Mark H M M Montforts

Mark H M M Montforts
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) | RIVM

About

44
Publications
7,173
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1,073
Citations
Citations since 2017
0 Research Items
371 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230204060
20172018201920202021202220230204060
20172018201920202021202220230204060
Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (44)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In 2012, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) started an Expert Group on Pesticide Risk Indicators (EGPRI). The EGPRI was tasked with: developing an overview of existing Pesticide Risk Indicators (PRI); and addressing the question of how PRIs can be used as tools to assess the risks associated with pesticide use and the...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report investigates the validity of exposure and distribution models for soil, groundwater and surface water for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) at registration. The functional validations with (oxy)tetracycline and sulphonamides indicate that it is impossible to analyse the contribution of every...
Article
Risk and hazard assessments for the soil environment are performed on the basis of the total content of a contaminant in the dry bulk soil. Presently, scientific evidence is emerging and indicating that pore water may be a more relevant exposure medium for uptake of chemicals by biota and plants in soil. To deduce the degree to which pore water con...
Article
There is no uniform Persistent, Bioaccumulative, Toxic (PBT) or very Persistent, very Bioaccumulative (vPvB) assessment of chemicals in Europe, as the various regulatory frameworks use only limited or dissimilar PBT assessments, or none at all. The European REACH Regulation requires a PBT/vPvB assessment for all chemical substances that are produce...
Article
The Daphnia 21 d reproduction test is considered as a comprehensive and decisive test in the OECD Conceptual Framework for testing and assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). However, how to interpret results of the Daphnia 21 d reproduction test for identification, risk assessment and testing strategy of EDCs remains an unsolved issue...
Article
Full-text available
General protection goals for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of plant protection products are stated in European legislation but specific protection goals (SPGs) are often not precisely defined. These are however crucial for designing appropriate risk assessment schemes. The process followed by the Panel on Plant Protection Products and the...
Chapter
Antibiotics, Environment, and ResistanceEnvironmental Reservoirs of ARCulture-Independent Characterization of ARFinal ConsiderationsAcknowledgmentsReferences
Article
General protection goals for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of plant protection products are stated in European legislation but specific protection goals (SPGs) are often not precisely defined. These are however crucial for designing appropriate risk assessment schemes. The process followed by the Panel on Plant Protection Products and the...
Article
Frequently measured pharmaceuticals in environmental samples were tested in fish embryo toxicity (FET) tests with Danio rerio, based on the draft OECD test protocol. In this FET test 2-h-old zebrafish embryos were exposed for 72 h to carbamazepine, diclofenac and metoprolol to observe effects on embryo mortality, gastrulation, somite formation, tai...
Article
Deze publicatie geeft antwoord op de vraag ‘hoe rest- of afvalstoffen beoordeeld moeten worden om te kunnen worden aangewezen als meststof’. Een dergelijke aanwijzing is mogelijk indien is komen vast te staan dat er geen landbouwkundige of milieukundige bezwaren tegen bestaan dat deze stof als meststof of bij de productie van meststoffen worden geb...
Chapter
The fate and behaviour of pharmaceuticals in the environment have been studied since several decades (Zondek and Sulman 1943; Soulides et al.1962; Tabak and Bunch 1970), and the presence and effects of residues in the environment is a concern that has been identified not long after that (Berland and Maestrini 1969; Manten 1971; Blume et al. 1976; R...
Article
Full-text available
This report describes the evaluation of the 2006 proposal for the risk assessment of persistence of plant protection products in soil. The proposal considered three protection goals and proposed tiered assessment and decision schemes for each protection goal. The three schemes appeared to be consistent, both internally and with each other. It was f...
Article
The principal conclusion of a workshop in October 2005 at RIVM (Bilthoven, The Netherlands) on the assessment of field studies with pesticides for authorization is that the lack of a definition of acceptability of effects is recognized as a problem by all stakeholders: Industry, risk assessors, and regulators. Because of this lack of definition in...
Article
The principal conclusion of a workshop in October 2005 at RIVM (Bilthoven, The Netherlands) on the assessment of field studies with pesticides for authorization is that the lack of a definition of acceptability of effects is recognized as a problem by all stakeholders: Industry, risk assessors, and regulators. Because of this lack of definition in...
Article
Full-text available
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked its Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues to review the Opinions of the PPR Panel issued in 2006 and 2007 related to the revision of Annexes II and III to Council Directive 91/414/EEC (data requirements) concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market. The present opi...
Article
Full-text available
Current approaches to generating and interpreting ecotoxicological effects data in aquatic organisms were discussed in a workshop. Scientific principles underpinning historical “base set” acute testing (typically using freshwater algae, daphnids, fish) and the more recent requirement to adopt chronic sublethal test guidelines were discussed. Partic...
Article
Under the EU Directive 2004/28/EC, an environmental risk assessment of new veterinary medicinal products is required. Given the nature of risk assessment for new applications, there is a need to model exposure concentrations. Critical evaluations are essential to ensure that the use of models by regulators does not result in the propagation of misl...
Article
This article describes the results of a survey conducted in 2003 on methods used by different member countries within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to evaluate persistent and bioaccumulative pesticides. The objectives were to establish the differences in taking persistence (P) and bioaccumulation (B) into account...
Article
Full-text available
Bij de toelatingsbeoordeling van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen wordt onder andere gekeken naar de persistentie van deze middelen in de bodem. Nederland gebruikte tot voor kort onder meer een afkapwaarde; bij een gemiddelde halfwaardetijd (DT50) in de bodem boven 180 dagen werd een stof als onacceptabel persistent beschouwd. Het College van Beroep voor...
Article
