Mark Mayzner

Mark Mayzner
retired

31.68
 · 
Ph.D

About

108
Publications
18,732
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1,695
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Introduction
I am retired. I have held positions at Bell Telephone Labs, Barnard College, USC, NYU, and Loyola .

Publications

Publications (108)
Research
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These word lists were extracted from Peter Norvig's "word count file" are alphabetized and may be found at "norvig.com/mayzner.html".
Research
Full-text available
These word lists were extracted from Peter Norvig's "word count file" are alphabetized and may be found at "norvig.com/mayzner".
Research
Full-text available
These word lists were extracted from Peter Norvig's "word count file" are alphabetized and may be found at "norvig.com/mayzner.html".
Research
Full-text available
These word lists were extracted from Peter Norvig's "word count file" which may be found at "norvig.com/mayzner.html".
Research
Full-text available
These word lists were extracted from Peter Norvig's "word count file" which may be found at ""norvig.com/mayzner.html".
Research
Full-text available
These word lists were extracted from Peter Norvig's "word count file" which may be found at: "norvig.com/mayzner.html".
Article
Six groups of 10 Ss each were tested in a 3 × 2 × 4 mixed analysis of variance design, in which the effects of 3 variables, namely, list length (10, 14, and 18 digits), number of cycles (single and multi-cycle), and presentation rate (4, 2, 1, and.5 sec. per digit), on the short-term retention of a string of digits were examined. The results clearl...
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In order to study two variables in word associates, i. e., value and meaning continuum, a total of 261 Ss were tested on a 100-stimulus word list where a rating-scale value for the belongingness to the concept “economic” for each word had been established. Three groups of Ss were tested for: IA the first associate only; IB the second associate only...
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A partial replication of the visual masking study by Weisstein & Haber (1965) was performed incorporating the additional variable of masking ring size in order to investigate the discrepancy between findings of that study and the study by Eriksen & Collins (1964). Errors in discriminating the capital letters 0 and D in a forced-choice design were m...
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The present study compared solution times for word and nonsense anagrams in an attempt to resolve conflicting results obtained in earlier studies. No differences were found in solution times between word and nonsense anagrams and the results were related to an S-R mediational model of anagram problem solving behavior.
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Four groups of 30 Ss each were presented with lists of numbers 18 digits in length on a memory drum, one digit exposed at a time, at four different presentation rates, 4 sec. per digit, 2 sec. per digit, 1 sec. per digit, and.50 sec. per digit. The 4 sec. rate was presented for 1 cycle, the 2 sec. rate for 2 cycles, the 1 sec. rate for 4 cycles, an...
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A partial replication of the Averbach and Coriell study on short-term memory in vision was carried out employing six Ss, with a stimulus array consisting of a 2 ? 6 matrix of letters. Three delay intervals of 50, 100, and 150 ms. between letter matrix and bar marker were employed. The results failed to confirm the findings of Averbach and Coriell a...
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Five groups of 10 Ss each were asked to randomly generate 1000 single letters, 500 digrams, 334 trigrams, 250 tetragrams, and 200 pentagrams. Correlations between generated single letter frequencies and observed frequencies in English were high, ranging from.70 to.83, and it was concluded that Ss do not operate as random letter generators, but rath...
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This study examined the immediate serial recall of letter strings composed of a mix of high and low frequency consonants, for high and low digram storage Ss. The results clearly showed that high digram storage Ss show superior recall to low digram storage Ss for mixed letter strings and that systematic proactive and retroactive effects on recall pe...
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In the present study 20 single digits were presented sequentially during a 40 sec. display period and five conditions of input timing distributions were examined, employing a computer-based CRT display system. In one condition the 20 digits were distributed evenly through time at a rate of 2 sec. per digit. In the other four conditions the 20 digit...
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Employing a backward visual masking paradigm, three exploratory studies were carried out to examine the effects of angle size and ISI on angle recognition processing. The results suggest that increasing size probably improves angle recognition performance, but clearly, much additional work remains.
