Mark Prausnitz

Mark Prausnitz
Georgia Institute of Technology | GT

About

408
Publications
72,734
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35,590
Citations
Citations since 2016
114 Research Items
19242 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202201,0002,0003,000

Publications

Publications (408)
Article
Patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) require intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (Bev) or other drugs, often on a monthly basis, which is a burden on the healthcare system. Here, we developed an in-situ forming hydrogel comprised of Bev and hyaluronic acid (HA) crosslinked with poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate for slow releas...
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Ingestible devices have the potential to clear away barriers to oral delivery of biologics to improve drug bioavailability.
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Background New strategies to increase measles and rubella vaccine coverage, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, are needed if elimination goals are to be achieved. With this regard, measles and rubella vaccine microneedle patches (MRV-MNP), in which the vaccine is embedded in dissolving microneedles, offer several potential advantages...
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Medical tattoos provide medical information, guide radiotherapy, and improve cosmetic outcomes of medical interventions. These tattoos are administered by repeated needle injection that causes pain, bleeding, and risk of infection, which limit more widespread use. Here, we developed single-use microneedle (MN) patches to deposit tattoos in the skin...
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Microneedle (MN) patches enable simple self-administration of drugs via the skin. In this study, we sought to deliver drug-loaded microspheres (MSs) using MN patches and found that the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) MSs failed to localize in the MN tips during fabrication, thereby decreasing their delivered dose and delivery efficiency into s...
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Purpose: Scleral stiffening may protect against glaucomatous retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss or dysfunction associated with ocular hypertension. Here, we assess the potential neuroprotective effects of two treatments designed to stiffen either the entire posterior sclera or only the sclera adjacent to the peripapillary sclera in an experimental m...
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There is a tremendous need for simple-to-administer, long-acting contraception, which can increase access to improved family planning. Microneedle (MN) patches enable simple self-administration and have previously been formulated for 1-2 months' controlled release of contraceptive hormone using monolithic polymer/drug MN designs having first-order...
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Scleral photocrosslinking is increasingly investigated for treatment of myopia and glaucoma. In this study a computational model was developed to predict crosslinking efficiency of visible/near infrared photosensitizers in the sclera. Photocrosslinking was validated against riboflavin corneal crosslinking experimental studies and subsequently model...
Article
The triumphant success of mRNA vaccines is a testimony to the important role drug delivery technologies have played in protecting billions of people against SARS-CoV-2 (or the Corona Virus Disease 2019; COVID-19). Several lipid nanoparticle (LNP) mRNA vaccines were developed and have been instrumental in preventing the disease by boosting the immun...
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Peanut and tree nut allergies account for most food-induced anaphylactic events. The standard allergy immunotherapy approach involves subcutaneous injection, which is challenging because severe adverse reactions can occur when antigens spread systemically. Allergen localization within the epidermis (i.e., the upper 20–100 µm of skin) should signifi...
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Most pharmaceuticals are given using short-acting formulations that require frequent administration, which can negatively affect patient compliance and increase failure risks associated with inconsistent use. By contrast, long-acting release formulations can achieve sustained release of drugs for weeks, months or years. In this Review, we discuss l...
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Despite its high efficacy and good patient compliance, the only long-acting injectable (LAI) contraceptive currently available in the US, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), is limited by significant side effects and a delayed return to fertility for up to 10 months after its intended duration of action. To overcome these limitations, we soug...
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Significance Low-cost and rapidly distributable vaccines are urgently needed to combat COVID-19 and future pandemics, especially for developing countries and other low-resource settings. DNA vaccines are inexpensive, rapidly developed, and safe, but require bulky and expensive electroporation devices for effective vaccination, which presents challe...
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Dissolvable microneedle patches (MNPs) enable simplified delivery of therapeutics via the skin. However, most dissolvable MNPs do not deliver their full drug loading to the skin because only some of the drug is localized in the microneedles (MNs), and the rest remains adhered to the patch backing after removal from the skin. In this work, biphasic...
