Markus Bastir

Markus Bastir
Spanish National Research Council | CSIC · Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales

MSc, MAS, PhD

About

402
Publications
81,601
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7,076
Citations
Citations since 2016
147 Research Items
4037 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
Introduction
As a paleoanthropologist I am interested in the evolution of the hominin body. My research focusses on evolutionary interactions between the brain and the craniofacial system. I my lab we also investigate human respiratory system evolution and its integration within the hominin organism, including functional and clinical anatomy, musculoskeletal biomechanics and energetics, using virtual 3D morphometrics, computer simulations and fossil reconstructions.
Additional affiliations
March 2010 - present
Spanish National Research Council
Position
  • Cientifico titular CSIC
Description
  • permanent research post
June 2008 - March 2010
The National Museum of Natural Sciences
Position
  • Ramon y Cajal post doc
November 2006 - May 2008
Spanish National Research Council
Position
  • Marie Curie, Experienced Researcher grant (EVAN)
Description
  • Marie Curie Research Training Network EVAN

Publications

Publications (402)
Article
The first cervical vertebra, atlas, and its anatomical variants have been widely studied in Homo sapiens. However, in Neanderthals, the presence of anatomical variants of the atlas has been very little studied until very recently. Only the Neanderthal group from the El Sidrón site (Spain) has been analysed with regard to the anatomical variants of...
Article
Full-text available
The tall and narrow body shape of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) evolved via changes in the thorax, pelvis and limbs. It is debated, however, whether these modifications first evolved together in African Homo erectus, or whether H. erectus had a more primitive body shape that was distinct from both the more ape-like Australopithecus spec...
Article
The skeletal torso is a complex structure of outstanding importance in understanding human body shape evolution, but reconstruction usually entails an element of subjectivity as researchers apply their own anatomical expertise to the process. Among different fossil reconstruction methods, 3D geometric morphometric techniques have been increasingly...
Article
Full-text available
The presence of directional and fluctuating asymmetry in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis has not been deeply studied. We aimed to test the presence of both in a scoliosis group and a control group. 24 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and 24 control subjects were subjected to geometric morphometrics analyses to address our main hypothes...
Article
Full-text available
The facial differences between recent Pan troglodytes and Homo sapiens can be used as a proxy for the reduction of facial prognathism that happened during evolutionary transition between Australopithecines and early Homo. The projecting nasal morphology of Homo has been considered both a passive consequence of anatomical reorganization related to b...
Poster
Full-text available
El desarrollo de la morfometría geométrica ha permitido generar colecciones digitales que albergan archivos procedentes de fuentes diversas. El uso de fuentes de digitalización diversas de manera conjunta se dará siempre y cuando exista un error intermétodo bajo, siendo el objeto de este trabajo evaluar la magnitud de dicho error en una muestra de...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Las poblaciones humanas de Patagonia Austral se caracterizan por su diferenciación craneal con respecto al resto de pueblos de América, así como por una marcada variabilidad entre los diferentes grupos que conforman la región. No obstante, los factores que interceden en la variación del cráneo son poco conocidos. Este estudio analiza la variabilida...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the contribution of external trunk morphology and posture to running performance in an evolutionary framework. It has been proposed that the evolution from primitive to derived features of torso shape involved changes from a mediolaterally wider into a narrower, and antero-posteriorly deeper into a shallower, more lightly bu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
La nula preservación de los tejidos blandos respiratorios en el registro fósil de homininos ha restringido los análisis morfofuncionales de las vías aéreas superiores a estructuras óseas craneales, a pesar de su importante implicación en la fisiología respiratoria. Recientemente se han publicado trabajos sobre la reconstrucción cuantitativa de las...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
El estudio de la evolución de la respiración humana se ha visto limitado tradicionalmente al estudio de piezas que componen el tórax y las vías aéreas, además del análisis comparado con humanos actuales y algunas otras especies de primates. Esto se debe tanto a la naturaleza fragmentaria del registro fósil, como a la complejidad estructural del tor...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Durante la inhalación, el tejido blando de la cavidad nasal posee la función esencial de acondicionar el aire en términos de temperatura y humedad. Se ha hipotetizado que la forma de las vías aéreas y el esqueleto nasal presenta adaptaciones climáticas, en concreto para ambientes fríos y secos, cavidades nasales más largas, aumentando el tiempo de...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The human thorax is a three-dimensional mobile structure that allows the breathing function. The traditional approach to the study of this complex postcranial structure in palaeobiology has been restricted to the morphology of the ribs and vertebrae. Recent statistical and geometrical approaches have presented the first 3D reconstructions of fossil...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies highlighted the importance of the fibula to further our understanding of locomotor adaptations in fossil hominins. In this study, we present a three‐dimensional geometric morphometric (3D‐GM) investigation of the distal fibula in extant hominids and Australopithecus afarensis with the aim of pointing out morphological correlations to...
