Markku Partinen

Markku Partinen
Terveystalo Healthcare · Helsinki Sleep Clinic

MD, PhD, Professor, FAAN

About

527
Publications
70,306
Reads
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23,337
Citations
Citations since 2016
162 Research Items
7858 Citations
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Introduction
Markku Partinen currently works at the Helsinki Sleep Clinic, Terveystalo Healthcare in Helsinki, Finland. Current topics include narcolepsy, sleep apnea, chronic fatigue, ME/CFS, COVID-19, Long COVID, insomnia and disorders of autonomic nervous system.
Additional affiliations
January 2004 - present
VitalMed Research Center
VitalMed Research Center
Position
  • Research Director
January 1983 - May 1985
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health
Position
  • Researcher
January 1983 - present
University of Helsinki
Position
  • Principal Investigator
Description
  • Studies on neurological sleep disorders
Education
January 1976 - June 1982
University of Helsinki
Field of study
  • Medicine, epidemiology
September 1969 - October 1975
Université de Montpellier
Field of study
  • Medicine

Publications

Publications (527)
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To examine the use of face mask intervention in mitigating the risk of spreading respiratory infections and whether the effect of face mask intervention differs in different exposure settings and age groups. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. We evaluated the risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2 tool (ROB2). Data...
Article
The present study had two main aims. First, to investigate whether shift/night workers had a higher prevalence and severity of COVID-19 compared with day workers. Second, to investigate whether people regularly working in face-to-face settings during the pandemic exhibited a higher prevalence and severity of COVID-19 compared with those having no n...
Article
Recent investigations show that many people affected by SARS‐CoV2 (COVID‐19) report persistent symptoms 2–3 months from the onset of the infection. Here, we report the Italian findings from the second International COVID‐19 Sleep Study survey, aiming to investigate sleep and dream alterations in participants with post‐acute symptoms, and identify t...
Article
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Many people report suffering from post‐acute sequelae of COVID‐19 or “long‐COVID”, but there are still open questions on what actually constitutes long‐COVID and how prevalent it is. The current definition of post‐acute sequelae of COVID‐19 is based on voting using the Delphi‐method by the WHO post‐COVID‐19 working group. It emphasizes long‐lasting...
Article
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Levottomat jalat-oireyhtymä on tavallinen, unta haittaava liikehäiriösairaus. • Aivojen raudanpuute altistaa sekä levottomat jalat-oireille että dopaminergisten lääkkeiden haitalliselle myöhäisvaikutukselle. • Tavanomaisten viitearvojen mukainen ferritiinipitoisuus ei levottomat jalat-oireyhtymässä takaa riittävää aivojen raudansaantia. Siksi tavoi...
Article
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Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic affects mental health and sleep, resulting in frequent nightmares. Therefore, identifying factors associated with nightmare frequency is important, as it can indicate mental health issues. The study aimed to investigate increases in nightmare frequency comparing the pre-pandemic and pandemic period, and identify its...
Article
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Background: Lower-sodium oxybate (LXB) is an oxybate medication with the same active moiety as sodium oxybate (SXB) and a unique composition of cations, resulting in 92% less sodium. LXB was shown to improve cataplexy and excessive daytime sleepiness in people with narcolepsy in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized withdrawal study (NCT0...
Article
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There is growing evidence that periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) may lead to increased blood pressure (BP) values during the night. The aim of this study was to assess if patients with disordered sleep and an increased number of PLMS have higher BP values at night. We analyzed 100 polysomnographic (PSG) recordings of patients with disordered...
Article
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Purpose: Narcolepsy type-1 (NT1) is a rare chronic neurological sleep disorder with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) as usual first and cataplexy as pathognomonic symptom. Shortening the NT1 diagnostic delay is the key to reduce disease burden and related low quality of life. Here we investigated the changes of diagnostic delay over the diagnost...
Article
The diagnosis of narcolepsy is based on clinical history, sleep studies, and, in some cases, cerebrospinal fluid orexin-A/hypocretin-1 measurement. The gold standard for orexin measurement is the radioimmunoassay but other commercial kits are also available, such as the enzyme immune assay (EIA). The specificity of orexin EIA in humans is unknown....