This article describes the results of a survey conducted in 2003 on methods used by different member countries within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to evaluate persistent and bioaccumulative pesticides. The objectives were to establish the differences in taking persistence (P) and bioaccumulation (B) into account...
Article
An increasing number of ecotoxicological field studies are being submitted in the European Union procedure for authorization of pesticides. Although there is some guidance on how these studies can be used for risk assessment, not all aspects of field tests are covered and the guidance differs per type of test and per non-target group. To facilitate...
Article
An alarming decline of vulture populations (up to 95%) in Pakistan in the late 1990’s has recently been attributed to the use of the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac in cattle. Several species are now threatened with extinction, a tragedy that demonstrates that an environmental risk assessment of veterinary medicines is legitimate. The fate and be...
Article
This paper summarises what possibilities and obligations are created by the EU Directive 2001/82/EC on the registration of veterinary medicines to mitigate the environmental impact of the use of a veterinary medicinal product. More specifically, an identified environmental risk may be mitigated to an acceptable level by special precautions in the i...
Article
Full-text available
Residues of veterinary medicinal products reach the environment through spreading of slurry on agricultural soil. In this report animal husbandry, slurry handling and environmental conditions throughout Europe are considered in order to define realistic worst case scenarios, in conjunction with environmental distribution models. Given the variabili...
Article
Environmental legislations for water and soil aim at the protection of quality of these compartments. This legislation has major consequences for product registration, amongst others the setting of environmental quality standards. A thorough risk assessment at registration of all products is crucial for the proper operationalisation of the environm...
Chapter
Antibiotics are used as drugs to kill or reduce the growth of bacteria both in the treatment of humans and animals. Despite a relatively high usage of some antibiotics, very little information on the environmental release of this group of substances is available (Halling-Sørensen et al. 1998, 1999).Antibiotics for humans are mostly given therapeuti...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric fate of pesticides and their possible effects in ecosystems beyond the immediate surrounding of the application site are not actively considered in currently used regulatory risk assessment schemes. Concern with respect to atmospheric transport and subsequent deposition of pesticides in non-target areas is however growing. In this artic...
Article
The proposed methodology for the assessment of the environmental risks of the use of veterinary medicinal products is the hazard quotient approach. This article will elaborate on the exposure assessment with exposure models adapted to the Dutch agricultural situation. Based on the exposure assessment, decisions are made on the acceptability of the...
Article
Full-text available
The EC has issued directives (1981, 1992) requesting for registration of veterinary medicinal product information to enable an assessment of the product's safety for the environment. As a whole, the risk assessment is structured around the hazard quotient approach used in USES (1994). Predicted environmental concentrations are compared with effect...
Article
This Manual gives guidance in summarising and evaluating the environmental aspects of agricultural and non-agricultural pesticides. Actually this is the part of the pesticide registration process in the Netherlands preceding the risk assessment. The requirements of the Dutch government for admission of pesticides to the market are included in the M...
Article
SUMMARY Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR Panel) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the risks associated with an increase of the MRL for dieldrin on courgettes. Dieldrin was developed in the 1940s and was widely used as an insecticide up to the early 1970s. How...
Article
SUMMARY The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked its Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues to review the Opinions of the PPR Panel issued in 2006 and 2007 related to the revision of Annexes II and III to Council Directive 91/414/EEC (data requirements) concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market. The PPR...
Article
Full-text available
A critical appraisal of the data used for the establishment of the trigger values for the exposure of the aquatic environment to human medicines and the terrestrial environment to veterinary medicines leads to the recommendation to change these values. The (draft) technical guidance documents in support of the European registration procedure for hu...
Article
Full-text available
European legislation on water quality and product registration have created inconsistent liabilities for member states when it comes to evaluation and control of risks to water following the use of medicines, veterinary medicines and feed additives. Water quality legislation demands that at some point in time water quality complies with standards,...
Article
Full-text available
In order to increase the uniformity of evaluation reports, the Dutch Platform for the Assessment of Higher Tier Studies developed guidance for the evaluation of higher tier studies with earthworms. In the framework of pesticide registration, reports of field studies (Higher Tier Studies) with earthworms are delivered to the competent authorities. I...
Article
Full-text available
The environmental risk associated with the use of veterinary medicinal products is assessed at registration in the Netherlands. This report guides the applicants and the national registration authority through the evaluation scheme. It contains transparent exposure models that predict exposure concentrations, as well as uniform guidance to assess t...
Article
Full-text available
This report contains a proposal for a simplified Phase 1 assessment for immunological veterinary medicinal products. This scheme was constructed as it was felt that the existing guidance as given by the EMEA was too complex and laborous to reach quick decisions on the acceptability of low-risk products. In het rapport wordt een voorstel gedaan voor...
Article
Full-text available
A procedure is described here for deriving harmonised Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs). This procedure was developed because different MPCs are operative in the frameworks "Setting of Integrated Environmental Quality Standards", and registration of plant protection products and biocides. It is also undesirable that 2 or 3 different MPCs fo...
Article
Full-text available
A risk assessment for non-agricochemical pesticides has been carried out applying the Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances (USES 1.0). The evaluated groups of pesticides are: antifoulings; biocides used in coolingwater systems and woodpreservatives. Based on the available data on physico-chemical properties, emission during use, distribu...

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