Mark Thompson

Mark Thompson
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | CDC · Influenza Division

PhD

About

158
Publications
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Publications

Publications (158)
Article
What is already known about this topic? Little is known about COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness (VE) during the Omicron variant BA.2/BA.2.12.2–predominant period or VE of a fourth COVID-19 vaccine dose in persons aged ≥50 years. What is added by this report? VE during the BA.2/BA.2.12.2 period was lower than that during the BA.1 period. A third vaccin...
Article
Background SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses continue to co-circulate, representing two major public health threats from respiratory infections with similar clinical presentations. SARS-CoV-2 and influenza vaccines can also now be co-administered. However, data on antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 and influenza co-infection, and vaccine co-administra...
Article
Findings from this analysis indicate that (1) self-collection of flocked and foam MTS and saliva samples is feasible in both adults and children, (2) foam MTS with VTM and saliva are both viable and reasonable alternatives to traditional flocked MTS in VTM for SARS-CoV-2 detection, and (3) these sample types may be stored and transported at ambient...
Article
Influenza vaccines can mitigate illness severity, including reduced risk of ICU admission and death, in people with breakthrough infection. Less is known about vaccine attenuation of mild/moderate influenza illness. We compared subjective severity scores in vaccinated and unvaccinated persons with medically attended illness and laboratory-confirmed...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Electronic health record (EHR) data provide a unique opportunity to study COVID-19 and vaccine effectiveness but require a well-defined computable phenotype of COVID-19-like illness (CLI). OBJECTIVE We evaluated the performance of diagnostic codes in identifying COVID-19 cases in emergency department/urgent care (ED/UC) and inpatient se...
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CDC recommends that all persons aged ≥18 years receive a single COVID-19 vaccine booster dose ≥2 months after receipt of an Ad.26.COV2.S (Janssen [Johnson & Johnson]) adenovirus vector-based primary series vaccine; a heterologous COVID-19 mRNA vaccine is preferred over a homologous (matching) Janssen vaccine for booster vaccination. This recommenda...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Assessing the real-world effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines and understanding the incidence and severity of SARS-CoV-2 illness in children is essential to inform policy and guide healthcare professionals advising parents and caregivers of children who test positive for SARS-CoV-2. OBJECTIVE This report describes the objectives and metho...
Article
Background: Assessing the real-world effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines and understanding the incidence and severity of SARS-CoV-2 illness in children is essential to inform policy and guide healthcare professionals advising parents and caregivers of children who test positive for SARS-CoV-2. Objective: This report describes the objectives and m...
Article
The BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) mRNA COVID-19 vaccine was recommended by CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for persons aged 12-15 years (referred to as adolescents in this report) on May 12, 2021, and for children aged 5-11 years on November 2, 2021 (1-4). Real-world data on vaccine effectiveness (VE) in these age groups are needed,...
Article
The efficacy of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 exceeded 90% in clinical trials that included children and adolescents aged 5-11, 12-15, and 16-17 years (1-3). Limited real-world data on 2-dose mRNA vaccine effectiveness (VE) in persons aged 12-17 years (referred to as adolescents in this report) have al...
Article
CDC recommends that all persons aged ≥12 years receive a booster dose of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine ≥5 months after completion of a primary mRNA vaccination series and that immunocompromised persons receive a third primary dose.* Waning of vaccine protection after 2 doses of mRNA vaccine has been observed during the period of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (D...
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Estimates of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine effectiveness (VE) have declined in recent months (1,2) because of waning vaccine induced immunity over time,* possible increased immune evasion by SARS-CoV-2 variants (3), or a combination of these and other factors. CDC recommends that all persons aged ≥12 years receive a third dose (booster) of an mRNA vaccine...
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Background We sought to evaluate the impact of changes in estimates of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness on the incidence of laboratory-confirmed infection among frontline workers at high risk for SARS-CoV-2. Methods We analyzed data from a prospective frontline worker cohort to estimate the incidence of COVID-19 by month as well as the association o...