Article
There has been increasing concern about the long‐term impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) as evidenced by anecdotal case reports of acute‐onset parkinsonism and the polysomnographic feature of increased rapid eye movement sleep electromyographic activity. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of dream‐enactment behav...
Article
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The prevalence of sleep apnoea is increasing globally; however, population-based studies have reported a wide variation of prevalence estimates, and data on incidence of clinically diagnosed sleep apnoea are scant. Data on the overall burden of comorbidities or multimorbidity in individuals with incident sleep apnoea are scarce, and the pathways to...
Article
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Background and Objectives Recent studies fueled doubts as to whether all currently defined central disorders of hypersomnolence are stable entities, especially narcolepsy type 2 and idiopathic hypersomnia. New reliable biomarkers are needed and the question arises whether current diagnostic criteria of hypersomnolence disorders should be reassessed...
Article
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The current Russian war against Ukraine is of global concern. It builds on the annexation of Crimea in 2014 and subsequently the war in the Donbas region of Ukraine, and has become a large-scale Russian invasion of Ukraine from three directions, Crimea in the south, Russia in the east, and Belarus in the north. Despite the geopolitical background t...
Article
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Lower-sodium oxybate (LXB) is an oxybate medication approved to treat cataplexy or excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in patients with narcolepsy 7 years of age and older in the United States. LXB was developed as an alternative to sodium oxybate (SXB), because the incidence of cardiovascular comorbidities is higher in patients with narcolepsy and...
Article
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Introduction: A growing number of studies have demonstrated that the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has severely affected sleep and dream activity in healthy people. To date, no investigation has examined dream activity specifically in COVID-19 patients. Methods: As part of the International COVID-19 Sleep Study (ICOSS), we compared...
Article
This protocol paper describes the second survey produced by the International Covid Sleep Study (ICOSS) group with the aim to examine the associations between SARS-CoV-2 infection and sleep, sleepiness, and circadian problems as potential predisposing factors for more severe COVID-19 disease profile and for development of Long-COVID in the general...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Sleep is important for human health and well-being. No previous study has assessed whether the COVID-19 pandemic impacts sleep and daytime function across the globe. Methods This large-scale international survey used a harmonised questionnaire. Fourteen countries participated during the period of May–August 2020. Sleep and daytime probl...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Lifestyle and work habits have been drastically altered by restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Whether the associated changes in sleep timing modulate the risk of suffering from symptoms of insomnia, the most prevalent sleep disorder, is however incompletely understood. Here, we evaluate the association between the early pandemic-a...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Many have reported odd dreams during the pandemic. Given that dreams are associated with mental health, understanding these changes could provide crucial information about wellbeing during the pandemic. This study explored associations between COVID-19 and dream recall frequency (DRF), and related social, health, and mental health facto...
Article
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Study Objectives Individual circadian type is a ubiquitous trait defining sleep, with eveningness often associated with poorer sleep and mental health than morningness. However, it is unknown whether COVID-19 pandemic has differentially affected sleep and mental health depending on the circadian type. Here, the differences in sleep and mental healt...
Article
Importance and Study Objective The COVID-19 pandemic has produced unprecedented changes in social, work, and leisure activities, which all have had major impact on sleep and psychological well-being. This study documented the prevalence of clinical cases of insomnia, anxiety, and depression and selected risk factors (COVID-19, confinement, financia...
Presentation
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EAN narcolepsy guideline INFOGRAFHIC
Article
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Purpose Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may increase the risk of severe COVID-19; however, the level of potential modulation has not yet been established. The objective of the study was to determine the association between high risk of OSA, comorbidities, and increased risk for COVID-19, hospitalization, and intensive care unit (ICU) treatment. Meth...
Article
Background and purpose Narcolepsy is an uncommon hypothalamic disorder of presumed autoimmune origin that usually requires lifelong treatment. This paper aims to provide evidence-based guidelines for the management of narcolepsy in both adults and children. Methods The European Academy of Neurology (EAN), European Sleep Research Society (ESRS), an...
