Mark Wilber

Mark Wilber
University of Tennessee | UTK · Department of ​Forestry, Wildlife & Fisheries

PhD

About

55
Publications
11,190
Reads
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583
Citations
Introduction

Publications

Publications (55)
Article
Full-text available
Network approaches have revolutionized the study of ecological interactions. Social, movement and ecological networks have all been integral to studying infectious disease ecology. However, conventional (dyadic) network approaches are limited in their ability to capture higher‐order interactions. We present simplicial sets as a tool that addresses...
Article
Full-text available
Pathogen transmission depends on host density, mobility and contact. These components emerge from host and pathogen movements that themselves arise through interactions with the surrounding environment. The environment, the emergent host and pathogen movements, and the subsequent patterns of density, mobility and contact form an ‘epidemiological la...
Article
1. Many pathogens of public health and conservation concern persist in host communities. Identifying candidate maintenance and reservoir species is therefore a central component of disease management. The term maintenance species implies that if all species but the putative maintenance species were removed, then the pathogen would still persist. In...
Article
Full-text available
The ongoing explosion of fine‐resolution movement data in animal systems provides a unique opportunity to empirically quantify spatial, temporal and individual variation in transmission risk and improve our ability to forecast disease outbreaks. However, we lack a generalizable model that can leverage movement data to quantify transmission risk and...
Article
Host species that can independently maintain a pathogen in a host community and contribute to infection in other species are important targets for disease management. However, the potential of host species to maintain a pathogen is not fixed over time, and an important challenge is understanding how within‐ and across‐season variability in host mai...
Preprint
Full-text available
The ongoing explosion of fine-resolution movement data in animal systems provides a unique opportunity to empirically quantify spatial, temporal, and individual variation in transmission risk and improve our ability to forecast disease outbreaks. However, we lack a generalizable framework that can leverage movement data to quantify transmission ris...
Preprint
Full-text available
Environment drives the host movements that shape pathogen transmission through three mediating processes: host density, host mobility, and contact. These processes combine with pathogen life-history to give rise to an “epidemiological landscape” that determines spatial patterns of pathogen transmission. Yet despite its central role in transmission,...
Article
Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans is an emerging fungus that is causing salamander declines in Europe. We evaluated whether an invasive frog species (Cuban treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis) that is found in international trade could be an asymptomatic carrier when exposed to zoospore doses known to infect salamanders. We discovered that Cuban t...
Article
Infection intensity can dictate disease outcomes, but is typically ignored when modeling infection dynamics of microparasites (e.g., bacteria, virus, and fungi). However, for a number of pathogens of wildlife typically categorized as microparasites, accounting for infection intensity and within-host infection processes is critical for predicting po...
Article
Full-text available
When facing an emerging infectious disease of conservation concern, we often have little information on the nature of the host-parasite interaction to inform management decisions. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the life-history strategies of host species can be predictive of individual and population-level responses to infectious d...
Article
Full-text available
Transmission is the fundamental process whereby pathogens infect their hosts and spread through populations, and can be characterized using mathematical functions. The functional form of transmission for emerging pathogens can determine pathogen impacts on host populations and can inform the efficacy of disease management strategies. By directly me...
Article
Pigs (Sus scrofa) may be important surveillance targets for risk assessment and risk-based control planning against emerging zoonoses. Pigs have high-contact rates with humans and other animals, transmit similar pathogens as humans including CoVs, and serve as reservoirs and intermediate hosts for notable human pandemics. Wild and domestic pigs bot...
Article
Resistance and tolerance are unique host defense strategies that can limit the impacts of a pathogen on a host. However, for most wildlife‐pathogen systems there are still fundamental uncertainties regarding 1) how changes in resistance and tolerance can affect disease outcomes and 2) the mechanisms underlying resistance and tolerance in host popul...
Article
Full-text available
