Mark S. Reed

Mark S. Reed
Scotland's Rural College | SRUC · Rural Society Team

BSC(hons), MSc, PGCLTHE, PhD

About

210
Publications
199,108
Reads
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20,839
Citations
Introduction
I work with rural communities to enhance the governance of natural and agri-food systems, and my research on impact is changing the way researchers around the world generate and share knowledge so they can change the world. Find out more at: http://www.profmarkreed.com
Additional affiliations
July 2012 - present
Birmingham City University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Professor of Interdisciplinary Research
February 2009 - June 2012
University of Aberdeen
Position
  • Senior Lecturer and Director of ACES
September 2000 - January 2009
University of Leeds
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (210)
Article
Full-text available
Background: The use of research in policy settings is complex, unpredictable and influenced by a range of poorly understood social factors. This makes it difficult to plan for, facilitate and evaluate policy impacts arising from research. Aims and objectives: 1. Propose and test tools for planning for and facilitating research impact, based on a...
Article
Full-text available
This article differentiates between descriptive and explanatory factors to develop a typology and a theory of stakeholder and public engagement. The typology describes different types of public and stakeholder engagement, and the theory comprises four factors that explain much of the variation in outcomes (for the natural environment and/or for par...
Article
Full-text available
This paper outlines five principles for effective practice of knowledge exchange, which when applied, have the potential to significantly enhance the impact of environmental management research, policy and practice. The paper is based on an empirical analysis of interviews with 32 researchers and stakeholders across 13 environmental management rese...
Article
The complex and dynamic nature of environmental problems requires flexible and transparent decision-making that embraces a diversity of knowledges and values. For this reason, stakeholder participation in environmental decision-making has been increasingly sought and embedded into national and international policy. Although many benefits have been...
Article
Full-text available
This paper shows how, with the aid of computer models developed in close collaboration with decision makers and other stakeholders, it is possible to quantify and map how policy decisions are likely to affect multiple ecosystem services in future. In this way, potential trade-offs and complementarities between different ecosystem services can be id...
Article
Food system resilience has multiple dimensions. We draw on food system and resilience concepts and review resilience framings of different communities. We present four questions to frame food system resilience (Resilience of what? Resilience to what? Resilience from whose perspective? Resilience for how long?) and three approaches to enhancing resi...
Article
Full-text available
The world is facing unprecedented challenges on a scale that has never been seen before, and the need for evidence-informed solutions has never been greater. As a result, academics, policy-makers, practitioners, and research funders are increasingly seeking to undertake or support research that achieves tangible impacts on policy and practice. Howe...
Article
Ecosystem services arising from the restoration of natural capital are now increasingly recognised as environmental opportunities and monetised, with international climate negotiations focussing on the need for investment into natural capital, and the finance sector pledging to invest. The finance sector has called for decision-grade, asset level d...
Article
Full-text available
There is growing interest around the world in more effectively linking public payments to the provision of public goods from agriculture. However, published evidence syntheses suggest mixed, weak or uncertain evidence for many agri-environment scheme options. To inform any future “public money for public goods” based policy, further synthesis work...
Article
Despite the availability of important theoretical insights that could enhance the resilience of rural communities to complex challenges, there is a paucity of guidance on how to apply these insights in practice. This paper therefore presents and assesses a deliberative research process using the Delphi technique to elicit expert knowledge from 22 a...
Article
Full-text available
Soils form the basis for agricultural production and other ecosystem services, and soil management should aim at improving their quality and resilience. Within the SoilCare project, the concept of soil-improving cropping systems (SICS) was developed as a holistic approach to facilitate the adoption of soil management that is sustainable and profita...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates how research data contributes to non-academic impacts using a secondary analysis of high-scoring impact case studies from the UK’s Research Excellence Framework (REF). A content analysis was conducted to identify patterns, linking research data and impact. The most prevalent type of research data-driven impact related to “pr...
Article
Full-text available
Soil quality is declining in many parts of the world, with implications for the productivity, resilience and sustainability of agri-food systems. Research suggests multiple causes of soil degradation with no single solution and a divided stakeholder opinion on how to manage this problem. However , creating socially acceptable and effective policies...
