Mark van Loosdrecht

Mark van Loosdrecht
Delft University of Technology | TU · Department of Biotechnology

PhD Environmental Engineering

About

1,316
Publications
625,523
Reads
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83,548
Citations
Introduction
Research on Microbial Ecology and its implementation in new process designs. Biofilms, Nutrients, Waste to Resources, Anammox, Wastewater, Granular Sludge
Additional affiliations
August 2009 - present
KWR Water Research Institute
Position
  • Consultant
January 1988 - present
Delft University of Technology
Position
  • Hoogleraar
March 1985 - May 1988
Wageningen University & Research
Position
  • PhD Student
Education
March 1985 - May 1988
Wageningen University & Research
Field of study
  • Microbiology / colloid chemistry
August 1978 - May 1985
Independent Researcher
Field of study
  • environmental sciecnce

Publications

Publications (1,316)
Article
Aerobic granules contain microorganisms that are responsible for carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal in aerobic granular sludge (AGS) process in which aerobic/anoxic/anaerobic layers (from surface to core) occur in a single granule. Optimizing the aerobic granular sludge (AGS) process for granulation and efficient nutrient removal can be chall...
Article
Full-text available
Municipal activated sludge can be used for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production, when supplied with volatile fatty acids. In this work, standardized PHA accumulation assays were performed with different activated sludge to determine (1) the maximum biomass PHA content, (2) the degree of enrichment (or volume-to-volume ratio of PHA-accumulating bac...
Article
Alginate like extracellular polymers (ALE) recovered from excess sludge have been evaluated as an eco-friendly, cost effective and sustainable alternative to highly valued materials. However, the ALE extraction from flocculent sludge ranges normally from 90 to 190 mg/g VSS, which is only equivalent to the lowest edge of the ALE production from aero...
Article
Full-text available
Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) is an advanced biofilm-based technology for wastewater treatment. Diffusion of substrates into the granules is a key aspect of this technology. Domestic wastewater contains soluble organic substrates of different sizes that could potentially diffuse into the granules. In this study, the relation between the molecular w...
Article
Sludge incineration and seawater desalination are two approaches that can be used in the disposal of waste activated sludge (WAS) and for obtaining fresh water. As resource recovery from wastewater treatment and water purification is a topic of particular interest in these times, “water mining” has become a focus of research, with phosphate/P-recov...
Article
Entropy is a concept defined by the second law of thermodynamics. Applying this concept to the world we live in, entropy production must be minimized and negentropy (negative entropy production) should be accelerated, in order to produce a healthy and stable ecological system. The present wastewater treatment, however, contributes to entropy produc...
Article
Full-text available
Polyhydroxyalkanoate accumulation experiments at pilot scale were performed with fullscale municipal waste activated sludge. Development of biomass PHA content was quantified by thermogravimetric analysis. Over 48 hours the biomass reached up to 0.49 ± 0.03 gPHA/gVSS (n=4). Samples were processed in parallel to characterise the distribution of PHA...
Chapter
With the growing interest in aviation biofuels, various production alternatives have been developed and assessed, indicating that aviation biofuels have the potential to reduce emissions when compared to fossil-based kerosene. However, existing approaches for the design and ex-ante assessment of biofuel production tend to focus on techno-economic f...
Article
Alginate like extracellular polymers (ALE) recovered from flocculent sludge has been identified as a kind of highly valuable biomaterials. However, the extraction protocols limit the production of biopolymers as ALE extracted from flocculent sludge is at a lower level, around 90–190 mg/g VSS. Under this circumstance, the eco-friendly and effective...
Article
The application of partial nitritation-anammox (PN/A) under mainstream conditions can enable substantial cost savings at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), but how process conditions and cell physiology affect anammox performance at psychrophilic temperatures below 15 °C remains poorly understood. We tested 14 anammox communities, including 8 fro...
Article
Full-text available
In the One Health context, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are central to safeguarding water resources. Nonetheless, many questions remain about their effectiveness in preventing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) dissemination. Most surveillance studies monitor the levels and removal of selected antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile geneti...
Article
Sialic acids are a family of nine-carbon negatively charged carbohydrates. In animals, they are abundant on mucosa surfaces as terminal carbohydrates of mucin glycoproteins. Some commensal and pathogenic bacteria are able to release, take up, and catabolize sialic acids. Recently, sialic acids have been discovered to be widespread among most microo...
