Mark Paschke

Mark Paschke
Colorado State University | CSU · Department of Forest and Rangeland Stewardship

PhD University of Illinois

About

146
Publications
21,767
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
3,375
Citations
Introduction
My research focuses on mechanisms controlling community assembly in terrestrial plant communities. By elucidating these mechanisms my research team is able to guide restoration treatments for disturbed lands. For much of my career I have worked across multiple scales, from the molecular to the ecosystem level, and across multiple disciplines. I currently teach classes in Restoration Ecology, Ecological Restoration, and Disturbance Ecology at CSU
Additional affiliations
September 2005 - January 2017
Colorado State University
Position
  • Shell Endowed Chair of Restoration Ecology
Education
January 1990 - May 1993
January 1987 - December 1989
September 1982 - May 1986

Publications

Publications (146)
Article
Full-text available
Restoration of degraded drylands is urgently needed to mitigate climate change, reverse desertification and secure livelihoods for the two billion people who live in these areas. Bold global targets have been set for dryland restoration to restore millions of hectares of degraded land. These targets have been questioned as overly ambitious, but wit...
Article
A full list of affiliations appears at the end of the paper. R estoration ecology is rapidly advancing in response to the ever-expanding global decline in ecosystem integrity and its associated socioeconomic repercussions 1-4. Nowhere are these dynamics more evident than in drylands, which help sustain 39% of the world's human population 5 but rema...
Preprint
Vietnam’s forests have undergone major transformations since the 1990s, including a transition from net forest loss to net expansion, which is attributable to plantation forests and rehabilitated forests. Our study aimed to better understand the patterns and the causes of forest cover rehabilitation in Vietnam to expand tropical forests in other re...
Article
Full-text available
Energy is an integral part of society. The major US energy sources of fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas); biofuels (ethanol); and wind are concentrated in grassland ecosystems of the Great Plains. As energy demand continues to increase, mounting pressures will be placed on North American grassland systems. In this review, we present the ecologic...
Preprint
Vietnam’s forests have undergone major transformations since the 1990s, including a transition from net forest loss to net expansion. Plantation forests and rehabilitated forests have contributed to this transition. Under the growing effects of climate change, it is important to understand the socioeconomic drivers of Vietnam’s rehabilitated forest...
Article
Full-text available
Vietnam’s forests have experienced a notable transformation over the past 20 years from net deforestation to reforestation and expanding forests. Continued reforestation that aims to achieve further economic and environmental benefits remains a national priority and strategy. We explore the current status of plantation forests and highlight possibl...
Article
Management of restored ecosystems for multiple use is a modern necessity given a growing human population and dwindling supplies of ecosystem goods and services. Multiple use management refers to managing resources simultaneously for sustainable output of many goods and services. Within any restoration, thoughtful planning and early stakeholder eng...
Article
North American salt deserts are typically characterized by slow-growing Atriplex shrubs and perennial grasses with biological soil crusts (BSC) important in shrub interspaces. Disturbance due to heavy livestock use, wildfire, and recreation and energy development has increased the need for restoration of salt deserts in the western United States. H...
Article
Climate change is a pressing global issue and it negatively affects many developing countries, including Vietnam. To help Vietnam effectively respond to this pressing challenge, the country has recently introduced a major program for reducing carbon emissions arising from deforestation and forest degradation, fostering conservation, managing forest...
Article
Full-text available
Revegetation by seeding is an important tool in restoration. Seeding practices for restoration often rely on standard prescriptions for seed mix diversity and seeding rates. Seed mix diversity and rates are generally low within restoration projects and these practices are typically not informed by research. The objective of this study was to explor...
Article
Full-text available
Pinyon-juniper (Pinus spp.–Juniperus spp.) encroachment and declining mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations in western Colorado have necessitated management for increased forage. Pinyon-juniper removal is one such technique; however, it is unclear which method of tree removal most effectively promotes forage species. We conducted an experimen...
Article
Exotic plant invasion can have dramatic impacts on native plants making restoration of native vegetation at invaded sites challenging. Though invasives may be superior competitors, it is possible their dominance could be enhanced by insect herbivores if native plants are preferred food sources. Insect herbivory can regulate plant populations, but l...
Article
