Mark P Simmonds

Mark P Simmonds
University of Bristol | UB · School of Veterinary Sciences

OBE

About

187
Publications
50,224
Reads
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2,334
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 1999 - August 2015
Whale and Dolphin Conservation
Position
  • Managing Director
Description
  • Leading the science work of this charity/not for profit. Managing small team.
October 1993 - October 1999
Whale and Dolphin Conservation
Position
  • Head of Department
Description
  • Leading work on particular threats.
October 1993 - October 1999
University of Greenwich
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • Conducting research in the sphere of marine animal conservation including supervising Masters projects in seal and cetacean conservation, bottlenose dolphins in Cornwall, marine debris and marine protected areas. Teaching expertise – including marine ecology and conservation, EU law and process, urban wildlife, conservation delivery and philosophy. Degree rated ‘excellent’ by QAA.
Education
October 1976 - October 1980
University of Bristol
Field of study
  • Biology/Zoology

Publications

Publications (187)
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the rich social lives of animals benefits international conservation efforts
Article
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The conservation of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) appears to be failing in Europe. There are particular concerns about this species in the Baltic Proper, Black, and Mediterranean Seas, as well as in the Northeast Atlantic, including the Iberian population, off the Spanish and Portuguese coasts. The Baltic Proper porpoise is “critically endan...
Article
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A key goal of conservation is to protect biodiversity by supporting the long-term persistence of viable, natural populations of wild species. Conservation practice has long been guided by genetic, ecological and demographic indicators of risk. Emerging evidence of animal culture across diverse taxa and its role as a driver of evolutionary diversifi...
Article
The stranding of cetaceans raises significant welfare and associated logistical issues. A survey of opinions on euthanasia methods based on the recommendations of an International Whaling Commission (IWC) workshop was conducted. Descriptive statistics showed that the workshop recommendations were generally supported and understood, and these includ...
Article
The accumulation of human-derived debris in the oceans is a global concern and a serious threat to marine wildlife. There is a volume of evidence that points to deleterious effects of marine debris (MD) on cetaceans in terms of both entanglement and ingestion. This review suggests that about 68% of cetacean species are affected by interacting with...
Chapter
This chapter explores those interactions between marine mammals and people in which the animals seem to choose to connect with us. Some well-documented examples are considered, and particular attention given to the phenomenon of “solitary-sociable dolphins,” of which more than three dozen have been recorded since 2008. The history of these “friendl...
Chapter
Some personal thoughts on 30 years of cetacean conservation
Chapter
Cetaceans are highly adapted physiologically and behaviourally to use sound. As humans increasingly use sound underwater in our attempts to efficiently navigate, explore and exploit the seas, ocean noise pollution has become recognised as an issue of major significance and concern and a primary focus of marine mammal research over the last two deca...
Article
To test our hypothesis that people can't recognise a harbour porpoise, we created an online survey in the form of a Google forms quiz, in which we asked people to name eight different mammals from a photo and, in the cases of the marine mammals, an illustration. The quiz was available in English and Swedish and promulgated via social media. Results...
Article
This article provides an update on the ongoing long-term study of grey seals on Bardsey Island off the NW coast of Wales. Mammal News 89: 10-11
Article
For decades, cetacean bycatch has been a major conservation and welfare concern in the European Union with high numbers of harbour porpoises, dolphins and whales dying each year. Despite binding legal requirements to monitor and reduce bycatch, cetacean bycatch monitoring has been insufficient in most fisheries and areas to generate reliable estima...
Article
Full-text available
Marine litter is a growing concern for marine animals, including cetaceans for which there is a developing body of evidence showing impacts of both entanglement and ingestion. Better understanding is needed of the current and predicted scales of impacts on cetacean species of both macro- and micro-litter. Some emerging methodological approaches, su...
Article
Full-text available
The full article is available in issue 20 of Carnivore Damage Prevention News: http://www.protectiondestroupeaux.ch/fileadmin/doc/International/CDP_and_General_Infos/CDPNews20_Nov2020.pdf
Conference Paper
The situation of Tursiops truncatus gephyreus is reviewed and it is concluded that an IWC "Task Team” is now critically needed to help initiate, guide and coordinate - 1) the implementation of conservation strategies set for the subpopulations in southern Brazil/Uruguay and 2) further research into the possible causes of the population declines i...