Article
Full-text available
The paucity of early Pleistocene hominin fossils in Eurasia hinders an in-depth discussion on their paleobiology and paleoecology. Here we report on the earliest large-bodied hominin remains from the Levantine corridor: a juvenile vertebra (UB 10749) from the early Pleistocene site of ‘Ubeidiya, Israel, discovered during a reanalysis of the faunal...
Article
From an evolutionary perspective, the ribcage has changed substantially in the subfamily Homininae. Among many other features, the amount of mineralized tissues of the rib cross‐section at the midshaft could be informative about potential biomechanical changes during Homininae evolution. These changes would be related to the different loading stres...
Chapter
Understanding the origin and evolution of the Neanderthal phenotype can be considered the question that ignites palaeoanthropology, and yet after more than 150 years of research, it is still largely unsolved. From a theoretical point of view, two conceptual frameworks have been proposed. On the one hand, there are approaches based on population gen...
Article
Full-text available
OsteogenesisImperfecta (OI) is a rare disease with respiratory problems, which are usually attributed to the secondary effects of scoliosis and rib fractures and to severe restrictive pulmonary disease. Conventional morphometry has already been studied in OI patients but three-dimensional geometric morphometrics (3D GMM) has never been used to asse...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to carry out the first geometric morphometric analysis of the 3D size and shape of the full series of cervical vertebrae delving into variability related to sex and population background. For this reason, we analyzed the cervical vertebrae of both males and females belonging to Europeans, Africans, and Greenland Inuit. We 3D-scanned...
Book
Full-text available
Los Neandertales y su alta capacidad pulmonar
Article
Full-text available
Adaptations of the lower back to bipedalism are frequently discussed but infrequently demonstrated in early fossil hominins. Newly discovered lumbar vertebrae contribute to a near-complete lower back of Malapa Hominin 2 (MH2), offering additional insights into posture and locomotion in Australopithecus sediba . We show that MH2 possessed a lower ba...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Los cambios morfológicos en el esqueleto craneofacial de nuestros ancestros homininos han sido ampliamente estudiados y caracterizados. En concreto, la proyección de los huesos nasales se ha relacionado con la reducción del prognatismo facial y la reorganización de la morfología craneal en el contexto de la integración anatómica y la evolución del...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Our understanding of the evolution of the human thorax has largely improved during the last decade through the use of virtual anthropology and 3D geometric morphometrics. For example, recent research has produced 3D reconstructions of the thorax of adult and subadult Neanderthals [1,2], but also other fossil species such as Homo erectus [3]. In the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Despite its great evolutionary interest, a comparative analysis of thoracic breathing biomechanics in hominins is challenging because of the incomplete fossil record and unknown soft tissue morphology. However, some specimens, whose ribcages are well preserved, such as KNM-WT 15000 [1] and Kebara 2 [2], may allow for a first step towards determinin...
Article
Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is an indicator of developmental instability referred to random deviations from mean asymmetry. That average asymmetry is the directional asymmetry (DA), which, in the particular case of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), corresponds to a right thoracic and left lumbar curves. Investigating the presence of FA and DA i...
Article
Full-text available
The bony symphyseal surface is an important trait for age-at-death estimation from human skeletal remains. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time that the outline of the human symphyseal surface is sexually dimorphic and that it changes with age. We present a geometric morphometric analysis based on a sample of 323 symphyseal pubic bones...
Preprint
Full-text available
Adaptations of the lower back to bipedalism are frequently discussed but infrequently demonstrated in early fossil hominins. Newly discovered lumbar vertebrae contribute to a near-complete lower back of Malapa Hominin 2 (MH2), offering additional insights into posture and locomotion in Australopithecus sediba. We show that MH2 demonstrates a lower...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most prevalent type of scoliosis, and its consequences on the human torso have not been deeply studied. In spite of being a 3D condition, clinical management is circumscribed to 2D images among health-care professionals. GMM is a well-recognized tool in the study of 3D shape and symmetry. Methods:...
Article
The first cervical vertebra (atlas, C1) is an important element of the vertebral column because it connects the cranial base with the cervical column, thus helping to maintain head posture and contributing to neck mobility. However, few atlases are preserved in the fossil record because of the fragility of this vertebra. Consequently, only eight we...
Article
Full-text available
Ontogenetic studies provide clues for understanding important paleobiological aspects of extinct species. When compared to that of modern humans, the adult Neanderthal thorax was shorter, deeper, and wider. This is related to the wide Neanderthal body and is consistent with their hypothetical large requirements for energy and oxygen. Whether these...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Like many other anatomical structures, the ribcage has changed its morphology and configuration throughout primate evolutionary history. Unfortunately, ribs usually appear broken in the fossil record, which challenges the interpretation of their morphology. In this context, it has been observed that the mineralized area of the rib cross-section at...