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The BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) mRNA COVID-19 vaccine has demonstrated high efficacy in preventing infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) in randomized placebo-controlled Phase III trials in persons aged 12-17 years (referred to as adolescents in this report) (1); however, data on real-word vaccine effectiveness (VE) among adoles...
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Background Data on the development of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 after SARS-CoV-2 infection and after vaccination with messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccines are limited. Methods From a prospective cohort of 3,975 adult essential and frontline workers tested weekly from August 2020 to March 2021 for SARS-CoV-2 infection by Reverse...
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Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus experience high rates of influenza virus infection and complications. We compared the magnitude and duration of serologic response to trivalent influenza vaccine in adults aged 50–80 with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serologic response to influenza vaccination was similar in both groups: greater fo...
Preprint
Background. We sought to evaluate the impact of changes in estimates of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness on the incidence of laboratory-confirmed infection among frontline workers at high risk for SARS-CoV-2. Methods. We analyzed data from a prospective frontline worker cohort to estimate the incidence of COVID-19 by month as well as the association...
Preprint
Full-text available
Law Enforcement Officers (LEOs), firefighters, and other first responders are at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to healthcare personnel but have relatively low COVID-19 vaccine uptake. Resistance to COVID-19 vaccine mandates among first responders has the potential to disrupt essential public services and threaten public health and...
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Population-based rates of infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) and related health care utilization help determine estimates of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness and averted illnesses, especially since the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant began circulating in June 2021. Among members aged ≥12 years of a large integrated health...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Workers critical to emergency response and continuity of essential services during the COVID-19 pandemic are at a disproportionally high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Prospective cohort studies are needed for enhancing the understanding of the incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections, identifying risk factors, asse...
Preprint
Background: Data on influenza incidence during pregnancy in China are limited. Methods: From October 2015–September 2018, we conducted active surveillance for acute respiratory illness (ARI) among women during pregnancy. Nurses conducted twice weekly phone and text message follow-up upon enrollment until delivery to identify new episodes of ARI. Na...
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The failure to mount an antibody response following viral infection or seroconversion failure is a largely underappreciated and poorly understood phenomenon. Here, we identified immunologic markers associated with robust antibody responses after influenza virus infection in two independent human cohorts, SHIVERS and FLU09, based in Auckland, New Ze...
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Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is increasingly recognized as an important cause of illness in adults; however, data on RSV disease and economic burden in this age group remain limited. We aimed to provide comprehensive estimates of RSV disease burden among adults aged ≥18 years. Methods During 2012–2015, population-based, active surv...
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Background: We analysed data from a randomized controlled trial on the reactogenicity of three enhanced influenza vaccines compared to standard-dose inactivated influenza vaccine. Methods: We enrolled community-dwelling older adults in Hong Kong, and randomly allocated them to receive 2017/18 northern hemisphere formulations of: standard-dose va...
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Background Despite a large burden of influenza in middle income countries, pediatric vaccination coverage remains low. The aims of this study were to (1) describe mothers’ knowledge and attitudes about influenza illnesses and vaccination, and (2) identify characteristics associated with mothers’ intent to vaccinate their child. Methods From 2015 t...
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Objectives Findings during the 2009 pandemic suggest severe maternal infection with pandemic influenza had adverse perinatal health consequences. Limited data exist evaluating the perinatal health effects of severe seasonal influenza and non-influenza infections during pregnancy. Methods A retrospective cohort of pregnant women from Australia, Can...
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Objective: Despite recommendations by professional organizations that all pregnant women receive inactivated influenza vaccine, safety concerns remain a barrier. Our objective was to assess the effect of trivalent influenza vaccines (IIV3) during pregnancy on parent report 6-month infant development. Methods: We conducted a multi-site prospectiv...
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Data on the immunologic responses to neuraminidase (NA) is lacking compared to what is available on hemagglutinin (HA) responses, despite growing evidence that NA immunity can be protective and broadly cross-reactive. Understanding these NA responses during natural infection is key to exploiting these properties for improving influenza vaccines. Us...