Contact heterogeneity among hosts determines invasion and spreading dynamics of infectious disease, thus its characterization is essential for identifying effective disease control strategies. Yet, little is known about the factors shaping contact networks in many wildlife species and how wildlife management actions might affect contact networks. W...
Preprint
Pigs ( Sus scrofa ) may be important surveillance targets for risk assessment and risk-based control planning against emerging zoonoses. Pigs have high-contact rates with humans and other animals, transmit similar pathogens as humans including CoVs, and serve as reservoirs and intermediate hosts for notable human pandemics.Wild and domestic pigs bo...
Article
1. Worldwide, infectious diseases represent a major source of mortality in humans and livestock. For wildlife populations, disease-induced mortality is likely even greater, but remains notoriously difficult to estimate -- especially for endemic infections. Approaches for quantifying wildlife mortality due to endemic infections have historically bee...
Article
Full-text available
Pathogen persistence in host communities is influenced by processes operating at the individual host to landscape‐level scale, but isolating the relative contributions of these processes is challenging. We developed theory to partition the influence of host species, habitat patches and landscape connectivity on pathogen persistence within metacommu...
Article
Full-text available
Macroecological studies have established widespread patterns of species diversity and abundance in ecosystems but have generally restricted their scope to relatively steady-state systems. As a result, how macroecological metrics are expected to scale in ecosystems that experience natural disturbance regimes is unknown. We examine macroecological pa...
Article
Full-text available
Symbiotic microbial communities are important for host health, but the processes shaping these communities are poorly understood. Understanding how community assembly processes jointly affect microbial community composition is limited because inflexible community models rely on rejecting dispersal and drift before considering selection. We develope...
Article
Functional responses describe how changing resource availability affects consumer resource use, thus providing a mechanistic approach to prediction of the invasibility and potential damage of invasive alien species (IAS). However, functional responses can be context‐dependent, varying with resource characteristics and availability, consumer attribu...
Article
Accurate estimates of seasonal infection risk can be used by animal health officials to predict future disease risk and better understand the mechanisms driving disease dynamics. It can be difficult to estimate seasonal infection risk in wildlife disease systems because surveillance assays typically target antibodies ('serosurveillance'), which are...
Article
Full-text available
Swine are important in the ecology of influenza A viruses (IAV) globally. Understanding the ecological role of wild pigs in IAV ecology has been limited because surveillance in wild pigs is often for antibodies (serosurveillance) rather than IAVs, as in humans and domestic swine. As IAV antibodies can persist long after an infection, serosurveillan...
Article
1.Individual‐ and species‐level heterogeneity in contact rates can alter the ability of a pathogen to invade a host community. Many pathogens have multiple modes of transmission by direct or indirect contact. It is important to identify the role of heterogeneity in different types of transmission when managing the risk of disease spillover at the i...
Article
Full-text available
Almost 80% of the 4 billion projected increase in world population by 2100 comes from 37 Mid-African Countries (MACs), caused mostly by slow declines in Total Fertility Rate (TFR). Historically, TFR has declined in response to increases in wellbeing associated with economic development. We show that, when Infant Survival Rate (ISR, a proxy for well...
Data
Fertility decline vs Infant Mortality Rate. (PDF)
Data
Details relating to Fig 1: Country groups. (PDF)
Data
Fertility decline vs improvement in wellbeing in MACs and ODCs: other possible measures. (PDF)
Preprint
Macroecological studies have generally restricted their scope to relatively steady-state systems, and as a result, how biodiversity and abundance metrics are expected to scale in disturbance-dependent ecosystems is unknown. We examine macroecological patterns in a fire-dependent forest of Bishop pine (Pinus muricata). We target two different-aged s...
Article
The macroecological pattern known as Taylor's power law (TPL) represents the pervasive tendency of the variance in population density to increase as a power function of the mean. Despite empirical illustrations in systems ranging from viruses to vertebrates, the biological significance of this relationship continues to be debated. Here we combined...
Article
While disease-induced extinction is generally considered rare, a number of recently emerging infectious diseases with load-dependent pathology have led to extinction in wildlife populations. Transmission is a critical factor affecting disease-induced extinction, but the relative importance of transmission compared to load-dependent host resistance...
Article
Full-text available