Article
Objectives Understanding thoraco‐pelvic integration in Homo sapiens and their closest living relatives (genus Pan) is of great importance within the context of human body shape evolution. However, studies assessing thoraco‐pelvic covariation across Hominoidea species are scarce, although recent research would suggest shared covariation patterns in...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual dimorphism is an important feature of adult thorax morphology, but when and how sex-related differences in the ribcage arise during ontogeny is poorly known. Previous research proposed that sex-related size differences in the nasal region arise during puberty. Therefore, we explore whether ribcage sexual dimorphism also arises at that time a...
Article
Full-text available
Lumbar lordosis is a key element of the upright posture, being interpreted as a consequence of bipedal locomotion. There is consensus that the generic modern human pattern of metameric vertebral body wedging is sexually dimorphic in modern humans. However, recently published studies have compared this pattern with other hominins, such as Neandertha...
Article
Various studies have examined morphometric features of the vertebrae to understanding functional aspects of the spine. Geometric analysis of vertebral zygapophyseal facets have also been related to functional and clinical aspects of the spine but no quantitative investigation of the costotransverse joint facet is found in the literature. The costal...
Article
The evolution of the body form in Homo and its potential morphological connection to the arrangement of different skeletal systems is of major interest in human evolution. Patella morphology as part of the knee is potentially influenced by body form. Here, we describe for the first time the patellae remains recovered at El Sidrón Neandertal site an...
Article
Recent papers have sparked an ongoing debate on the taxonomic adscription of the late Middle Pleistocene fossil skulls from Apidima (Greece). There is general agreement that the more complete skull Apidima 2 is a member of the Neandertal lineage. However, the evolutionary significance of the anatomy of Apidima 1 is unclear. While de Lumley et al. (...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Resumen: La primera vértebra cervical (atlas) es una estructura anatómica importante porque conecta la base del cráneo con la columna cervical y participa en la estabilidad y movilidad del complejo cabeza-cuello. Sin embargo, pocos atlas se han preservado en el registro fósil dada su gran fragilidad. De hecho, sólo 8 atlas adultos neandertales se h...
Article
Objectives: Several studies have analyzed the sexual dimorphism of the skeletal cranial airways. This study aimed to quantify the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the soft tissues of the upper airways in a human population. We addressed hypotheses about morphological features related to respiratory and energetic aspects of nasal sexual dimorph...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that ribs shape changes in patients with OI aremore relevant for respiratory function than thoracic spine shape. We used 3D geometric morphometricsto quantify rib cage morphology in OI patients and controls, and to investigate its relationship with forcedvital capacity (FVC) and forced expirat...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter overviews the theoretical basics of geometric morphometrics (GM) and reviews its potential for the study of hominin vertebrae and vertebral columns. We show that challenges are related to seriality and the metameric nature of the spine. Measuring a series of vertebrae is a time-consuming process because the necessary sample sizes need...
Article
Full-text available
The last two decades have seen the development of virtual morphology (ViMo), which emerged during the late 20 th century through the application of medical imaging techniques to the study of fossil hominins (Spoor et al. 1994, Zollikofer et al. 1995, Conroy et al. 1998). The ViMo workflow has evolved successively by first building digital databases...
Poster
Full-text available
The cervical spine is of great importance to understand posture and locomotor pattern of ancient species. However, cervical vertebrae are badly preserved in the fossil record, as is the case of KNM-WT 15000 (WT15k), which only preserves the C7. Even so, many features of this vertebra, such as the vertebral body wedging and the orientation of the ar...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to give a practical overview, showing how recent available digital technology can be combined to build a laboratory capable to produce 3D (and reproduce in 3D) anatomical models for research, teaching and museum exhibitions on topics related to anatomy, morphology in natural sciences, biology and medicine. We present workfl...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The shape of the human lumbar spine is considered to be a consequence of erect posture. In addition, several other factors such as sexual dimorphism and variation in genetic backgrounds also influence lumbar vertebral morphology. Here we use 3D geometric morphometrics (GM) to analyze the 3D morphology of the lumbar spine in different h...
Article
Full-text available
This study presents the results of the archaeological investigation in Benzú Cave, located on the North African shore of the Strait of Gibraltar. The archaeological deposits, approximately 1 m deep, belong to two occupational levels dated to the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. A wide range of artifacts was found, and this led to an interdisciplinary...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Classic studies in Palaeoanthropology suggest that in hominins and other primates thoraces and pelves are anatomically integrated. However, this torso integration hypothesis has been only tested in isolated bones so far, but not in anatomically connected torsos. Here we aim at testing the torso integration hypothesis in two modern human populations...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The lower back is adapted to mobility and stability across mammals and reflects posture and locomotion in the framework of a species’ evolutionary history. Upright bipedalism is one such positional behavior, and due to limited fossil evidence, disagreements exist as to when, how, and in what evolutionary context bipedalism evolved. Here, we describ...