Article
Full-text available
Ecosystem markets are proliferating around the world in response to increasing demand for climate change mitigation and provision of other public goods. However, this may lead to perverse outcomes, for example where public funding crowds out private investment or different schemes create trade-offs between the ecosystem services they each target. T...
Technical Report
There are many corporations setting net zero targets and looking to carbon removal offsets to help them achieve these goals. There is a potential opportunity for farmers and land managers to take advantage of a new income stream selling carbon credits. However, there is uncertainty about how much carbon can be sequestered in an agricultural settin...
Article
Full-text available
The exponential rise of information available means we can now, in theory, access knowledge on almost any question we ask. However, as the amount of unverified information increases, so too does the challenge in deciding which information to trust. Farmers, when learning about agricultural innovations, have historically relied on in-person advice f...
Article
Effective research impact development is essential to address global challenges. This commentary highlights key issues facing research impact development as a nascent professional field of practice. We argue that those working on research impact should take a strategic, ‘evidence-based’ approach to maximize potential research benefits and minimize...
Article
In order to mitigate the effects of climate change, the UK government has set a target of achieving net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050. Agricultural GHG emissions in 2017 were 45.6 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 e; 10% of UK total GHG emissions). Farmland hedgerows are a carbon sink, storing carbon in the vegetation...
Article
Full-text available
As anthropogenic pressures on the environment grow, science-policy interaction is increasingly needed to support evidence-informed decision-making. However, there are many barriers to knowledge exchange (KE) at the science-policy interface, including difficulties evaluating its outcomes. The aims of this study are to synthesize the literature to el...
Article
Full-text available
There is growing political pressure for farmers to use more sustainable agricultural practices to protect people and the planet. The farming press could encourage farmers to adopt sustainable practices through its ability to manipulate discourse and spread awareness by changing the salience of issues or framing topics in specific ways. We sought to...
Article
Full-text available
Ecosystem degradation represents one of today’s major global challenges, threatening human well-being and livelihoods worldwide. To reverse continuing degradation, we need to understand its socio-economic consequences so that these can be incorporated into ecosystem management decisions. This requires links to be made between our understanding of h...
Article
Full-text available
New ways of doing research are needed to tackle the deep interconnected nature of twenty first century challenges, like climate change, obesity, and entrenched social and economic inequalities. While the impact agenda has been shaping research culture, this has largely been driven by economic imperatives, leading to a range of negative unintended c...
Article
Full-text available
Community development often involves organizing participatory decision-making processes. The challenge is for this to be meaningful. Participatory decision-making has the potential to increase the transparency, accountability, equity and efficiency with which public administration serves the least privileged in society. However, in practice, it oft...
Article
Full-text available
Background Interest in impact evaluation has grown rapidly as research funders increasingly demand evidence that their investments lead to public benefits. Aims This paper analyses literature to provide a new definition of research impact and impact evaluation, develops a typology of research impact evaluation designs, and proposes a methodologica...
Article
This paper explores the potential for using approaches and methods from anthropology to address inequalities and work with marginalised, voiceless groups to engage actively in decisions that affect them. We test and illustrate participatory action research (PAR) methods from anthropology that seek to understand tacit/implicit knowledge and values t...
Article
Full-text available
As wild areas disappear and agricultural lands expand, understanding how people and wildlife can coexist becomes increasingly important. Human–wildlife conflicts (HWCs) are obstacles to coexistence and negatively affect both wildlife populations and the livelihood of people. To facilitate coexistence, a number of frameworks have been developed to b...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ecosystem markets are proliferating around the world in response to increasing demand for climate change mitigation and provision of other public goods. However, this may lead to perverse outcomes, for example where public funding crowds out private investment or different schemes create trade-offs between the ecosystem services they each target. T...
Article
Full-text available
Formalised knowledge systems, including universities and research institutes, are important for contemporary societies. They are, however, also arguably failing humanity when their impact is measured against the level of progress being made in stimulating the societal changes needed to address challenges like climate change. In this research we use...