Chapter
With increased commitment from the international community to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from all sectors in accordance with the Paris Agreement, the water sector has never felt the pressure it is now under to transition to a low-carbon water management model. This requires reducing GHG emissions from grid-energy consumption (Scope 2 emi...
Article
Full-text available
Microbial communities are responsible for biological wastewater treatment, but our knowledge of their diversity and function is still poor. Here, we sequence more than 5 million high-quality, full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences from 740 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across the world and use the sequences to construct the ‘MiDAS 4’ database. M...
Article
Full-text available
The coupling of PHB generation with NADH reoxidation is required to generate PHB as a fermentation product. A fundamental trait to accomplish this feature is to express a functional NADH-preferring acetoacetyl-CoA reductase, engaged in PHB accumulation. One way to obtain such a reductase is by engineering the cofactor preference of the acetoacetyl-...
Preprint
The tremendous progress in sequencing technologies has made 16S amplicon and whole metagenome sequencing routine in microbiome studies. Furthermore, advances in mass spectrometric techniques has expanded conventional proteomics into the field of microbial ecology. Commonly referred to as metaproteomics, this approach measures the gene products (i.e...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the One Health context, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are central to safeguard water resources. Nonetheless, many questions remain about their effectiveness to prevent the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Most surveillance studies monitor the levels and removal of selected antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genet...
Article
Full-text available
Sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG) are negatively charged extracellular polymeric substances that occur in biofilms from various environments. Yet, it remains unclear whether these polymers are acquired from the external environment or produced by microbes in the biofilm. To resolve this, we analyzed the presence of sGAGs in samples of an acidophil...
Article
Full-text available
Iron in anaerobic groundwater is commonly removed by oxidation followed by sand filtration. This produces large volumes of iron(III)(hydr)oxide sludge with little value. Our research investigates the novel concept of anaerobic iron(II) recovery from groundwater as the valuable mineral vivianite (Fe3(PO4)2 • 8 H2O) by the addition of phosphate to th...
Article
The adaptation of bacteria involved in anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) to low temperatures will enable more efficient removal of nitrogen from sewage across seasons. At lower temperatures, bacteria typically tune the synthesis of their membrane lipids to promote membrane fluidity. However, such adaptation of anammox bacteria lipids, includin...
Article
Full-text available
In this study a mathematical framework was developed to describe aerobic granulation based on 6 main mechanisms: microbial selection, selective wasting, maximizing transport of substrate into the biofilm, selective feeding, substrate type and breakage. A numerical model was developed using four main components; a 1D convection/dispersion model to d...
Article
Full-text available
In a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), several sludge streams exist and the composition of their liquid phase varies with time and place. For evaluating the potential for formation of precipitates and equilibria for weak acids/bases, the ionic strength and chemical composition need to be known. This information is often not available in literature...
Article
The adaptation of bacteria involved in the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) to low temperatures in the mainstream of WWTP will unlock substantial treatment savings. However, their adaptation mechanisms have begun to be revealed only very recently. This study reviewed the state-of-the-art knowledge on these mechanisms from -omics studies, cruc...
Article
Eighty percent of wastewater is left untreated or not reused, exacerbating the water quality challenge, especially in vulnerable communities. This Voices asks: how can we improve wastewater management and convert wastewater into a resource?
Article
Full-text available
It was recently discovered that vivianite (Fe3(PO4)2.8H2O) could be magnetically extracted from digested activated sludge which opened a new route for phosphorus recovery (Wijdeveld et al. 2022). While its formation in digested sludge is regularly reported, it is not yet studied for fresh, undigested activated sludge. In particular, the extent to w...
Article
Full-text available
Phosphorus (P) is an essential resource for food production and chemical industry. Phosphorus use has to become more sustainable and should include phosphorus recycling from secondary sources. About 20% of P ends up in sewage sludge, making this a substantial secondary P source. There is currently a technological gap to recover P from sludge locall...
Article
Aerobic granular sludge offers improvements to treatment processes
Article
This study deals with the application of data reconciliation to wastewater treatment processes which are subject to dynamic conditions and therefore do not reach a steady-state behaviour sensu stricto. The...
