlichkeit wäre. Das ist natürlich falsch, und das Ziel dieses Buch ist...
Article
We examined whether cognitive resources are necessary to react effectively to norm transgressions of others. In Study 1, we showed that a polite verbal expression of disapproval was the most effective form of social control because perpetrators were least likely to engage in the same norm transgression again in the future. In Study 2, we manipulate...
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Full-text available
We examined whether increasing individuals' perceived variability of an out-group reduces prejudice and discrimination toward members of this group. In a series of four laboratory and field experiments, we attracted participants' attention to the heterogeneity of members of an out-group (or not), and then measured their attitudes or behaviors. Perc...
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In this article, we describe theoretically‐based research on a new method to reduce prejudice and discrimination. The method is based on increasing people’s perceived variability of an out‐group. Our research allowed us to generate a versatile experimental paradigm for investigating cognitive processes related to prejudice. It also led to the devel...
Article
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Research in psychology and neuroscience suggests that facial mimicry plays a causal role in understanding facial expression of emotion. Accurate understanding of facial emotion, in turn, grounds emotional development. Are pacifiers, which disrupt facial mimicry in the user, associated with compromised emotional development? We examined facial mimic...
Article
In a series of five experiments, we demonstrate that exposure to information related to an out-group's heterogeneity reduces prejudice more effectively than exposure to only positive characteristics of the out-group. We exposed participants to a poster that associated both positive and negative traits with an out-group (mixed condition), to a poste...
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Previous research has shown that the people in low status, negatively-valued groups are perceived to be more homogeneous than the people in high status, positively-valued groups. The present research investigated the possibility of an opposite effect in which people perceive positive groups to be more homogeneous than negative groups. The researche...
Article
Historical and sociological analyses have highlighted the characteristics of the republican model as a specifically French tradition of integration and organization of collective life. However, few research in psychology has examined the perceptions, attitudes or beliefs of individuals with regard to this model. We present the results of several st...
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Answers to the question "What are human emotions for?" have stimulated highly productive programs of research on emotional phenomena in psychology and neuroscience in the past decade. Although a variety of functions have been proposed and examined at different levels of abstraction, what is undeniable is that when emotional processing is compromise...
Article
Full-text available
We examined whether increasing individuals' perceived variability of an out-group reduces prejudice and discrimination toward its members. In a series of 4 laboratory and field experiments, we attracted participants' attention to either the homogeneity or the heterogeneity of members of an out-group, and then measured their attitudes or behaviors....
Article
Full-text available
Least squares analyses (e.g., ANOVAs, linear regressions) of hierarchical data leads to Type-I error rates that depart severely from the nominal Type-I error rate assumed. Thus, when least squares methods are used to analyze hierarchical data coming from designs in which some groups are assigned to the treatment condition, and others to the control...
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The empirical and theoretical literature on group polarization has concentrated on the persuasive arguments and normative positions that one receives from others in group settings. The research that we review in this article suggests that individuals polarize in group discussions in part because they frequently express their own opinions and argume...
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Past research provided abundant evidence that exposure to violent video games increases aggressive tendencies and decreases prosocial tendencies. In contrast, research on the effects of exposure to prosocial video games has been relatively sparse. The present research found support for the hypothesis that exposure to prosocial video games is positi...
Article
Full-text available
We examined whether increasing individuals' perceived variability of an out-group reduces prejudice and discrimination toward members of this out-group. In two studies, perceived variability was manipulated by attracting (or not attracting) participants' attention to the within-group differences in a target group. This was done by making subgroups...
Article
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The social psychology literature on prejudice reduction reports only very few field studies from which researchers can draw reliable causal conclusions. The present paper has two goals. First, we encourage social psychologists and public policy decision-makers to carry out more randomized field experiments on the reduction of prejudice and discrimi...
Article
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We examined the attribution of primary and secondary emotions in the context of equal status groups with a non-conflictual relationship, that is, Germans and French. In Study 1 (N = 169), we found that in such an intergroup context, there was no differential attribution of secondary emotions but an over-attribution of primary emotions to the out-gr...
Article
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Social control is the generic term for any reaction through which a bystander communicates to the “perpetrator” of a norm transgression that his/her action is socially unacceptable. In order to understand the characteristics of behaviors that lead to social control reactions in public settings, we conducted a study with respondents from eight diffe...
Article
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The perception of groups as real entities rather than mere aggregates of individuals has important consequences on intergroup relations. Social psychological research, in fact, shows that it affects stereotyping, identification process, and intergroup bias. Previous research has also shown that group entitativity is not a positive or negative group...
Article
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EnglishThe present research examines the emotions that we feel when others express their disapproval about an incivil behavior that we engaged in. The participants of our study saw a movie in which a protagonist committed an incivility and a bystander expressed her disapproval. The bystander was either an in-group or an out-group member. The partic...
Article
The present research examines the emotions that we feel when others express their disapproval about an incivil behavior that we engaged in. The participants of our study saw a movie in which a protagonist committed an incivility and a bystander expressed her disapproval. The bystander was either an in-group or an out-group member. The participants...
Article
Social control refers to any reaction by which a bystander communicates to the “perpetrator” of an uncivil behavior that his or her action is not acceptable. In 3 field studies, we examined the factors that affect people's tendency to exert social control. Passersby in the streets were asked how they would react were they to witness different unciv...
Article
In five studies, we examined the influence of different grammatical forms on mental representations. The instructions given to participants in each of the studies contained either a masculine generic (e.g., "les avocats") or a gender-neutral generic (e.g., "les avocats/avocates"). Participants were asked to list the names of individuals who they th...