Article
Dissolving microneedle (MN) patches are usually formulated with a blend of drug and excipients added for mechanical strength and drug stabilization. In this study, we developed MNs made of pure drug to maximize drug loading capacity. MN patches were fabricated for transdermal delivery of montelukast sodium (MS) which is used to treat asthma and all...
Article
Microneedle (MN) patches are being developed for many different kinds of drugs, but are often limited to delivering sub-milligram doses. This is because larger patches can be more difficult to apply to the skin, and acceptability of larger MN patches by human subjects has received limited study. Here, we fabricated 18 different large MN patch desig...
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Despite their high efficacy and safety, long-acting contraceptive methods are underutilized among women in some settings because they usually require injection or implantation by healthcare personnel. Here, we report a self-administrable microneedle (MN) patch for the rapid administration of a sustained-release contraceptive hormone delivery system...
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Measles and rubella vaccinations are highly effective at reducing disease prevalence; however, logistic issues related to subcutaneous administration and vaccine wastage limit the extent of vaccination coverage. Microneedle (MN) patches can increase coverage by easing logistics through simplified administration and improved stability. This study de...
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Oxytocin is a nonapeptide hormone used in labor to initiate uterine contractions and to prevent and treat postpartum hemorrhage. Oxytocin is currently administered by injection and requires refrigerated transport and storage, which limits access, especially during home birth in developing countries. Here, we propose a thermostable, simple-to-admini...
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In a phase 1 randomized, single-center clinical trial, inactivated influenza virus vaccine delivered through dissolvable microneedle patches (MNPs) was found to be safe and immunogenic. Here, we compare the humoral and cellular immunologic responses in a subset of participants receiving influenza vaccination by MNP to the intramuscular (IM) route o...
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Nanoparticle-mediated photoporation is a novel delivery platform for intracellular molecule delivery. We studied the dependence of macromolecular delivery on molecular weight and sought to enhance delivery efficiency. DU145 prostate cancer cells were exposed to pulsed laser beam in the presence of carbon-black nanoparticles. Intracellular uptake of...
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Introduction: Intracellular delivery of molecules is central to applications in biotechnology, medicine, and basic research. Nanoparticle-mediated photoporation using carbon black nanoparticles exposed to pulsed, near-infrared laser irradiation offers a physical route to create transient cell membrane pores, enabling intracellular delivery. Howeve...
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Vaccines are an essential component of pandemic preparedness but can be limited due to challenges in production and logistical implementation. While vaccine candidates were rapidly developed against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2), immunization campaigns remain an obstacle to achieving herd immunity. Dissolvable microne...
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The sweat test is the gold standard for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). The test utilizes iontophoresis to administer pilocarpine to the skin to induce sweating for measurement of chloride concentration in sweat. However, the sweat test procedure needs to be conducted in an accredited lab with dedicated instrumentation, and it can lead to in...
Article
Skin vaccination by microneedle (MN) patch simplifies the immunization process to increase access to vaccines for global health. Lyophilization has been widely used to stabilize vaccines and other biologics during storage, but is generally not compatible with the MN patch manufacturing processes. In this study, our goal was to develop a method to i...
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Current strategies for improving protective response to influenza vaccines during immunosenescence do not adequately protect individuals over 65 years of age. Here, we used an aged mouse model to investigate the potential of co-delivery of influenza vaccine with the recently identified combination of a saponin adjuvant Quil-A and an activator of th...
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The central vision-threatening event in glaucoma is dysfunction and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), thought to be promoted by local tissue deformations. Here, we sought to reduce tissue deformation near the optic nerve head by selectively stiffening the peripapillary sclera, i.e. the scleral region immediately adjacent to the optic nerve hea...
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Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness. Current treatments use drugs or surgery to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP). In this study, a drug‐free, nonsurgical method is developed that lowers IOP for 4 months without requiring daily patient adherence. The approach involves expanding the suprachoroidal space (SCS) of the eye with an i...