Article
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Recent years have seen the rapid development of tools and approaches to model the population consequences of disturbance in several marine mammal populations from high-amplitude, acute sound sources. Ocean noise from shipping and other maritime activities is now recognised as a chronic, habitat-level stressor. Advances are needed in several key are...
Presentation
Some thoughts on the loss of a very well known solitary sociable dolphin - Fungie who lived in Dingle Harbour in Ireland for several decades.
Chapter
An update on ongoing photo-iD study on Bardsey island grey seals.
Presentation
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Statement of concern about cetacean conservation issued in September 2020.
Preprint
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Statement of concern We, the undersigned scientists, raise here our gravest concerns about the extinction risk to many species and populations of cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises). Each one of us is a cetacean specialist and each one of us believes this issue is now critical. The lack of concrete action to address threats adversely affecti...
Conference Paper
The Baltic Sea harbour porpoise is listed by IUCN and HELCOM as critically endangered. Today its geographical range is significantly smaller than its historical one, and there are only a few hundred animals left. While pollution and disturbance through underwater noise may be contributing to the population failing to recover, bycatch is the one acu...
Article
Full-text available
Human activities and anthropogenic environmental changes are having a profound effect on biodiversity and the sustainability and health of many populations and species of wild mammals. There has been less attention devoted to the impact of human activities on the welfare of individual wild mammals, although ethical reasoning suggests that the welfa...
Presentation
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Speed talk given at the World Marine Mammal Conference 2019 in Barcelona. This is the accompanying Power Point presentation.
Article
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[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2018.00331.].
Conference Paper
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A brief update on the latest literature is provided in the context of predicted and observed reactions from cetaceans to climate change. Increases in sea surface temperature (SST) and other climate-related alterations to ocean conditions in many regions are already influencing cetacean habitat use and prey availability. Some species in some localit...
Conference Paper
Mission Discuss: (1) which research questions the 'Aquatic Wild Meat Database' could help answer and assess the best approach for data validation and quality control for data obtained other than from the SM subcommittee ; and (2) an overarching aim for any future IWC cetacean wildmeat database, and identify specific questions that such a database m...
Article
Marine litter is a pollution problem affecting thousands of marine species in all the world's seas andoceans. Marine litter, in particular plastic, has negative impacts on marine wildlife primarily due toingestion and entanglement. Since most marine mammal species negatively interact with marine litter, afirst workshop under the framework of the Eu...
Conference Paper
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Within Europe there are various Conventions and legislation that set out general provisions for the protection and conservation of migratory species such as cetaceans. The focus of the present report is on the North East Atlantic, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, and the main conventions and legislation and how they are assessed are outlined in An...
Article
Full-text available
Dolphins are typically regarded as highly social animals. However, some individuals live apart from their own species and may come to socialize with people through a recognized series of stages which are presented and expanded on in this paper. The term “solitary-sociable dolphins” has been used to describe these animals and such individuals have b...
Article
Seals are killed in a number of European countries and regions for commercial, management and recreational reasons. This is the first review to make a comparison across different nations, and it reveals that a variety of methods are employed, including the use of firearms, clubs, netting and harpoons. There is disparity in terms of which firearms a...
Chapter
This 273-paged book outlines a number of the key dilemmas in animal welfare for today's, and tomorrow's, world. The issues discussed range from the welfare of hunted animals, to debates around intensive farming versus sustainability, and the effects of climate and environmental change. It explores the effects of fences on wild animals and human imp...
Chapter
Marine mammals face many threats in the 21st century, and an introduction is provided here to these threats and some efforts to try to study their combined effects. This draws mainly on work undertaken under the auspices of the International Whaling Commission and, most recently, the US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The...
Chapter
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Marine mammals face many threats simultaneously. How do we best consider them in combination and how do we best manage multiple threats from a conservation perspective?
Chapter
An update on use of the island by the seals with some discussion of storms and climate change.
Conference Paper
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This paper considers what data might be usefully collected to help better understand the interactions between cetaceans and marine debris and was originally drafted at the request of the Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans in the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and contiguous Atlantic area (ACCOBAMS). Recommendations include that (i) Post-morte...
