Mark R Toshner

Mark R Toshner
University of Cambridge | Cam · Department of Medicine

About

207
Publications
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Introduction
Dr Toshner undertook a British Heart Foundation Research Training Fellowship and subsequent Wellcome/ NIHR Clinical Lecturer. He is the current University Lecturer in Translational Respiratory Research and his group is interested in translational and experimental research in pulmonary vascular diseases.

Publications

Publications (207)
Article
Full-text available
Background No effective pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions exist for patients with long COVID. We aimed to describe recovery 1 year after hospital discharge for COVID-19, identify factors associated with patient-perceived recovery, and identify potential therapeutic targets by describing the underlying inflammatory profiles of the...
Article
Rationale: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by structural remodelling of pulmonary arteries and arterioles. Underlying biological processes are likely reflected in a perturbation of circulating proteins. Objectives: To quantify and analyse the plasma proteome of PAH patients using inherited genetic variation to inform on un...
Article
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The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 variant emerged in 20211 and bears multiple spike mutations2. Here we show that Omicron spike has higher affinity for ACE2 compared to Delta as well as a marked change of antigenicity conferring significant evasion of therapeutic monoclonal and vaccine-elicited polyclonal neutralising antibodies after two doses. mRNA vac...
Article
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Background Prominent early features of COVID-19 include severe, often clinically silent, hypoxia and a pronounced reduction in B cells, the latter important in defence against SARS-CoV-2. This presentation resembles the phenotype of mice with VHL-deficient B cells, in which Hypoxia-Inducible Factors are constitutively active, suggesting hypoxia mig...
Article
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Clotting Factor V (FV) is primarily synthesised in the liver and when cleaved by thrombin forms pro-coagulant Factor Va (FVa). Using whole blood RNAseq and scRNAseq of peripheral blood mononuclear cells we find that FV mRNA is expressed in leukocytes, and identify neutrophils, monocytes and T regulatory cells as sources of increased FV in hospitali...
Article
Rationale: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a biomarker of cardiac origin, is used to risk stratify patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Its limitations include poor sensitivity to early vascular pathology. Other biomarkers of vascular or systemic origin may also be useful in the management of PAH. Objectives:...
Article
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This investigation validated the inert gas rebreathing (IGR) technique and determined IGR prognostic ability compared to invasive cardiac output measurements in patients with pulmonary hypertension. IGR compared with thermodilution cardiac output demonstrated a moderate bias. IGR technique demonstrated long-term prognostic value comparable to invas...
Preprint
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Background There are currently no effective pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions for Long-COVID. To identify potential therapeutic targets, we focussed on previously described four recovery clusters five months after hospital discharge, their underlying inflammatory profiles and relationship with clinical outcomes at one year. Metho...
Article
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Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a rare but fatal disease diagnosed by right heart catheterisation and the exclusion of other forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension, producing a heterogeneous population with varied treatment response. Here we show unsupervised machine learning identification of three major patient subgroups th...
Article
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The average rate of new #CTEPH referrals has dropped by 32% in the UK during the pandemic, despite the high incidence of #COVID19 related pulmonary emboli. There have been no recorded new cases of CTEPH caused by COVID-19. A prospective study is underway. https://bit.ly/37msP2G.
Article
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Background: The impact of COVID-19 on physical and mental health and employment after hospitalisation with acute disease is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of COVID-19-related hospitalisation on health and employment, to identify factors associated with recovery, and to describe recovery phenotypes. Methods...
Article
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Background: The impact of COVID-19 on physical and mental health and employment after hospitalisation with acute disease is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of COVID-19-related hospitalisation on health and employment, to identify factors associated with recovery, and to describe recovery phenotypes. Methods:...
Article
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Background The impact of COVID-19 on physical and mental health and employment after hospitalisation with acute disease is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of COVID-19-related hospitalisation on health and employment, to identify factors associated with recovery, and to describe recovery phenotypes. Methods...
Article
AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19), a replication-deficient simian adenovirus-vectored vaccine, has demonstrated safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in clinical trials and real-world studies. We characterized CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses induced by AZD1222 vaccination in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC...
Article
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Aim: To identify a dose of imatinib that is safe and well tolerated by patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and offers therapeutic benefit with chronic administration. Background: PAH is an unmet clinical need. Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, 200 to 400mg daily reduces pulmonary artery pressure and increases functional capacit...
Article