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The powerful and intriguing idea that drives the emerging technology of microneedles-shrinking the standard needle to a micron scale-has fostered an entire field of microneedle study and subsequent exponential growth in research and product development. Originally enabled by microfabrication tools derived from the microelec-tronic industry, microne...
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Tissue interstitial fluid (ISF) surrounds cells and is an underutilized source of biomarkers that complements conventional sources such as blood and urine. However, ISF has received limited attention due largely to lack of simple collection methods. Here, we developed a minimally invasive, microneedle-based method to sample ISF from human skin that...
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When a system comprised of cells, carbon black nanoparticles, and delivery molecules is irradiated with a laser beam, the nanoparticles can absorb and dissipate the laser-delivered energy, producing thermal and acoustic output and fluid mechanical forces. These can then interact with the nearby cell membrane, forming membrane pores that exogenous m...
Article
Most animal models of glaucoma rely on induction of ocular hypertension (OHT), yet such models can suffer from high IOPs leading to undesirable retinal ischemia. Thus, animals with IOPs exceeding a threshold (e.g. > 60 mmHg) are often excluded from studies. However, due to the intermittent nature of IOP measurements, this approach may fail to detec...
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Measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) is a standard procedure in ophthalmic research in animals, specifically in glaucomaresearch, and the control of IOP is essential during certain veterinary ophthalmic surgeries. We evaluated the effect of isoflurane on IOP in the clinically healthy laboratory rabbits and tested a way to minimize the alterati...
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Zika virus (ZIKV) causes moderate to severe neuro-ocular sequelae, with symptoms ranging from conjunctivitis to Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). Despite the international threat ZIKV poses, no licensed vaccine exists. As ZIKV and DENV are closely related, antibodies against one virus have demonstrated the ability to enhance the other. To examine if v...
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Objective This study sought to evaluate the acceptability of inactivated influenza vaccine delivered by microneedle patch (MNP) in comparison to inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) delivered by hypodermic needle. Design, Setting, and Participants. From the general population of Atlanta, Georgia, we screened 112 and enrolled 100 healthy adult subjec...
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While morbidity and mortality associated with measles and rubella (MR) have dramatically decreased, there are still >100 000 estimated deaths due to measles and an estimated 100 000 infants born with congenital rubella syndrome annually. Given highly effective MR vaccines, the primary barrier to global elimination of these diseases is low vaccinati...
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Drug delivery to the skin is highly constrained by the stratum corneum barrier layer1. Here, we developed star-shaped particles, termed STAR particles, to dramatically increase skin permeability. STAR particles are millimeter-scale particles made of aluminum oxide or stainless steel with micron-scale projections designed to create microscopic pores...
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To increase access to long-acting contraception, we developed a reversible contraceptive microneedle patch that is simple-to-administer, slowly releases contraceptive hormone (levonorgestrel) for >1 month, and generates no biohazardous sharps waste. After manually pressing the patch to skin for 1 min, microneedles rapidly separate from the patch wi...
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A novel oral capsule can deploy microneedle patches that release drugs into the intestinal wall for uptake into the bloodstream as shown in animal studies, thereby avoiding injections.
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Injection into the suprachoroidal space (SCS) allows drug delivery targeted to sclera, choroid and retina. Here, we studied SCS injection formulated with collagenase to expand drug delivery coverage and increase posterior drug targeting within SCS by breaking down collagen fibrils that link sclera and choroid in the SCS. When 1 μm latex micropartic...
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Background: Dissolvable microneedle patches (dMNPs) provide ease of deployment and eliminate need for hypodermic needle disposal after conventional vaccinations. In this study, immunogenicity of dMNP delivery of adjuvant-free monovalent hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) vaccine (AFV) to standard intramuscular (IM) injection of monovalent aluminu...
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Minimally invasive devices to detect molecules in dermal interstitial fluid (ISF) are desirable for point-of-care diagnostic and monitoring applications. In this study, we developed a microneedle (MN) patch that collects ISF for on-patch biomarker analysis by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The micron-scale MNs create micropores in the sk...