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Background Enhanced influenza vaccines may improve protection for older adults, but comparative immunogenicity data are limited. Our objective was to examine immune responses to enhanced influenza vaccines, compared to standard-dose vaccines, in community-dwelling older adults. Methods Community-dwelling older adults aged 65–82 years in Hong Kong...
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Background: Severe influenza illness is presumed more common in adults with chronic medical conditions (CMC), but evidence is sparse and often combined into broad CMC categories. Methods: Residents (aged 18-80 years) of Central and South Auckland hospitalized for WHO-defined severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) (2012-2015) underwent influenza...
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Background: In 2013, the Pan American Health Organization established a multi-site, multi-country network to evaluate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). We pooled data from five consecutive seasons in five countries to conduct an analysis of southern hemisphere VE against laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations in young children and old...
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Background: Identifying optimal priming strategies for children <2 years could substantially improve the public health benefits of influenza vaccines. Adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines were designed to promote a better immune response among young vaccine-naïve children. Methods: We systematically reviewed randomized trials to assess hemaggl...
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Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most commonly identified viral pathogen among young children with acute lower respiratory tract infection. Understanding global RSV epidemiology and risk factors for severe illness in low- and middle-income settings is critical as new vaccine candidates become available. Methods We prospectively...
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Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends case definitions for influenza surveillance that are also used in public health research, though their performance has not been assessed in many risk groups, including pregnant women in whom influenza may manifest differently. Â We evaluated the performance of symptom-based case definitions...
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Background The World Health Organization recommends influenza vaccination for pregnant women. However, few data exist on influenza incidence and clinical course among pregnant women in middle-income countries where influenza vaccine use during pregnancy is often limited. We conducted a prospective cohort study of pregnant women to estimate incidenc...
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Background Studies have demonstrated that optimal protection against childhood influenza requires two “priming” doses of influenza vaccine in the first season of vaccination. Two doses of influenza vaccine are recommended for US children aged 6 months-8 years who received ≤1 dose in prior seasons. We examined risk of influenza among children fully...
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Background: Since influenza often presents non-specifically in infancy, we aimed to assess the extent to which existing respiratory surveillance platforms might underestimate the frequency of severe influenza disease among infants. Methods: The Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Infants (IRIS) study was a prospective observational stud...
Article
Detection of influenza virus in respiratory specimens from ill individuals is the most commonly used method to identify influenza virus infection. A number of respiratory specimen types may be used, including swabs, brush, aspirate and wash, and specimens may be collected from numerous sites, including anterior and posterior nasopharynx, oropharynx...
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Background: Pregnant women are prioritized for seasonal influenza vaccination, but the evidence on the risk of influenza during pregnancy that is used to inform these policies is limited. Methods: Individual-level administrative data sets and active surveillance data were joined to estimate influenza-associated hospitalization and outpatient vis...
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Background This report describes the results of recruitment efforts and the subsequent participation of pregnant women in study activities in a 2010–2012 observational study focused on influenza illness and vaccination in California and Oregon, USA. Methods Socio-demographic and health characteristics extracted from electronic medical records were...
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We aimed to provide comprehensive estimates of laboratory-confirmed respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated hospitalisations. Between 2012 and 2015, active surveillance of acute respiratory infection (ARI) hospitalisations during winter seasons was used to estimate the seasonal incidence of laboratory-confirmed RSV hospitalisations in children...
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INTRODUCTION: A number of enhanced influenza vaccines have been developed for use in older adults, including the high-dose, MF59-adjuvanted, and intradermal vaccines. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review examining the improvements in antibody responses measured by the hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay associated with these enhanced vacc...
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Background The Study of Healthcare Personnel with Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses in Israel (SHIRI) prospectively follows a cohort of healthcare personnel (HCP) in two hospitals in Israel. SHIRI will describe the frequency of influenza virus infections among HCP, identify predictors of vaccine acceptance, examine how repeated influenza vacc...
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Background: To date, no study has examined influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations during pregnancy. Methods: The Pregnancy Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network (PREVENT) consisted of public health or healthcare systems with integrated laboratory, medical, and vaccination record...