Full-text available
Increased urbanization coupled with increased reliance of urban communities on rural areas for ecosystem service provision is a challenge faced by many nations. The ability of urban households to directly support restoration efforts in surrounding rural regions represents an underappreciated funding stream for ecological restoration. This study exp...
Article
Ecosystem restoration planning near the beginning of the site assessment and management process ("early integration") involves consideration of restoration goals from the outset in developing solutions for contaminated ecosystems. There are limitations to integration that stem from institutional barriers, few successful precedents and limited avail...
Article
The ecological consequences of slash pile burning are a concern for land managers charged with maintaining forest soil productivity and native plant diversity. Fuel reduction and forest health management projects have created nearly 150,000 slash piles scheduled for burning on US Forest Service land in northern Colorado. The vast majority of these...
Article
Full-text available
Premise of the study: Are there dimensions of symbiotic root interactions that are overlooked because plant mineral nutrition is the foundation and, perhaps too often, the sole explanation through which we view these relationships? In this paper we investigate how the root nodule symbiosis in selenium (Se) hyperaccumulator and nonaccumulator Astra...
Article
Symphyotrichum ericoides (Asteraceae) from naturally seleniferous habitat (Pine Ridge) was shown previously to have selenium (Se) hyperaccumulator properties in field and glasshouse studies, and to benefit from Se through protection from herbivory.To investigate whether Se hyperaccumulation is ubiquitous in S. ericoides or restricted to seleniferou...
Article
1.Soil nitrogen immobilization by carbon amendment is a management technique used for conservation purposes to increase the competitive ability of late-seral plant species over early-seral species based on their different tolerance of low soil nitrogen content. 2.We immobilized nitrogen over six growing seasons on three ex-arable fields with poor s...
Article
Full-text available
Heap leach processing for extraction of gold began in 1985 at Summitville Mine in southwestern Colorado, and by 1994 the site was declared a Superfund Site by the USEPA. In 1995, we began a science-based approach aimed at restoring 200 ha of highly disturbed land. The short-term goal of the restoration was aimed at stabilizing soils and preventing...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing fire frequencies and uncharacteristic severe fires have created a need for improved restoration methods across rangelands in western North America. Traditional restoration seed mixtures of native perennial mid-to late-seral plant species may not be suitable for intensely burned sites that have been returned to an early-seral condition. U...
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: • Premise of study: A survey of the root-nodule symbiosis in Astragalus and its interaction with selenium (Se) has not been conducted before. Such studies can provide insight into how edaphic conditions modify symbiotic interactions and influence partner coevolution. In this paper plant-organ Se concentration ([Se]) was investigated...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Russet buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt.) is an actinorhizal shrub capable of forming a symbiotic relationship with the N2-fixing soil actinomycetes Frankia. Actinorhizal shrubs can be ecologically important in infertile habitats by virtue of their ability to fix and contribute significant amounts of ecosy...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is one of the most widespread invasive weeds in North America, particularly in post-disturbance settings where it often dominates the landscape and prevents the establishment of native species. Native ruderal species share many characteristics with cheatgrass including high seed production,...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Forest thinning is a common practice used by land managers to reduce fuel loads and to restore historic forest structure and function in Colorado montane and subalpine forests. Typically, the material removed by thinning is unmerchantable and must be disposed of to reduce the risk of crown fires. Slash pile burning is...
Article
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been implicated in non-native plant invasion success and persistence. However, few studies have identified the AMF species associating directly with plant invaders, or how these associations differ from those of native plant species. Identifying changes to the AMF community due to plant invasion could yield k...
Article
Full-text available
1. Plant community succession has been a major area of study over the past century with recent research focusing on the importance of initial colonisers following disturbance. Seed addition can accelerate ecosystem regeneration and is a method commonly used by land managers to restore disturbed lands. However, few studies have examined the effects...
Article
Full-text available