Article
Full-text available
Livestock production is under increasing scrutiny regarding its impacts on the environment and its wider role in climate change. Consequently, there are a growing number of private agri-environmental schemes (AES) now operating alongside public AES that offer farmers economic rewards to maintain and enhance the environment. This study focused exclu...
Article
Full-text available
Formalised knowledge systems, including universities and research institutes, are important for contemporary societies. They are, however, also arguably failing humanity when their impact is measured against the level of progress being made in stimulating the societal changes needed to address challenges like climate change. In this research we use...
Article
Full-text available
There is growing interest around the world in more effectively linking public payments to the provision of public goods from agriculture. However, published evidence syntheses suggest mixed, weak or uncertain evidence for many agri-environment scheme options. To inform any future “public money for public goods” based policy, further synthesis work...
Article
Full-text available
Background Interest in impact evaluation has grown rapidly as research funders increasingly demand evidence that their investments lead to public benefits. Aims This paper analyses literature to provide a new definition of research impact and impact evaluation, develops a typology of research impact evaluation designs, and proposes a methodologica...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Environmental restoration and conservation challenges go beyond what can be financed publicly. There are significant opportunities for private investment in the delivery of public goods, benefitting both commercial organisations whose business relies on ecosystem services, as well as landowners, land managers and the general public. Thus, public-pr...
Preprint
The exponential rise of information available means we can now, in theory, access information on almost any question we ask. However, as the amount of unverified information increases, so too does the challenge in deciding which information to trust. Farmers, when learning about agricultural innovations, have historically relied on in-person advice...
Article
Full-text available
Soil quality is in decline in many parts of the world, in part due to the intensification of agricultural practices. Whilst economic instruments and regulations can help incentivise uptake of more sustainable soil management practices, they rarely motivate long-term behavior change when used alone. There has been increasing attention towards the co...
Article
Full-text available
Soil quality is in decline in many parts of the world, in part due to the intensification of agricultural practices. Whilst economic instruments and regulations can help incentivise uptake of more sustainable soil management practices, they rarely motivate long-term behavior change when used alone. There has been increasing attention towards the co...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on two studies that used qualitative thematic and quantitative linguistic analysis, respectively, to assess the content and language of the largest ever sample of graded research impact case studies, from the UK Research Excellence Framework 2014 (REF). The paper provides the first empirical evidence across disciplinary main pane...
Preprint
Full-text available
Soil quality is in decline in many parts of the world, in part due to the intensification of agricultural practices. Whilst economic instruments and regulations can help incentivise uptake of more sustainable soil management practices, they rarely motivate long-term behavior change when used alone. We are now beginning to pay attention to the compl...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The project: The Valuing Nature Programme's Peatland Tipping Points project is investigating how changes in climate and how we manage land might lead to long lasting changes, or "tipping points", in the benefits that peatlands provide to UK society. The aim is to identify signs of the potential for, and likelihood of, such changes and provide evide...
Article
Full-text available
A recent paper by Heinemeyer et al. (2018) in this journal has suggested that the use of prescribed fire may enhance carbon accumulation in UK upland blanket bogs. We challenge this finding based on a number of concerns with the original manuscript including the lack of an unburned control, insufficient replication, unrecognised potential confoundi...
Article
Full-text available
Digital technologies are being developed and adopted across the agri‐food system, from farm to fork. Within decision‐making spaces, however, little attention is being paid to political factors arising from such technological developments. This review draws from critical social sciences to examine emerging technologies and big data systems in agricu...
Article
Full-text available
Responding to modern day environmental challenges for societal well-being and prosperity necessitates the integration of science into policy and practice. This has spurred the development of novel institutional structures among research organisations aimed at enhancing the impact of environmental science on policy and practice. However, such initia...
Data
Interview guide that formed the basis of data collection. (DOCX)
Preprint
The proposed protocol is for a rapid evidence synthesis analysis into the use of livestock exclusion fencing as an on-farm intervention for improving water quality. The primary objectives are to assess the use of livestock exclusion fencing to improve water quality by reducing nutrient load, the presence of faecal indicator organisms and sediment l...