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Inflammation and dysregulated immunity are important in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Compelling preclinical data supports the therapeutic blockade of interleukin-6 signalling. We conducted an open-label phase-II study of intravenous tocilizumab (8 mg·kg ⁻¹ ) over 6 months in group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension. Co-primary...
Article
Objectives: Coronavirus disease 2019 has been reported to be a prothrombotic condition; however, multicenter data comparing this with other viral pneumonias in those requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are lacking. We conducted a multicenter study using whole-body CT to examine the prevalence, severity, and nature of vascular complicatio...
Article
Background ISHLT members have recognized the importance of a consensus statement on the evaluation and management of patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. The creation of this document required multiple steps, including the engagement of the ISHLT councils, approval by the Standards and Guidelines Committee, identification an...
Preprint
Prominent early features of COVID-19 include severe, often clinically silent, hypoxia and a pronounced reduction in B cells, the latter important in defence against SARS-CoV-2. This brought to mind the phenotype of mice with VHL-deficient B cells, in which Hypoxia-Inducible Factors are constitutively active, suggesting hypoxia might drive B cell ab...
Article
Background Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) is delivered as a series of treatments for patients with inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) however, there is little published data on the procedural determinants of outcome. Methods Pre- and post-BPA clinical and hemodynamic data, as well as serial hemodynamic and proced...
Article
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Objective An unexpectedly large number of people infected with Covid-19 had experienced a thrombotic event. This study aims to assess the associations between Covid-19 infection and thromboembolism including myocardial infarction (MI), ischaemic stroke, deep-vein thrombosis (DVT), and pulmonary embolism (PE). Patients and Methods A self-controlled...
Article
AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19), a replication-deficient simian adenovirus-vectored vaccine, has demonstrated safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in clinical trials and real-world studies. We characterized CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses induced by AZD1222 vaccination in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented challenges for healthcare systems worldwide. It has also stimulated research in a wide range of areas including rapid diagnostics, novel therapeutics, use of technology to track patients and vaccine development. Here, we describe our experience of rapidly setting up and delivering a novel COVID-19...
Conference Paper
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Background Limitation of activity and restriction of movement have been widely, and effectively, enforced to reduce COVID-19 transmission. Physical activity is however a critical measure in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating, disease driven by small vessel vascular remodeling, leading to...
Article
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The kinetics of the immune changes in COVID-19 across severity groups have not been rigorously assessed. Using immunophenotyping, RNA sequencing and serum cytokine analysis, we analyzed serial samples from 207 SARS-CoV2-infected individuals with a range of disease severities over 12 weeks from symptom onset. An early robust bystander CD8⁺ T cell im...
Preprint
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Background The impact of COVID-19 on physical and mental health, and employment following hospitalisation is poorly understood. Methods PHOSP-COVID is a multi-centre, UK, observational study of adults discharged from hospital with a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 involving an assessment between two- and seven-months later including detailed symptom...
Article
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Background The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine has been approved for emergency use by the UK regulatory authority, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, with a regimen of two standard doses given with an interval of 4–12 weeks. The planned roll-out in the UK will involve vaccinating people in high-risk categories with their first d...
Article
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Background A new variant of SARS-CoV-2, B.1.1.7, emerged as the dominant cause of COVID-19 disease in the UK from November, 2020. We report a post-hoc analysis of the efficacy of the adenoviral vector vaccine, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222), against this variant. Methods Volunteers (aged ≥18 years) who were enrolled in phase 2/3 vaccine efficacy studie...
Article
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Background The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine has been approved for emergency use by the UK regulatory authority, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, with a regimen of two standard doses given with an interval of 4-12 weeks. The planned roll-out in the UK will involve vaccinating people in high-risk categories with their first d...
Preprint
Full-text available
Importance: An unexpectedly large number of people infected with Covid-19 appear to have experienced ischaemic stroke or thrombotic event. Objective: This study aims to assess the risk associations between Covid-19 infection and thromboembolism. Design: This is a self-controlled case-series study in Scotland. Their incidence rates during the risk i...
Article
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Several patient-reported outcome measures have been developed to assess health status in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The required change in instrument scores needed, to be seen as meaningful to the individual, however remain unknown. We sought to identify minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) in the Cambridge Pulmonary Hyperte...
Preprint
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Severe Covid-19 is associated with elevated plasma Factor V (FV) and increased risk of thromboembolism. We report that neutrophils, T regulatory cells (Tregs), and monocytes from patients with severe Covid-19 express FV, and expression correlates with T cell lymphopenia. In vitro full length FV, but not FV activated by thrombin cleavage, suppresses...