Cheatgrass is a highly invasive winter annual grass that is most aggressive in the semi-arid steppe region of western North America. In this region, cheatgrass invasion becomes so severe that virtual monocultures can result. Due to its strategy for growth from autumn to spring, cheatgrass remains active during winter months when most native vegetat...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is a highly invasive winter annual grass in the sagebrush steppe of North America. Here, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are an important driver of plant community assembly. Cheatgrass is a facultative AMF host that receives little benefit from AMF, reduces AMF density in invaded soil...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Restoring native plant communities in areas previously dominated by crested wheatgrass has proven to be a challenging endeavor. The difficulties associated with reintroduction of native plants may be caused either by direct competition for resources from crested wheatgrass or by changes in chemical and/or biological pr...
Article
Applied Soil Ecology j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / a p s o i l Early seral plant species' interactions with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi community are highly variable a b s t r a c t Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are an important driver of plant community assembly, and as such may be critica...
Article
Full-text available
Semiarid ecosystems of Western North America are experiencing a boom in natural gas development. However, these systems are slow to recover from the disturbances created. The purpose of this study was to develop improved restoration techniques on natural gas well pads in Western Colorado. This study examined effects and interactions of seedbed modi...
Chapter
This chapter provides a framework for the rest of the book, by defining biodiversity, describing techniques to measure biodiversity, and listing the Earth’s biodiversity hotspots as identified by Norman Myer. The chapter then gives a brief discussion of theories of the causes of biodiversity, starting with the earliest theories, published in the 19...
Article
Full-text available
Selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation, when plant species accumulate upwards of 1,000mg Se kg−1 dry weight (DW), protects plants from a variety of herbivores and pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of plant Se concentration on the rate of litter decomposition by invertebrates and microbes in a seleniferous habitat. Decompos...
Article
Full-text available
Some plants hyperaccumulate metals or metalloids to levels several orders of magnitude higher than other species. This intriguing phenomenon has received considerable attention in the past decade. While research hasmostly focused on the above-ground organs, roots are the sole access point to below-ground trace elements and as such they play a vital...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) is one of the most widespread invasive species in the western United States. In sagebrush steppe rangeland it alters fire frequency, soil moisture, and nutrient dynamics, decreasing the value of rangeland for wildlife and livestock and increasing costs associated with fire remediation and h...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods For decades, the science of restoring damaged ecosystems has been progressing as our understanding of post-disturbance succession has improved. Many studies of natural and man-made disturbances and the stages of their recovery have been conducted in grassland ecosystems. Incorporating what has been learned from these pa...
Article
Monitoring of repeated composted biosolids applications is necessary for improving beneficial reuse program management strategies, because materials will likely be reapplied to the same site at a future point in time. A field trial evaluated a single and a repeated composted biosolids application in terms of long-term (13-14 years) and short-term (...
Article
Full-text available
Increased soil N availability may often facilitate plant invasions. Therefore, lowering N availability might reduce these invasions and favor desired species. Here, we review the potential efficacy of several commonly proposed management approaches for lowering N availability to control invasion, including soil C addition, burning, grazing, topsoil...
Article
Increased development and production rates of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) in Colorado have increased environmental concerns over soils, vegetation, water, and air resources. This chapter reviews the potential CBNG effects on these resources and discusses the associated state regulations. CBNG activities may involve large areas of soil disturbance wi...
Article
Full-text available
Water treatment residuals (WTRs) and biosolids are byproducts from municipal water treatment processes. Both byproducts have been studied separately for land application benefits. There are possible environmental benefits of WTRs and biosolids co-application but these studies are limited. Our objectives were to determine relative long-term (13–15 y...
Article
Full-text available
In a greenhouse experiment, we examined the effectiveness of four native cover crops for controlling four exotic, invasive species and increasing success of four western North American grassland species. Planting the annual cover crops, annual ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) and common sunflower (Helianthus annuus), reduced the biomass of the exo...