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This study examined the immediate serial recall of letter and number strings as a joint function of (a) the single-letter and sequential digram frequencies of the letter strings and (b) individual differences in the degree to which Ss already have in “store” information concerning the relative frequency of digrams as they occur in the language. The...
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An attempt was made to examine the extent to which the presence of a foveal stimulus affects same-different judgments regarding the horizontal-vertical orientation of two lines located in peripheral vision. The results of the study indicated that accuracy in reporting peripheral visual stimuli is determined not only by the nature of those stimuli,...
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An experiment was designed to detect the existence of line-size and line-orientation processing subroutines. The results suggest that the visual system utilizes two distinct line-processing subroutines: a horizontal subroutine and a vertical subroutine. However, the sizes were handled by an individual subroutine executed repeatedly. It was also fou...
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A previous study, employing a computer-based CRT display system, showed that if the visual system is presented with a string of very fast sequential inputs approximately the first half of these inputs will not be perceived if display order is irregular and display input rate is in the range from approximately 10 to 20 msec. per letter and per inter...
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Previous work of Bugelski, Mayzner and Schoenberg, and Murdock has shown that if total display time is held constant, trade offs may be found between number of display cycles (i.e., the number of times a list is repeated before recall is requested) and display presentation rates. The present study extends these earlier findings by showing that for...
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The present study, employing a computer-based CRT display system, extended and verified earlier findings concerned with display parameters that attenuate “sequential blanking” effects. It also revealed two additional parameters, namely word length and word orientation, which markedly affect the probability of word detection in such a sequential bla...
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The present study replicates and extends previous findings by Julesz, in which he studied sequential and nonsequential presentation orders for the sides of variously shaped polygons. Our results fully confirm his findings and further suggest that his results are but still another instance of sequential blanking effects in man’s visual information p...
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The present paper extends current pattern-recognition research to investigate the processing of numerical inputs. The results indicate major differences in the ease of recognition of the various numbers. The recognition curves developed for each number show vastly different rates of recognition growth for increasing on-time. An analysis of the conf...
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The present study develops an experimental paradigm designed to examine detection, search, matching, and memory functions as they relate to visual signal processing in man. Ss are presented with 2 lines of 10 letters each and required to detect a target letter common to both lines. The results clearly show the effects of display times and number of...
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By presenting the visual system with a highly complex spatio-temporal input configuration, a novel effect called “dynamic sequential displacement” has been disclosed. It is shown that the visual dynamics of this particular input configuration are unstable, yielding either (1)a coding of the input that loses all temporal ordering information or (2)...
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The present study examined visual evoked potentials (VEPs) under three subjectively different stimulus conditions, two of which involved apparent motion. The hypotheses that the apparent motion conditions would result in smaller amplitude VEPs were rejected by data analyses, indicating very similar responses under all three conditions. It was sugge...
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The present study, employing a computer-based cathode-ray tube display system, involved four separate experiments directed to determining if sequential blanking consistently yields a U-shaped function with a variety of input configurations. U-shaped functions were found in all four experiments, and it was concluded that such functions are typical o...
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Averaged evoked cortical potentials were recorded from over the visual and motor areas of four Ss in several experimental sessions which took place over a 4-week period. The visual evoked potential (VEP) and motor potential (MP) were recorded under each of four conditions: (1) light flash alone, (2) squeezing dynamometer alone, (3) light plus squee...
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The present study, employing a backward visual masking paradigm and a computer-based CRT display system, examines the word-recognition performance for 220 four-, five-, and six-letter words, with a sample of 50 subjects. Results, as found previously, continue to demonstrate very large individual variabilities in such information processing tasks.
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The present study is concerned with relating the effects of varying interstimulus interval (ISI) values on visually evoked potentials (VEPs) for pairs of light flashes, where both light flashes have equal luminance values. The results provide further evidence that ISI values and number of stimuli presented affect VEPs, even for equal luminance pair...