Article
This study aimed to understand the ontogenetic and allometric relationships in scaling between the anterior and posterior openings of the cranial airways and facial size, in order to shed light on the mechanisms that might underlie the evolution of a large face and large airways in Middle Pleistocene hominins and Neandertals. Sizes were calculated...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual dimorphism is an important biological factor underlying morphological variation in the human skeleton. Previous research found sex-related differences in the static ribcage, with males having more horizontally oriented ribs and a wider lower ribcage than females. Furthermore, a recent study found sex-related differences in the kinematics of...
Article
The long-standing debate around the origin and evolutionary mode of the Neandertal lineage is connected to the understanding of the large morphological diversity found in the European Middle Pleistocene Hominin (EMPH) samples. In practical terms, this problem can be approached through two questions: How many morphs can be distinguished in EMPH and...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual dimorphism is an important biological factor affecting both cranial and postcranial parts of the human skeleton of living and fossil hominids. At the ribcage, sexual dimorphism has been documented to exist at least in a neutral kinematic status. Recent research studying sexual dimorphism in the human lungs has also found different kinematic...
Article
Full-text available
Australopithecus sediba is known from two partial skeletons, Malapa Hominins 1 and 2 (MH1 and MH2), a juvenile male and an adult female, respectively. Forty-eight elements of the axial skeleton, including vertebrae, ribs, a sternum, and a sacrum, are known from MH1 and MH2. Here, we describe these ~2.0 Ma fossils and provide raw data and plots of s...
Article
Full-text available
The size and shape of the Neandertal thorax has been debated since the first discovery of Neandertal ribs more than 150 years ago, with workers proposing different interpretations ranging from a Neandertal thoracic morphology that is indistinguishable from modern humans, to one that was significantly different from them. Here, we provide a virtual...
Chapter
Full-text available
Anthropological research on the functionality of the upper airways has focused on the study of the nasal cavity at skeletal cranial level. However, the soft tissue that makes up this entire structure has received less attention from researchers. The aim of this study is to analyze the morphology of the soft tissues of different functional component...
Chapter
Full-text available
Missing data estimation is an important issue when facing the study of the fossil record, but it is even more challenging when entire elements of a serial anatomical structure are missing. Here we address this topic from the point of view of the human thoracic spine. We digitized 111 landmarks and sliding semilandmarks per vertebra in a reference c...
Chapter
Full-text available
Human craniofacial sphericity was suggested to be essential in living human populations and also, potentially, in human evolution. Two different head form patterns have been described: tall and narrow splanchnocrania linked with anteroposteriorly elongated neurocrania (dolicocephalic pattern), and short, wide splanchnocrania linked with globular ne...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Lower thoracic widths and curvatures track upper pelvic widths and iliac blades curvatures in hominins and other primates (torso integration hypothesis). However, recent studies suggest that sexual dimorphism could challenge this assumption in Homo sapiens. We test the torso integration hypothesis in two modern human populations, both c...
Poster
Full-text available
The almost complete Neanderthal skeleton of La Chapelle-aux-Saints (LC) was discovered in 1908 by Amédée and Jean Bouyssonie and Louis Bardon in the homonymous French town. Marcellin Boule provided the first anatomical description of the fossil, where he considered that LC had a less curved cervical spine than the modern human, based on the orienta...
Poster
Full-text available
Different morphometric studies show a significant relationship between the shape of the cranial base and the face. Things like more shallow lateral cranial bases related to elongated, less prognathic and larger faces (in modern, middle and late Pleistocene hominids) suggesting a conserved basic architectural organization of the cranium, but What ha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of the present project is to reconstruct the atlas of LC using virtual morphological and geometric morphometric (GM) techniques to include this fossil in the study of the comparative anatomy of the cervical spine and head posture of Neanderthals.
Article
Ontogenetic studies help us understand the processes of evolutionary change. Previous studies on Neandertals have focused mainly on dental development and inferred an accelerated pace of general growth.We report on a juvenile partial skeleton (El Sidrón J1) preserving cranio-dental and postcranial remains.We used dental histology to estimate the ag...
Article
Full-text available
Our most recent fossil relatives, the Neanderthals, had a large brain and a very heavy body compared to modern humans. This type of body requires high levels of energetic intake. While food (meat and fat consumption) is a source of energy, oxygen via respiration is also necessary for metabolism. We would therefore expect Neanderthals to have large...