Preprint
Full-text available
In a study of 207 SARS-CoV2-infected individuals with a range of severities followed over 12 weeks from symptom onset, we demonstrate that an early robust immune response, without systemic inflammation, is characteristic of asymptomatic or mild disease. Those presenting to hospital had delayed adaptive responses and systemic inflammation already ev...
Article
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is estimated to affect between 10-50 people per million worldwide. The lack of cure and devastating nature of the disease means that treatment is crucial to arrest rapid clinical worsening. Current therapies are limited by their focus on inhibiting residual vasoconstriction rather than targeting key regulators...
Article
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Background - Approximately 25% of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have been found to harbor rare mutations in disease-causing genes. To identify missing heritability in PAH we integrated deep phenotyping with whole-genome sequencing data using Bayesian statistics. Methods - We analyzed 13,037 participants enrolled in the NIHR Bi...
Article
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Background A safe and efficacious vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), if deployed with high coverage, could contribute to the control of the COVID-19 pandemic. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine in a pooled interim analysis of four trials. Methods This analysis includes dat...
Article
Full-text available
Background A safe and efficacious vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), if deployed with high coverage, could contribute to the control of the COVID-19 pandemic. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine in a pooled interim analysis of four trials.
Article
Full-text available
Background A safe and efficacious vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), if deployed with high coverage, could contribute to the control of the COVID-19 pandemic. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine in a pooled interim analysis of four trials.
Article
Background: Limitation of physical activity has been widely enforced to reduce COVID-19 transmission, however it is a critical measure in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. In patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), exercise capacity relates to clinical outcomes and exercise training improves cardiopulmonary function. Here, we d...
Article
Full-text available
Pulmonary hypertension is a condition with limited effective treatment options. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a notable exception with pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) often proving curative. This study investigated the plasma metabolome of CTEPH patients, estimated reversibility to an effective treatment and explored the s...
Article
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Introduction Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease, predominantly affecting the lungs but can involve the heart, resulting in cardiac sarcoidosis (CS). Patients require MRI/Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans for diagnosis. Echocardiography, ECG and Holter monitoring may be indicative but not diagnostic alone. Patients can present late with con...
Article
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Objectives: To analyse enrolment to interventional trials during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in England and describe the barriers to successful recruitment in the circumstance of a further wave or future pandemics. Design: We analysed registered interventional COVID-19 trial data and concurrently did a prospective observational study...
Article
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Rapid COVID-19 diagnosis in hospital is essential, though complicated by 30-50% of nose/throat swabs being negative by SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT). Furthermore, the D614G spike mutant now dominates the pandemic and it is unclear how serological tests designed to detect anti-Spike antibodies perform against this variant. We...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Approximately 25% of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have been found to harbor rare mutations in disease-causing genes. To identify missing heritability in PAH we integrated deep phenotyping with whole-genome sequencing data using Bayesian statistics. Methods We analyzed 13,037 participants enrolled in the NIHR BioRe...
Article
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This manuscript on drug repurposing incorporates the broad experience of members of the Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute’s Innovative Drug Development Initiative as an open debate platform for academia, the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory experts surrounding the future design of clinical trials in pulmonary hypertension. Drug repurposin...
Article
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Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores assess symptom burden in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) but data regarding their role in prognostication and risk stratification are limited. We assessed these relationships using the emPHasis-10 HRQoL measure. 1745 patients with idiopathic or connective tissue disease-associated PAH who had comp...
Article
Background Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is the recommended treatment for eligible patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) score is an internationally-validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure for CTEPH. It assesses 3 domains: activity, quality of lif...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale: Idiopathic and hereditary pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are rare but comprise a genetically heterogeneous patient group. RNA-sequencing linked to the underlying genetic architecture can be used to better understand the underlying pathology by identifying key signalling pathways and stratify patients more robustly according to cl...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) managed medically has a poor prognosis. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) offers a new treatment for inoperable patients. The national BPA service for the UK opened in October 2015 and we now describe the treatment of our initial patient cohort. Methods Thirty consecutive...