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Background: The World Health Organization identifies pregnant women as at high-risk for severe influenza, but influenza vaccines are underutilized among pregnant women. Data on influenza burden during pregnancy are largely limited to high-income countries and data on the impact of influenza on birth and perinatal outcomes are scarce. Methods/desi...
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Background: Little is known about inactivated influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) in preventing very severe disease, including influenza-associated intensive care unit (ICU) admissions. Methods: The Southern Hemisphere Influenza and Vaccine Effectiveness Research and Surveillance (SHIVERS) project enrolled adults (aged ≥ 18 years) with acute r...
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We investigated risk factors for severe acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) among hospitalised children <2 years, with a focus on the interactions between virus and age. Statistical interactions between age and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza, adenovirus (ADV) and rhinovirus on the risk of ALRI outcomes were investigated. Of 1780...
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Background: Understanding the attack rate of influenza infection and the proportion who become ill by risk group is key to implementing prevention measures. While population-based studies of anti-haemagglutinin antibody responses have been described previously, studies examining both anti-haemagglutinin and anti-neuraminidase antibodies are lackin...
Preprint
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BACKGROUND Although pregnant women are believed to have elevated risks of severe influenza infection and are targeted for influenza vaccination, no study to date has examined influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations during pregnancy, primarily because this outcome poses many methodolog...
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Background: Although pregnant women are believed to have elevated risks of severe influenza infection and are targeted for influenza vaccination, no study to date has examined influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations during pregnancy, primarily because this outcome poses many methodol...
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Purpose We established the China Respiratory Illness Surveillance among Pregnant women (CRISP) to conduct active surveillance for influenza-associated respiratory illness during pregnancy in China from 2015 to 2018. Among annual cohorts of pregnant women, we assess the incidence of acute respiratory illness (ARI), influenza-like illness (ILI), labo...
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Background: This study aims to assess the association between socio-demographic and health characteristics of older adults in Eastern China and knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) about the influenza virus and vaccine. Methods: A prospective cohort of 1506 older adults (aged ≥60 years) was enrolled from November to December 2015 in Jiangsu...
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Objective: To estimate the societal economic and health impacts of Maine's school-based influenza vaccination (SIV) program during the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic. Data sources: Primary and secondary data covering the 2008-09 and 2009-10 influenza seasons. Study design: We estimated weekly monovalent influenza vaccine uptake in Maine and 1...
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Background Pregnant women are at greater risk of complications from influenza (flu) infection than the general population. Although vaccination is an effective method to prevent influenza, the vaccine is underutilized during pregnancy. A challenge to maternal flu vaccination is the paucity of data about the effectiveness of inactivated influenza va...
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Purpose This study was established to provide direct evidence on the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in older adults in two cities in Jiangsu Province, China, and the potential impact of acute respiratory infections on frailty. Participants The cohort was enrolled in Suzhou and Yan...
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Objectives: Summary evidence of influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against hospitalized influenza is lacking. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies reporting IVE against laboratory-confirmed hospitalized influenza among adults. Methods: We searched Pubmed (January 2009 to November 2016) for studies that used test-negative design (TND) to en...
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Background: Despite widespread utilization of influenza vaccines, effectiveness (VE) has not been routinely measured in Latin America. Methods: We used a case test-negative control design to estimate trivalent inactivated influenza VE against laboratory-confirmed influenza among hospitalized children aged 6months-5years and adults aged ≥60years...
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Background: Studies have shown that influenza vaccination during pregnancy reduces the risk of influenza disease in pregnant women and their offspring. Some have proposed that maternal vaccination may also have beneficial effects on birth outcomes. In 2014, we conducted an observational study to test this hypothesis using data from two large hospi...
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Background: This multi-country prospective study of infants aged <1 year aims to assess the frequency of influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections associated with hospitalizations, to describe clinical features and antibody response to infection, and to examine predictors of very severe disease requiring intensive care. Met...
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During March 2013-February 24, 2017, annual epidemics of avian influenza A(H7N9) in China resulted in 1,258 avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infections in humans being reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) by the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China and other regional sources (1). During the first four epidemics, 88% of pa...