Preprint
Full-text available
Municipal services for buildings in developed (sub)tropical coastal cities contributed 18% of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in 2020. One mitigatory solution is the direct use of seawater for district cooling and toilet flushing, which has been applied in Hong Kong on various scales and achieved 30% water and energy savings. However, no systematic evaluat...
Article
Full-text available
Granular sludge processes are frequently used in domestic and industrial wastewater treatment. The granule buoyant density and biomass density are important parameters for the design and operation of granular sludge reactors. Different methods to measure the granule density include the pycnometer method, the Percoll density gradient method, the dex...
Article
Full-text available
Hydroxylamine is a nitrogen intermediate of ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) that can transiently accumulate during nitrification. The impact of hydroxylamine on aerobic ammonium oxidations is still obscure. In the present study the short and long term impact of hydroxylamine on partial nitritation granular sludge was investigated. Dissolved oxyge...
Article
Full-text available
Bacterial alginate-like exopolymers (ALE) gels have been used in this work as a model for the extracellular polymeric matrix of biofilms. Aim was to relate the mechanical properties and strength of this matrix that make biofilms as persistent to cleaning as they are, to the complex cohesive molecular interactions involved. Mechanical properties of...
Article
Anammox bacteria enable efficient removal of nitrogen from sewage in processes involving partial nitritation and anammox (PN/A) or nitrification, partial denitrification, and anammox (N-PdN/A). In mild climates, anammox bacteria must be adapted to ≤15°C, typically by gradual temperature decrease; however, this takes months or years. To reduce the t...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this paper is to compare, under Dutch market conditions, the energy consumption and net costs of membrane-based advanced treatment processes for three water reuse types (i.e. potable, industrial, agricultural reuse). The water source is municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent. Results indicate that the application of reverse...
Article
Eco-friendly flame retardants are greatly required to meet the expectations of low-toxicity, environmental compatibility and sustainability. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the biopolymers recovered from excess granular wastewater sludge, have been successfully incorporated into poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) by a solution casting method. Self...
Article
Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are biopolymers that can be recovered from excess sludge, which could contribute to a more sustainable wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) operation. An example is alginate like extracellular polymers (ALE) contained in the biopolymers could be a potential resource with a highly-added value. EPS extraction for...
Preprint
Full-text available
Anammox bacteria enable an efficient removal of nitrogen from sewage in processes involving partial nitritation and anammox (PN/A) or nitrification, partial denitrification, and anammox (N-PdN/A). In mild climates, anammox bacteria must be adapted to 15 C, typically by gradual temperature decrease; however, this takes months or years. To reduce the...
Data
Biofouling is one of the major factors causing decline in membrane performance in reverse osmosis (RO) plants, and perhaps the biggest hurdle of membrane technology. Chemical cleaning is periodically carried out at RO membrane installations aiming to restore membrane performance. Typical cleaning agents used in the water treatment industry include...
Article
Full-text available
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are widespread among bacteria. However, not all ARGs pose serious threats to public health, highlighting the importance of identifying those that are high-risk. Here, we developed an ‘omics-based’ framework to evaluate ARG risk considering human-associated-enrichment, gene mobility, and host pathogenicity. Our fra...
Article
The enormous chemical diversity and strain variability of prokaryotic protein glycosylation makes their large-scale exploration exceptionally challenging. Therefore, despite the universal relevance of protein glycosylation across all domains of life, the understanding of their biological significance and the evolutionary forces shaping oligosacchar...
Article
Full-text available
Biofouling is one of the major factors causing decline in membrane performance in reverse osmosis (RO) plants, and perhaps the biggest hurdle of membrane technology. Chemical cleaning is periodically carried out at RO membrane installations aiming to restore membrane performance. Typical cleaning agents used in the water treatment industry include...
Article
--- Free access until 29 Oct. 2021 via https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1djPi9pi-SaaL --- In municipal wastewater treatment plants, some dissolved methane can enter the aerobic bioreactors. This greenhouse gas originates from sewers and return flows from anaerobic sludge treatment. In well-mixed conventional activated sludge reactors, methane emissio...
Article
Full-text available
Plasmid-mediated dissemination of antibiotic resistance among fecal Enterobacteriaceae in natural ecosystems may contribute to the persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in anthropogenically impacted environments. Plasmid transfer frequencies measured under laboratory conditions might lead to overestimation of plasmid transfer potential in natu...