Article
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Background and aim Narcolepsy is an uncommon hypothalamic disorder of presumed autoimmune origin that usually requires lifelong treatment. This paper aims to provide evidence-based guidelines for the management of narcolepsy in both adults and children. Methods The European Academy of Neurology (EAN), European Sleep Research Society (ESRS) and Eur...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic and related restrictions, such as stay-at-home-orders, have significantly altered daily routines and lifestyles. Given their importance for metabolic health, we herein compared sleep and meal timing parameters during vs. before the COVID-19 pandemic based on subjective recall, in an anonymous Swedish survey. Among 191 adults (...
Article
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Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) is a chronic neurological disorder having a strong association with HLA-DQB1*0602, thereby suggesting an immunological origin. Increased risk of NT1 has been reported among children or adolescents vaccinated with AS03 adjuvant-supplemented pandemic H1N1 influenza A vaccine, Pandemrix. Here we show that pediatric Pandemrix-as...
Article
Objectif Étude sur 1 an, évaluant efficacité sur Somnolence Diurne Excessive (SDE) et tolérance de Pitolisant (P), agent éveillant agoniste inverse des récepteurs H3 (histamine) versus placebo (pl) chez des patients avec syndrome d’apnées obstructives du sommeil (SAOS) modéré à sévère ayant refusé la PPC. Méthodes 2 parties : Double aveugle (DA) 1...
Article
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Actigraphy provides longitudinal sleep data over multiple nights. It is a less expensive and less cumbersome method for measuring sleep than polysomnography. Studies assessing accuracy of actigraphy compared to ambulatory polysomnography in different sleep-disordered patients are rare. We aimed to compare the concordance between these methods in cl...
Article
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Introduction The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among professional truck drivers has varied from 28 to 78 % in previous studies. In this study we wanted to estimate the prevalence of OSA and OSA with both subjectively measured sleepiness and objectively measured ability to stay awake (i.e. obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, OSAS) among...
Article
Introduction La somnolence diurne excessive (SDE) est un symptôme fréquent du syndrome d’apnées obstructives du sommeil (SAOS) invalidant chez les patients refusant ou non observant à la pression positive continue (PPC). Pour ces patients, le pitolisant (P) un agent éveillant agoniste inverse sélectif des récepteurs H3 (histamine), pourrait être in...
Article
Introduction Les patients avec Syndrome d’Apnées Obstructives du Sommeil (SAOS) peuvent présenter une Somnolence Diurne Excessive résiduelle (SDEr) malgré un traitement par Pression Positive Continue (PPC) bien conduit. Le pitolisant (P), un agent éveillant agoniste inverse sélectif des récepteurs H3 (histamine) est évalué dans ce contexte. L’étude...
Article
Study objectives Narcolepsy type 1 is a rare hypersomnia of central origin, which is caused by loss of hypothalamic neurons that produce the neuropeptides hypocretin-1 and -2. Hypocretin-containing nerve terminals are found in areas known to play a central role in autonomic control and in pain signaling. Cholinergic M2 receptors are found in brain...
Article
Full-text available
Unettomuus parantaa vireystasoa stressitilanteessa, mutta unettomuushäiriö kehittyy, kun unettomuus itsessään alkaa aiheuttaa huolta ja stressiä. Pitkäkestoisessa unettomuushäiriössä oireet kestävät vähin tään kolme kuukautta. Unettomuushäiriön syntymekanismi sisältää altistavia, laukaisevia ja ylläpitäviä tekijöitä. Vakiintuneet kielteiset olettam...
Article
This protocol paper describes the development of an international collaboration to survey several thousand adults from different countries around the world about their sleep during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic. It is based on the development of a harmonised survey with 50 questions (106 different items) on sleep habits and sleep...
Article
Full-text available
Study Objectives Evaluate efficacy and safety of lower-sodium oxybate (LXB), a novel oxybate medication with 92% less sodium than sodium oxybate (SXB). Methods Adults aged 18–70 years with narcolepsy with cataplexy were eligible. The study included a ≤30-day screening period; a 12-week, open-label, optimized treatment and titration period to transi...
Article
Full-text available
Background Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome persisting despite good adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a disabling condition. Pitolisant is a selective histamine H3-receptor antagonist with wake-promoting effects. Research Question Is pitolisant efficacious and safe in...