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Vaccines prevent 2-3 million childhood deaths annually; however, low vaccine efficacy and the resulting need for booster doses create gaps in immunization coverage. In this translational study, we explore the benefits of extended release of licensed vaccine antigens into skin to increase immune responses after a single dose in order to design impro...
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It is a high priority to develop a simple and effective delivery method for a cross-protective influenza vaccine. We investigated skin immunization by microneedle (MN) patch with human influenza split vaccine and virus-like particles containing heterologous M2 extracellular (M2e) domains (M2e5x virus-like particles (VLP)) as a cross-protective infl...
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The suprachoroidal space (SCS), a potential anatomical space between the sclera and choroid, is a novel route for drug delivery targeting the chorioretinal layers of the eye. The safety and efficacy of SCS drug delivery have been shown in multiple clinical trials. Recent studies have developed methods for more precise targeting within the SCS at si...
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Women often have limited access to contraception, and barrier methods have low acceptance and a high failure rate, mostly due to incorrect use, which can result in unplanned pregnancies. Sustained-release formulations of contraceptive hormones are available, yet typically require their administration by trained personnel. Here, we report the design...
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Minimally invasive point-of-care diagnostic devices are of great interest for rapid detection of biomarkers in diverse settings. Although blood is the most common source of biomarkers, interstitial fluid (ISF) is an alternate body fluid that does not clot or contain red blood cells that often complicate analysis. However, ISF is difficult to collec...
Article
Interstitial fluid (ISF) that surrounds cells in tissues of the body is a novel source of biomarker that complements conventional sources like blood, urine, and saliva. To overcome difficulties in harvesting ISF, a minimally invasive, rapid, simple‐to‐use, cost‐effective method is developed to collect ISF from the skin involving a microneedle (MN)...
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The aim of this study was to develop a dissolving microneedle (MN) patch for administration of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) with improved thermal stability when compared with conventional liquid IPV. Excipient screening showed that a combination of maltodextrin and D-sorbitol in histidine buffer best preserved IPV activity during MN patch fabric...
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There is an urgent need to reduce reliance on hypodermic injections for many vaccines to increase vaccination safety and coverage. Alternative approaches include controlled release formulations, which reduce dosing frequencies, and utilizing alternative delivery devices such as microneedle patches (MNPs). This work explores development of controlle...
Data
Appendix S1: Supporting Information for Self‐healing Encapsulation and Controlled Release of Vaccine Antigens from PLGA Microparticles Delivered by Microneedle Patches
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Intramuscular (IM) vaccination with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) failed in clinical trials due to vaccine-enhanced respiratory disease. To test the efficacy of skin vaccination against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), we investigated the immunogenicity, efficacy, and inflammatory disease after microneedle (MN) patch d...
Data
Antigenic stability of FI-RSV after coating onto solid MN. The antigenic stability of FI-RSV coated onto solid stainless MN was determined by reactivity of FI-RSV de-coated and dissolved off from MN in PBS for RSV fusion (F) protein specific monoclonal antibody palivizumab. The data are representative out of 3 multiple tests and we observed reprodu...
Data
NC3Rs ARRIVE guidelines checklist 2014 (PLOS)(9 14 181). (PDF)
Article
Significance Mismatched seasonal influenza vaccines are low efficacy and provide limited protection against circulating strains. A universal influenza vaccine that can induce broadly cross-protective immunity is urgently needed. Here, we have developed a layered peptide-only nanoparticle vaccine delivered by dissolvable microneedle patches. Immuniz...
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Development of a safe and efficacious filovirus vaccine is of high importance to public health. In this study, we compared immune responses induced by Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP) subunit vaccines via intradermal immunization with microneedle (MN) patches and the conventional intramuscular (IM) injection in mice, which showed that MN delive...
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Skin vaccination using biodegradable microneedle patch (MNP) technology in vaccine delivery is a promising strategy showing significant advantages over conventional flu shots. In this study, we developed an MNP encapsulating a 4M2e-tFliC fusion protein and two types of whole inactivated influenza virus vaccines (H1N1 and H3N2) as a universal vaccin...