Article
Developing an effective and stable separation membrane for water treatment is of much interest while challenging because of the restrictions of membrane fouling and water flux reduction. To minimize this problem, in this work, highly porous and hydrophilic nanostructure of NH2-modified MCM-41 (NH2-MCM-41) was embedded successfully into the nanofilt...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Earthen construction is regaining popularity as an ecological and economical alternative to contemporary building materials. While building with earth offers several benefits, its performance due to water ingress is a concern for its widespread application. This limitation is often solved by adding chemical stabilisers such as Portland cement and h...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The water-resistance of cow-dung has made it a widely used stabiliser in traditional earthen structures in several Asian and African countries. Multiple studies have shown an improvement in water-resistance with the addition of cow-dung, but none provides insight into this behaviour. The present study investigates the water-resistance behaviour of...
Article
Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES) are composed of supramolecular interactions of two or more natural compounds, such as organic acids, sugars, and amino acids, and they are being used as a new media alternative to conventional solvents. In this study, a new application of NADES is presented as a possible technology for biofilm structural break...
Article
Biochemical oxidation and reduction are the principle of biological water and wastewater treatment, in which electron donor and/or acceptor shall be provided. Elemental sulfur (S⁰) as a non-toxic and easily available material with low price, possesses both reductive and oxidative characteristics, suggesting that it is a suitable material for water...
Article
Full-text available
Microbial community-based polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production has been demonstrated repeatedly at pilot scale. Ammonium, normally present in waste streams, might be oxidized by nitrifying bacteria resulting in additional unknown/L) was found for which nitrification was mitigated but also exploited to supply requisite heterotrophic nitrate require...
Article
Full-text available
Temperature change over the length of heat exchangers might be an important factor affecting biofouling. This research aimed at assessing the impact of temperature on biofilm accumulation and composition with respect to bacterial community and extracellular polymeric substances. Two identical laboratory-scale plate heat exchanger modules were devel...
Article
Full-text available
Today's urban water system can be transformed, without big modifications, into a natural and revolutionary “Blue Route” for combating climate change and constructing carbon neutral city, which will lead to self-sustainability of the water sector and supply energy and resources to other sectors.
Article
A full-scale wastewater treatment plant in China experienced unintentional anammox bacterial enrichment on biofilm carriers placed in the anaerobic and anoxic zones of an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process under ambient temperatures and without bioaugmentation. Here, we show that microaerophilic conditions resulting from air scouring needed for biofilm...
Article
This work shows how more variables can be monitored with a single off-gas sampler on sequentially operated than on continuously fed and aerated reactors and applies the methods to data from a full-scale aerobic granular sludge reactor as a demonstration and to obtain insight in this technology. First, liquid-gas transfer rates were calculated. Oxyg...
Article
Metaproteomics has emerged as one of the most promising approaches for determining the composition and metabolic functions of complete microbial communities. Conventional metaproteomics approaches rely on the construction of protein sequence databases and efficient peptide-spectrum-matching algorithms, an approach that is intrinsically biased towar...
Article
Metaproteomics has emerged as one of the most promising approaches for determining the composition and metabolic functions of complete microbial communities. Conventional metaproteomics approaches rely on the construction of protein sequence databases and efficient peptide-spectrum-matching algorithms, an approach that is intrinsically biased towar...
Article
Diclofenac is a worldwide consumed drug included in the watch list of substances to be monitored according to the European Union Water Framework Directive (Directive 2013/39/EU). Aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors (AGS-SBR) are increasingly used for wastewater treatment but there is scant information on the fate and effect of micropo...
Article
Full-text available
The presence of toxic compounds in wastewater can cause problems for organic matter and nutrient removal. In this study, the long-term effect of a model xenobiotic, 2-fluorophenol (2-FP), on ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and phosphate accumulating organisms (PAO) in aerobic granular sludge was investigated. Phos...
Article
Full-text available
Nonulosonic acids (NulOs) are a family of acidic carbohydrates with a nine-carbon backbone, which include different related structures, such as sialic acids. They have mainly been studied for their relevance in animal cells and pathogenic bacteria. Recently, sialic acids have been discovered as an important compound in the extracellular matrix of v...