Article
Increased incidence rates of narcolepsy type-1 (NT1) have been reported world-wide after the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic (pH1N1). While some European countries found an association between the NT1 incidence increase and the H1N1 vaccination Pandemrix, reports from Asian countries suggested the H1N1 virus itself to be linked to the increased N...
Article
Full-text available
Narcolepsy is a rare sleeping disorder that gives sleep onset rapid eye movement periods and excessive daytime sleepiness. It is divided into two subgroups, narcolepsy type 1 where there also is orexin deficiency and cataplexy and narcolepsy type 2 that lack these features. Narcolepsy type 1 is assumed to be an autoimmune disease with destruction o...
Article
Narcolepsy is a rare sleeping disorder that gives sleep onset rapid eye movement periods and excessive daytime sleepiness. It is divided into two subgroups, narcolepsy type 1 where there also is orexin deficiency and cataplexy and narcolepsy type 2 that lack these features. Narcolepsy type 1 is assumed to be an autoimmune disease with destruction o...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a suspected dysautonomia with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance and abnormally increased heart rate while standing. We aimed to study cardiac autonomic nervous system functioning in head-up tilt (HUT) in adolescents with POTS to find out if parasympathetic tone is attenuated in the upright pos...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and spreads through droplet-mediated transmission on contaminated surfaces and in air. Mounting scientific evidence from observational studies suggests that face masks for the general public may reduce the spread of infections....
Article
Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients have many comorbidities. Narcoleptic patients have a big prevalence of ADHD (15%-30%). Both groups suffer from similar symptoms and benefit from the same class of medications. As such, narcolepsy could be masked in ADHD patients. Low serum ferritin has been found both in ADHD patie...
Article
Full-text available
Narcolepsy type 1, likely an immune-mediated disease, is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. The disease is strongly associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQB1*06:02. A significant increase in the incidence of childhood and adolescent narcolepsy was observed after a vaccination campaign with AS03-adjuvanted Pandemri...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this European initiative is to facilitate a structured discussion to improve the next edition of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD), particularly the chapter on central disorders of hypersomnolence. The ultimate goal for a sleep disorders classification is to be based on the underlying neurobiological causes of th...
Article
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PAX6 gene mutations cause a variety of eye and central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities. Aniridia is often accompanied by CNS abnormalities such as pineal gland atrophy or hypoplasia, leading to disturbed circadian rhythm and sleep disorders. Less is known on the coincidence of narcolepsy in this patient group. We aimed to find out whether the ci...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Excessive daytime sleepiness is a common disabling symptom in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pitolisant, a selective histamine H3-receptor antagonist with wake-promoting effects, for treatment of daytime sleepiness in patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea refusing co...
Preprint
Full-text available
Increased incidence rates of narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) after the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic (pH1N1) have been reported world-wide. While some European countries found an association between the NT1 increase and H1N1 vaccination Pandemrix, reports from Asian countries suggested the H1N1 virus rather than Pandemrix to be linked with the increase...
Article
Introduction La SDE est un symptôme fréquent du SAOS qui reste invalidant chez les patients refusant ou non observant à la PPC. Pour ces patients, pitolisant (Pit), un nouvel agent éveillant antagoniste/agoniste inverse sélectif des récepteurs H3 (histamine), pourrait être indiqué. L’étude présentée évaluait l’efficacité et la tolérance de P versus...
Article
Full-text available
Standard lung function tests are not feasible in young children, but recent studies show that the variability of expiratory tidal breathing flow-volume (TBFV) curves during sleep is a potential indirect marker of lower airway obstruction. However, the neurophysiological sources of the TBFV variability in normal subjects has not been established. We...
Article
Full-text available
Low levels of hypocretin-1 (Hcrt1) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are associated with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1). Although immunoassays are prone to antibody batch differences, detection methods and variation between laboratories, the standard method for Hcrt1 measurement is a radioimmunoassay (RIA). Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectr...
Article
Introduction Type 1 narcolepsy (T1N) is caused by hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) neuronal loss. Association with the Human Leukocyte Antigen DQB1*06:02/DQA1*01:02 (98% vs 25%) heterodimer (DQ0602), T cell receptor (TCR) and other immune loci suggests autoimmunity but autoantigen(s) are unknown. Onset is seasonal and associated with influenza A, notably p...