Preprint
Full-text available
The proposed protocol is for a rapid evidence synthesis analysis into the use of livestock exclusion fencing as an on-farm intervention for improving water quality. The primary objectives are to assess the use of livestock exclusion fencing to improve water quality by reducing nutrient load, the presence of faecal indicator organisms and sediment l...
Preprint
Full-text available
This is a protocol for a rapid review of the effectiveness of soil loosening to ameliorate compaction caused by cattle treading from dairy production on UK dairy farms. The review will synthesise relevant literature that explores the impacts that can be derived from mechanical soil loosening for improved soil quality, productivity (i.e. yield) and...
Preprint
This is a protocol for a rapid review of the effectiveness of soil loosening to ameliorate compaction caused by cattle treading from dairy production on UK dairy farms. The review will synthesise relevant literature that explores the impacts that can be derived from mechanical soil loosening for improved soil quality, productivity (i.e. yield) and...
Article
Full-text available
There is growing interest in demonstrating the societal and economic value of research around the world with the UK and Australia are at the forefront of these developments. Characterised as an ‘impact agenda’, impact policies have incited debate amongst the academic community and beyond. On the one hand, the edifying and reinforcing effects of imp...
Article
Invasive alien species are a major driver of global environmental change and a range of management interventions are needed to manage their effects on biodiversity, ecosystem services, human well-being and local livelihoods. Stakeholder engagement is widely advocated to integrate diverse knowledge and perspectives in the management of invasive spec...
Article
Full-text available
Improvements in land use and management are needed at a global scale to tackle inter‐connected global challenges of population growth, poverty, migration, climate change, biodiversity loss, and degrading land and water resources. There are hundreds of technical options for improving the sustainability of land management and preventing or reversing...
Article
Full-text available
The most critical question for climate research is no longer about the problem, but about how to facilitate the transformative changes necessary to avoid catastrophic climate-induced change. Addressing this question, however, will require massive upscaling of research that can rapidly enhance learning about transformations. Ten essentials for guidi...
Article
Research synthesis is the integration of existing knowledge and research findings pertinent to an issue. The aim of synthesis is to increase the generality and applicability of those findings and to develop new knowledge through the process of integration. Synthesis is promoted as an approach that deals with the challenge of 'information overload’,...
Article
Full-text available
It is widely acknowledged that ecosystems often cannot be considered as separated from social systems, but that they should rather be seen as interacting, cross‐scaled, coupled systems operating on multiple temporal and spatial scales. Humans have an increasing impact on ecosystems worldwide, while at the same time ecosystems are of critical import...
Article
Despite growing interest in public engagement with research, there are many challenges to evaluating engagement. Evaluation findings are rarely shared or lead to demonstrable improvements in engagement practice. This has led to calls for a common 'evaluation standard' to provide tools and guidance for evaluating public engagement and driving good p...
Article
Full-text available
The requirement to anticipate, articulate and evaluate the impact of research is a growing part of academic labor. A research impact agenda in the UK and Australia reflects a drive from Governments to see a return on the public investment of research. Some view this as symptomatic of a marketised higher education system, in which knowledge is a com...
Article
Full-text available
Global drylands face a host of urgent human and environmental challenges with far-reaching impacts. Improving smallholder agriculture remains a key development pathway to tackle these challenges. The Dryland Development Paradigm (DDP), introduced in 2007, presented a highly influential framework for dryland development based on systems research. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) schemes are proliferating but are challenged by insufficient attention to spatial and temporal inter-dependencies, interactions between different ecosystems and their services, and the need for multi-level governance. To address these challenges, this paper develops a place-based approach to the development and...
Chapter
Full-text available
The increasing use of stakeholder analysis in natural resource management reflects a growing recognition that stakeholders can and should influence environmental decision making. Stakeholder analysis can be used to avoid inflaming conflicts, ensure that the marginalization of certain groups is not reinforced, and fairly represent diverse interests....