Conference Paper
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The 2017-2019 Work Programme of The Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans of the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and contiguous Atlantic area (ACCOBAMS) requested an assessment of the impact of plastic bags, microplastics and other plastic materials ingested by cetaceans. This review considers the available information, which has increased in rec...
Research
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Statement regarding the inadequacy of Japan's latest scientific whaling programs.
Book
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Butterworth, A., Simmonds, M. P., eds. (2017). People – Marine Mammal Interactions. Lausanne: Frontiers Media. doi: 10.3389/978-2-88945-231-6 Our relationships with marine mammals are complex. We have used them as resources, and in some places this remains the case; viewed them as competitors and culled them (again ongoing in some localities); bee...
Article
Consideration of the ways that whales have been viewed - and misunderstood - through the years, including a famous report of human harassment by orcas.
Chapter
Persistent organic pollutants were recognised decades ago as significant threats to wildlife including marine mammals. Efforts to control certain pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and associated successful declines in environmental loadings followed. However, it has very recently become apparent that PCBs continue to pose a significan...
Chapter
Consideration of the implications of climate change for wild animal welfare is still relatively novel. The cetaceans are a very diverse group of mammals occupying a range of habitats across the world’s oceans. Whilst this makes generalisations difficult, there is a growing body of scientific literature which anticipates and reports impacts. These i...
Poster
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The poster outlines this key conservation issue, the previous lack of coherent international action and the role of the International Whaling Commission.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
 Proposal of an IWC Bycatch Initiative
Article
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Since its establishment in 1946 as the international body intended to manage whaling, the International Whaling Commission (IWC) has expanded its areas of interest to ensure the wider conservation of whales. Several key conservation topics have been taken forward under its auspices including climate change, chemical and noise pollution, marine debr...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the licensing system that permits seal shooting in Scotland, which was established under Part 6 Conservation of Seals of the Marine (Scotland) Act 2010. Four approaches were used: data were collated and analyzed from both the Scottish Government and Scottish Marine Animal Stranding Scheme; a survey was sent to current license ho...
Chapter
• The principal climatic influence on marine mammal species is widely acknowledged as the relationship between ocean temperature and the availability of their prey and their regional and global distributions. • There is increasing evidence that ocean warming, in combination with other components of climate change, is already affecting marine mamma...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although an accurate recent assessment of the global extent of cetacean bycatch is lacking, it has been known for many years that bycatch is a significant cause of mortality for large and small cetaceans. Attempted resolution of this on a global scale has largely been limited because of challenging socioeconomic , political, geographic, logistical...
Conference Paper
An extensive survey was made of the scientific literature concerning climate change and marine mammals. The literature has expanded greatly in recent years with a particular emphasis on the Arctic region. In contrast, little has been published to date about tropical species in general and far less about river dolphins, beaked whales and sirenians t...
Article
Full-text available
Bardsey, a small island off the northwest coast of Wales, hosts a small breeding population of grey seals, Halichoerus grypus, The seals exhibit breeding site fidelity and varying rearing strategies. Seals are a tourist attraction in Wales and relevant threats and legislation are reviewed, and recommendations made to avoid disturbance.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Further to recent reviews of marine debris as it may affect cetaceans, we provide an update of more recent information. This includes further evidence of accumulation of marine debris in the oceans and biota, and the first direct observation of ingestion of microplastics by a mysticete and an odontocete species. Future research priorities are pr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Marine debris – especially in the form of plastics - has now been widely recognised as a threat of international concern. This has created significant interest in many international fora, which have developed a range of actions in response. Liaison between the IWC and these fora is advocated and this should include the Global Partnership on Marine...
Article
A comment on the recent ruling on Japan's whaling at the International Court of Justice. Available online: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayIssue?jid=ANS&tab=currentissue
Article
Full-text available
Over the last two decades, marine noise pollution has become increasingly recognized as an issue of major significance. The issue has become a primary focus of marine mammal research, but is also of concern to the public and policy makers. The result has been efforts involving a variety of disciplines, and relevant legislation and associated gui...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of topographic and temporal variables on cetacean distribution at a fine-scale is still poorly understood. To study the spatial and temporal distribution of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena and the poorly known Risso's dolphin Grampus griseus we carried out land-based observations from Bardsey Island (Wales, UK) in summer (2001-2007...