Freshwater biodiversity is imperiled across the globe, and multiple stressors such as habitat alteration, non-native species invasion, disease, and climate change can act in concert to threaten vulnerable taxa. The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes the disease chytridiomycosis, is one of the causative factor...
Article
Few hosts have many parasites while many hosts have few parasites. This axiom of macroparasite aggregation is so pervasive it is considered a general law in disease ecology, with important implications for the dynamics of host-parasite systems. Because of these dynamical implications, a significant amount of work has explored both the various mecha...
Article
Few hosts have many parasites while many hosts have few parasites - this axiom of macroparasite aggregation is so pervasive it is considered a general law in disease ecology, with important implications for the dynamics of host-parasite systems. Because of these dynamical implications,a significant amount of work has explored both the various mecha...
Article
Full-text available
Host parasite models are typically constructed under either a microparasite or macroparasite paradigm. However, this has long been recognized as a false dichotomy because many infectious disease agents, including most fungal pathogens, have attributes of both microparasites and macroparasites. 2.We illustrate how Integral Projection Models (IPM)s p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been identified as the primary factor in many amphibian declines around the world, yet its effect on lowland populations of California anurans, such as the foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii) is poorly understood. R. boylii has declined from more than half of its former range, but ha...
Article
Macroeco is a Python package that supports the analysis of empirical macroecological patterns and the comparison of these patterns to theoretical predictions. Here we describe the use of macroeco and the various functions that it contains. We also highlight a unique high-level interface included with the package, MacroecoDesktop, that allows non-pr...
Article
Parasites can significantly impact animal populations by changing host behavior, reproduction and survival. Detecting and quantifying these impacts is critical for understanding disease dynamics and managing wild animal populations. However, for wild hosts infected with macroparasites, it is notoriously difficult to quantify the fatal parasite load...
Article
Full-text available
Emerging infectious diseases pose an important threat to wildlife. While established protocols exist for combating outbreaks of human and agricultural pathogens, appropriate management actions before, during, and after the invasion of wildlife pathogens have not been developed. We describe stage-specific goals and management actions that minimize d...
Article
AimThe recently proposed maximum entropy theory of ecology predicts that all nested species-area relationships (SARs) will collapse to a single, universal curve that exhibits a decreasing log-log slope with increasing scale, suggesting that the power law form of the SAR is invalid at any scale. In this analysis we test the generality of this scale...
Article
Full-text available
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are on the rise due to multiple factors, including human facilitated movement of pathogens, broad-scale landscape changes, and perturbations to ecological systems (Jones et al. 2008; Fisher et al. 2012). Epidemics in wildlife are problematic because they can lead to pathogen spillover to new host organisms, erode...
Article
Full-text available
Many fundamental properties of ecological systems and interactions are tied to body size and a related metric, the metabolic rate distribution, both within and across species. A previously proposed maximum entropy theory of ecology (METE) predicts numerous interrelated macroecological patterns, including spatial distributions of individuals within...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods The ubiquity of disturbance in structuring ecological communities continues to motivate a search for generality in disturbance ecology. A better understanding of ecological perturbations and quantitative comparisons of their effects over multiple scales is required for both species-level and landscape-scale conservatio...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Species abundance distributions (SAD)s are a community level metric and their shape describes the commonness and rarity within a community. While the shape of the SAD is a result of biotic and abiotic processes, there is considerable debate whether a specific process will be reflected in the shape of the SAD. To this e...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods The study of patterns in species distributions has long been a major focus of ecology. One metric of particular interest is the species-level spatial abundance distribution (SSAD), the distribution of a species’ abundance in quadrats sampled from a large landscape, which characterizes the degree of aggregation in a spec...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
Recasting disturbance ecology hypotheses related to biodiversity, abundances, and scaling into the quantitative framework of macroecology