Mark R Smith

Mark R Smith
Circadian

PhD

About

23
Publications
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1,892
Citations

Publications

Publications (23)
Article
Short sleep duration and circadian misalignment are hypothesized to causally contribute to health problems including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, heart disease, mood disorders, cognitive impairment, and accidents [1–7]. Here, we investigated the influence of morning circadian misalignment induced by an imposed short nighttime sleep schedu...
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Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with...
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There are three mechanisms that may contribute to the health, performance, and safety problems associated with night-shift work: (1) circadian misalignment between the internal circadian clock and activities such as work, sleep, and eating, (2) chronic, partial sleep deprivation, and (3) melatonin suppression by light at night. The typical counterm...
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The length of the free-running period (τ) affects how an animal re-entrains after phase shifts of the light-dark (LD) cycle. Those with shorter periods adapt faster to phase advances than those with longer periods, whereas those with longer periods adapt faster to phase delays than those with shorter periods. The free-running period of humans, meas...
Article
Small shifts in circadian timing occur frequently as a result of daylight saving time or later weekend sleep. These subtle shifts in circadian phase have been shown to influence subjective sleepiness, but it remains unclear if they can significantly affect performance. In a retrospective analysis we examined performance on the Psychomotor Vigilance...
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To assess night shift improvements in mood, fatigue, and performance when the misalignment between circadian rhythms and a night shift, day sleep schedule is reduced. Blocks of simulated night shifts alternated with days off. Experimental subjects had interventions to delay their circadian clocks to partially align with a night shift schedule. Cont...
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The human circadian system is maximally sensitive to short-wavelength (blue) light. In a previous study we found no difference between the magnitude of phase advances produced by bright white versus bright blue-enriched light using light boxes in a practical protocol that could be used in the real world. Since the spectral sensitivity of the circad...
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Scheduled bright light and darkness can phase shift the circadian clocks of night workers for complete adaptation to a night work, day sleep schedule, but few night workers would want this because it would leave them out of phase with the diurnal world on days off. This is the final study in a series designed to produce a compromise circadian phase...
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The length of the endogenous period of the human circadian clock (tau) is slightly greater than 24 hours. There are individual differences in tau, which influence the phase angle of entrainment to the light/dark (LD) cycle, and in doing so contribute to morningness-eveningness. We have recently reported that tau measured in subjects living on an ul...
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Light exposure in the late evening and nighttime and a delay of the sleep/dark episode can phase delay the circadian clock. This study assessed the size of the phase delay produced by a single light pulse combined with a moderate delay of the sleep/dark episode for one day. Because iris color or race has been reported to influence light-induced mel...
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To produce a compromise circadian phase position for permanent night shift work in which the sleepiest circadian time is delayed out of the night work period and into the first half of the day sleep period. This is predicted to improve night shift alertness and performance while permitting adequate late night sleep on days off. Between-subjects. Ho...
Article
This is the second in a series of simulated night shift studies designed to achieve and subsequently maintain a compromise circadian phase position between complete entrainment to the daytime sleep period and no phase shift at all. We predict that this compromise will yield improved night shift alertness and daytime sleep, while still permitting ad...
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Full-text available
Previous studies have shown that the human circadian system is maximally sensitive to short-wavelength (blue) light. Whether this sensitivity can be utilized to increase the size of phase shifts using light boxes and protocols designed for practical settings is not known. We assessed whether bright polychromatic lamps enriched in the short-waveleng...
Article
The dual rhythm model of dreaming states that, under high sensory thresholds, heightened general cortical activation common to both REM/NREM and circadian-driven activation cycles sums to produce the main characteristics of dreaming. In addition, the unique pattern of regional brain activation characteristic of REM sleep amplifies the emotional int...
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Night shift work is associated with a myriad of health and safety risks. Phase-shifting the circadian clock such that it is more aligned with night work and day sleep is one way to attenuate these risks. However, workers will not be satisfied with complete adaptation to night work if it leaves them misaligned during days off. Therefore, the goal of...
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Both light and melatonin can be used to phase shift the human circadian clock, but the phase-advancing effect of the combination has not been extensively investigated. The objective of the study was to determine whether phase advances induced by morning intermittent bright light and a gradually advancing sleep schedule could be increased with after...
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Exogenous melatonin administration in humans is known to exert both chronobiotic (phase shifting) and soporific effects. In a previous study in our lab, young, healthy, subjects worked five consecutive simulated night shifts (23:00 to 07:00 h) and slept during the day (08:30 to 15:30 h). Large phase delays of various magnitudes were produced by the...
Article
Although the emotional and motivational characteristics of dreaming have figured prominently in folk and psychoanalytic conceptions of dream production, emotions have rarely been systematically studied, and motivation, never. Because emotions during sleep lack the somatic components of waking emotions, and they change as the sleeper awakens, their...

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