Article
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Most theories of visual masking concentrate on the effects of a mask on a target. The present study departs from this position and investigates the manner in which a suppressed target alters the perception of a mask. A visual backward masking paradigm was employed, except that subjects were to identify characteristics of the mask rather than the ta...
Article
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A study was made of the effects of multiple visual masking upon variations in mask position, word frequency, and display on time. Ten subjects were shown five-letter words, four or five letters of which were immediately masked. These words, half of which were classified as frequent and the other half as infrequent, were displayed at different displ...
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The present study examines four different experimental paradigms designed to provide estimates of input processing time in the “;SVE”; component of a model of visual information processing. Mean processing times vary from a low of 60 msec to a high of 120 msec for the four paradigms examined and the results are related to other time estimates in th...
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Reviews studies in which a single letter was visually presented under adverse conditions and the S's task was to identify the letter. The typical results for such studies were that (a) certain pairs of letters were more often confused than other pairs of letters; (b) certain letters were more easily recognized than others; and (c) confusion errors...
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• Reviews studies in which a single letter was visually presented under adverse conditions and the S's task was to identify the letter. The typical results for such studies were that (a) certain pairs of letters were more often confused than other pairs of letters; (b) certain letters were more easily recognized than others; and (c) confusion error...
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A widely accepted perceptual principle is that familiar patterns are easier to recognize than are less familiar patterns. Previous letter-recognition studies are examined to determine whethermore frequent letters in English are easier to recognize than less frequent letters (the letterfrequency effect). Most studies required subjects to identify si...
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Earlier work of Sekuler and his associates on visual temporal order is replicated, with a similar experimental paradigm. Our results, as those of Sekuler, suggest an internal mechanism that scans visual inputs in a left-to-right order, but also suggest that such internal scans may also proceed in top-to-bottom or bottom-to-top orders.
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The present experiment was designed to examine the temporal ordering of detection performance and recognition performance in the perception of alphabetic characters, employing a visual backward-masking by noise paradigm. The results suggest that the encoding processes that lead to a correct “detection” response are completed earlier than the encodi...
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The present study, employing a computer-based cathode-ray tube (CRT) display system, seeks to extend earlier findings on “dynamic visual movement. ” A methodology is developed that attempts to assess thresholds for various phases of “subjective visual experience, ” and quantitative estimates of such thresholds are examined.
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The present study examines further the effects of certain selected spatiotemporal parameters on dynamic visual movement. The results suggest that the subjectively perceived number of inputs is highly sensitive to the spatiotemporal ordering of the input array.
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The present study demonstrates sequential blanking effects can easily be obtained with matrix-type displays as well as linear displays, as shown in earlier work.
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The purpose of the present study is to provide a perspective on the recognition of other-race faces, i.e., black faces by white subjects. Past research has indicated that individuals have greater difficulty recognizing other-race faces than they do same-race faces. On the basis of previous findings, we chose to investigate the recognition of black...
Article
The present paper extends current research on pattern recognition to investigate the effects of density of noise field and delay (off) times. The results indicate major effects due to density of the noise field, on time and off time. Recognition initially declined as the density of the interference increased, then subsequently leveled off at higher...
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Presents 7 technical papers on methodologies and models in the study of human information processing. Topics include the interpretation of reaction time in information processing research, double stimulation, the mechanics of thought, and theoretical perspectives on the perception of printed English. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all righ...
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Two separate experiments were conducted to study the visual evoked potential (VEP) correlates of sequential blanking, a phenomenon in which up to one-half of a discrete train of stimulus inputs are not perceived for certain orders of input. A PDP-7 digital computer was used to present stimuli (from 2 to 5 letter Xs) on a CRT display in both experim...
Article
Five experiments were conducted. The first study was concerned with the nature of the visual evoked potential (VEP) at, above and below two-flash threshold. The second experiment explored the nature of the VEP under conditions of sequential blanking. In the third experiment VEPs were recorded under conditions in which the normally blanked stimuli a...