Article
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Cardigan Bay in Wales and adjacent waters are important for marine wildlife and have various areas designated for them as special areas of conservation (SACs). Here we consider the extent to which bottlenose dolphin SACs can be said to be effective.
Conference Paper
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CONTENTS 1. Dolman, S.J. et al. Overview and Workshop Recommendations ................................................ 1 2. Simmonds, M. P. Stricken Marine Mammals - A human responsibility: An Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 4 3. V...
Article
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Since the late 1990s, Bardsey Island has been the focus of research on the local breeding population of grey seals, Halichoerus grypus, and on the cetaceans using the surrounding waters. Here we provide a brief overview of this research to date, including details of some resulting recent substantive contributions to the scientific literature, and l...
Conference Paper
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The main objectives of this study were (1) to estimate the population size of Risso’s dolphins off Bardsey Island using mark-recapture techniques (De Boer et al., 2013); and (2) to study habitat-use in relation to fine-scale oceanographic features. This work provides preliminary information on the habitat-use of Risso’s dolphins and will benefit fu...
Article
A photo-identification study on Risso’s dolphins was carried out off Bardsey Island in Wales (July to September, 1997-2007). Their local abundance was estimated using two different analytical techniques: 1) mark-recapture of well-marked dolphins using a “closed-population” model; and 2) a census technique based on the total number of iden-tified in...
Conference Paper
A History of the Earth and Animated Nature (1825) by the novelist, playwright and poet Oliver Goldsmith was one of the first popular books on natural history. As such, it contained some of the first widely-viewed illustrations of cetaceans. The illustrations point to the problems faced by the natural history illustrators of that time whose source m...
Article
Full-text available
A photo-identification study on Risso's dolphins was carried out off Bardsey Island in Wales (July to September, 1997-2007). Their local abundance was estimated using two different analytical techniques: (1) mark-recapture of well-marked dolphins using a 'closed-population' model; and (2) a census technique based on the total number of identified i...
Article
SECTIONS: Perceptions and timelines Whales in an increasingly noisy ocean Whales in a tainted ocean Whales in a warming ocean Whales in an increasingly acidic ocean Whales in a busy ocean Whales in a netted ocean Whales in the 21st century and beyond
Chapter
The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide that is driving climate change and ocean acidification is a significant threat to Mediterranean and other cetaceans. Effects can be predicted on the physical environment of the animals and their prey and a variety of likely linkages between climate-change driven factors and cetacean populations have been p...
Article
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During offshore and onshore studies (2004 to 2009), the interactions between pair-trawls and short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) were studied to better understand the impact of bycatch. A ‘hotspot’ area where pair-trawls overlapped with high dolphin abundance was identified. We made comparisons between boat-based data collected in abse...
Technical Report
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1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The legal regime that applies to cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises) – both international commitments and the UK’s national laws – was reviewed. This was considered in the light of the current threats to cetaceans in this region. The seas around the UK are under pressure as never before, including through the drives for...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A short review of the pollution in marine mammals in European waters.
Article
There is currently an unprecedented expansion of marine renewable-energy developments, particularly in UK waters. Marine renewable-energy plants are also being developed in many other countries across Europe and in the wider world, including in the USA, Canada, New Zealand and Australia. Large-scale developments, in UK waters, covering thousands of...
Article
Full-text available
The short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) is regarded as notably rare or absent from the northern North Sea, but recent evidence suggests a rising frequency of the species in these waters with increasing regional sea temperatures. The following paper documents the presence of D. delphis in the Moray Firth in north-east Scotland and provid...
Article
Full-text available
While climate change is expected to affect cetaceans primarily via loss of habitat and changes in prey availability, additional consequences may result from climate-driven shifts in human behaviors and economic activities. For example, increases in shipping, oil and gas exploration and fishing due to the loss of Arctic sea ice are highly likely to...
Article
Full-text available
Marine renewable energy is seen as an important component of the UK's future energy strategy and contribution to reducing the greenhouse gas emissions responsible for climate change. The UK aims to generate a total of 33 GW (gigawatts) of offshore wind energy. Its implementation strategy includes the development of ten offshore wind farms within Sc...