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Five point sources of light were displayed sequentially in a horizontal line, with .45 in. of separation between each point, employing a computer-based cathode-ray tube display system. If a particular display order and appropriate display rate is employed, then the first two points being displayed will not be perceived. By systematically varying th...
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Two experiments were carried out, employing a computer-based cathode-ray tube display system, to study further the effects of sub-span Hst length, i.e., two, three, four, and five decimal digits, and relatively small interstimulus interval (ISI) values, i.e., 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 msec, on visual information processing, storage, and retrieval mec...
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By presenting alphabetic and other types of input characters, in either adjacent spatial locations or in the same spatial location, on the face of a cathode-ray tube (CRT) interfaced to a digital computer and by varying in systematic ways the interstimulus intervals (ISIsj and display orders of the several sequentially presented inputs, there has e...
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A computer-based, cathode-ray tube display system was employed to study the effect of subspan list length, i.e., 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, or 7-decimaldigits, at several interstimulus-interval (ISI) values, i.e., 60, 100, 140, 180, 220, 260, and 300 msec, on visual-information processing, storage, and retrieval mechanisms. Complicated interactions, found...
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About 15 years ago, Hartline & Ratliff proposed a disinhibition effect in Limulus and a number of recent studies have attempted to demonstrate such effects in the human visual system. The present study provides an analogue to the Hartline and Ratliff paradigm, for the human visual system, and the results obtained suggest that such disinhibition phe...
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Typescript. Thesis (Ph. D.)--New York University, Graduate School of Arts and Science, 1956. Includes bibliographical references.
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A computer-based cathode-ray tube display system was employed to study the effect of subspan list length, i.e., two, three, or four five-letter words, and several interstimulus interval (ISI) values, i.e., 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 500, and 700 msec, on visual information processing. Complicated interactions were found between list length and IS1 va...
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A computer-based cathode-ray tube display system was employed to study further the sequential blanking effect as a function of the geometric properties of the input array. Five outline squares were displayed sequentially, employing a spatio-temporal ordering designed to produce blanking of two of the squares. The two blanked squares were then progr...
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The present study seeks to extend a provisional model of visual information processing with sequential inputs currently under development, employing a computer-based cathode-ray tube display system. Letter and word pairs were presented for 28 different on-off time combinations with on times ranging from 5 msec to 50 msec and off times ranging from...
Article
The present study was designed to examine the effects of single- and double-letter solution words on anagram solution times. One group of 20 anagrams was composed of five single letters (e.g., CIDER, TREND), while a second group of 20 anagrams was composed of three single letters and one double letter (e.g., LAPEL, FOGGY). Double-letter anagrams we...
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The objectives of the present paper are (1) to outline briefly the very great research potential of a computer-based cathode-ray tube (CRT) display system for studies in visual perception, learning, and memory, (2) to discuss the hardware and software components of such systems with reference to a particular system currently in use, and (3) to desc...
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A provisional model of visual information processing with sequential inputs is proposed based on results obtained with a computer-based CRT display system. Major data processing components of the model are identified and 'real-time input processing values' are associated with these components. Processing rules and mechanisms of the data processing...
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THE CONCEPTS OF ANCHORING AND TIME-ERROR HAVE USUALLY BEEN CONSIDERED AS SEPARATE AND UNIQUE PHENOMENA. THE THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES OF EACH ARE IDENTIFIED AND DISCUSSED. IT IS ARGUED THAT ALTHOUGH A DIFFERENT PSYCHOPHYSICAL METHOD IS CHARACTERISTIC OF EACH PHENOMENON, THE THEORETICAL EXPLANATIONS, WHEN ANALYZED, SEEM TO BE THE SAM...
Article
4 groups of 20 Ss each were presented with a set of 21 multiple-solution anagram problems and 2 additional groups of 20 Ss each received 21 single-solution problems, in which the anagram was itself a word. An S-R mediational model or problem-solving behavior was employed to make predictions concerning the effects of 4 variables, viz., anagram lette...
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Reports an error in the original article by M. S. Mayzner and M. E. Tresselt (Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1965[Dec], 70[6], 606-610). The affiliation for M. E. Tresselt should be Department of Psychology, New York University. Also, on page 607, line 15 in the right-hand column, the phrase "ranging from 8 to 17" should read "ranging from 3 t...
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NORMATIVE SOLUTION TIMES BASED ON A SAMPLE OF 134 SOLUTION WORDS AND 378 ASSOCIATED ANAGRAMS COMPILED FROM 9 STUDIES ARE PRESENTED, AS WELL AS THE 120 LETTER ORDERS POSSIBLE WITH A 5-LETTER WORD, AND A SKELETON-WORD TEST AND SCORING KEY USED FOR ASSESSING THE DEGREE TO WHICH SS STORE DIGRAM FREQUENCY INFORMATION. (16 REF.) (PsycINFO Database Record...
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The present study, consisting of two experiments, was designed to examine the effects of list length and display time on the short-term retention of paired-associate material. In Experiment I, with 90 Ss, a three-by-three-by-five mixed analysis-of-variance design was used with three levels of list length (five, seven, and nine city-temperature pair...
Article
The present study was designed to examine the effects of letter frequency and organizational pattern on the short-term retention of letter stimuli. A total of 60 Ss were tested individually in a two-by-four mixed analysis-of-variance design with two levels of digram-letter frequency (high and low) and four levels of organizational pattern (12 lines...
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PRESENTS TABLES, BASED ON A SAMPLE OF 20,000 ENGLISH WORDS, WHICH SHOW SINGLE-LETTER AND DIGRAM FREQUENCY COUNTS BROKEN DOWN TO ACCOUNT FOR ALL WORD-LENGTH AND LETTER-POSITION COMBINATIONS, FOR WORDS 3-7 LETTERS IN LENGTH. THESE TABLES ARE SIMILAR TO THOSE OF PRATT AND OF UNDERWOOD AND SCHULZ, BUT IN ADDITION ALLOW FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF FREQUENCIES...
Article
This study examined the immediate serial recall of letter strings as a function of the single-letter and sequential digram frequencies of the string. Three types of letter strings were constructed, high-frequency consonants combined with high-frequency digrams (HH), high-frequency consonants combined with low-frequency digrams (HL), and low-frequen...
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This exploratory study was designed to examine the role of mediating responses in anagram problem solving. A special technique, in which S's were presented with the letters of the anagram on separate wooden blocks which could be moved combined with "thinking out loud," was developed. The results, confirming predictions based on an S-R mediational m...
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If communality of responses is stable, the relative popularity of responses to the Kent-Rosanoff Word Association Test should remain the same for subjects from young adulthood to advanced age. The Kent-Rosanoff was administered individually to 738 subjects from 18 to 87 years of age from various occupations and from various parts of the country. Th...
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The present study asked if Ss can correctly rank the frequency with which digrams and single letters occur in the language and do this as a function of word length and letter-position variables. The results indicated that Ss can do so successfully. It was suggested that such digram and single-letter frequencies are “stored” by Ss as a frequency-res...
Article
A study was made of the effect of word transition probability on anagram solution times. Word transition probability was varied by selecting words with either relatively high or low summed digram frequency totals, while holding constant anagram letter order, word frequency, and anagram transition probability variables. The results, predicted on the...
Article
The present study examined the effects of the number of positive and negative instances on verbal concept attainment. Four values of positive instances (two, three, four, and five) were combined with three values of negative instances (two, four, and six) in a 4 × 3 factorial design with 12 Ss per condition. The results, predicted on the basis of a...
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A study was made of the effect of letter order and word frequency variables on anagram solution times. Hard letter orders and low word frequency counts both produced marked increases in anagram solution times.

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Project (1)