Mark L Mallory

Mark L Mallory
Acadia University · Department of Biology

PhD

About

438
Publications
90,754
Reads
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8,872
Citations
Introduction
Mark Mallory works at the Department of Biology, Acadia University. He undertakes research in ecology and environmental science, looking at how human impacts on ecosystems influence wildlife and habitats.
Additional affiliations
July 2011 - present
Acadia University
Position
  • Canada Research Chair; Associate Professor

Publications

Publications (438)
Article
Long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants is generally assumed to be the main vector for arctic contamination, because local pollution sources are rare. We show that arctic seabirds, which occupy high trophic levels in marine food webs, are the dominant vectors for the transport of marine-derived contaminants to coastal ponds. The sediments of...
Article
Marine plastic ingestion by seabirds was first documented in the 1960s, but over 50 years later our understanding about the prevalence, intensity, and subsequent effect of plastic pollution in the oceans is still developing. In Canada, systematic assessments using recognized standard protocols began only in the mid-2000s. With marine plastic pollut...
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Reproductive timing in many taxa plays a key role in determining breeding productivity ¹, and is often sensitive to climatic conditions ² . Current climate change may alter the timing of breeding at different rates across trophic levels, potentially resulting in temporal mismatch between the resource requirements of predators and their prey ³ . Thi...
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The Arctic is entering a new ecological state, with alarming consequences for humanity. Animal-borne sensors offer a window into these changes. Although substantial animal tracking data from the Arctic and subarctic exist, most are difficult to discover and access. Here, we present the new Arctic Animal Movement Archive (AAMA), a growing collection...
Article
Plastic pollution is a ubiquitous global environmental problem. Plastic ingestion by seabirds is an increasing issue even in remote areas, such as the Arctic, yet research and monitoring of plastic ingestion in Arctic seabird populations is limited and there are large knowledge gaps for many geographic regions. There is currently no standard techni...
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Since the last Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) effort to review biological effects of mercury (Hg) on Arctic biota in 2011 and 2018, there has been a considerable number of new Arctic bird studies. This review article provides contemporary Hg exposure and potential health risk for 36 Arctic seabird and shorebird species, represent...
Article
Through ingestion and subsequent egestion, Arctic seabirds can bioaccumulate microplastics at and around their colony breeding sites. While microplastics in Arctic seabirds have been well documented, it is not yet understood to what extent these particles can act as transport vehicles for plastic-associated contaminants, including legacy persistent...
Article
1. Timing of breeding, an important driver of fitness in many populations, is widely studied in the context of global change, yet despite considerable efforts to identify environmental drivers of seabird nesting phenology, for most populations we lack evidence of strong drivers. Here we adopt an alternative approach, examining the degree to which d...
Article
Seabirds are important biovectors of contaminants, like mercury, moving them from marine to terrestrial environments around breeding colonies. This transfer of materials can have marked impacts on receiving environments and biota. Less is known about biotransport of contaminants by generalist seabirds that exploit anthropogenic wastes compared to o...
Chapter
Arctic Canada hosts many remote seabird colonies supporting nationally and internationally important numbers of several species and located in geographically spectacular settings. In the spirit of co-management enshrined in the Nunavut Agreement, government scientists worked with the Nattivak Hunters' and Trappers' Organization in the community of...
Article
Concerns about the impact of plastics pollution on the environment have been growing since the 1970s. Marine debris has reportedly entangled and/or been ingested by 914 marine species ranging from microinvertebrates to large marine mammals. Shorebirds could have a high potential to be exposed to and ingest plastics pollution, as many species migrat...
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Plastic pollution has been reported to affect Arctic mammals and birds. There are strengths and limitations to monitoring litter and microplastics using Arctic mammals and birds. One strength is the direct use of these data to understand the potential impacts on Arctic biodiversity as well as effects on human health, if selected species are consume...
Article
Marine debris is an environmental issue of increasing importance worldwide, with 80% of marine plastics estimated to originate from land-based sources. While much work has been conducted to quantify plastics in coastal environments, many of these approaches are site-specific and not amenable to rapid surveys. We surveyed beaches around Nova Scotia,...
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Arctic Terns (Sterna paradisaea) share a few routes to undertake the longest annual migrations of any organism. To understand how the wide spatial range of their breeding colonies may affect their migration strategies (e.g., departure date), we tracked 53 terns from five North American colonies distributed across 30° of latitude and 90° of longitud...
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Genetic data are useful for detecting sudden population declines in species that are difficult to study in the field. Yet this indirect approach has its own drawbacks, including population structure, mutation patterns, and generation overlap. The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea), a long-lived Arctic seabird, is currently suffering from rapid alterati...
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Seabirds breeding in the high Arctic contend with variable annual sea ice conditions, with important consequences depending on a species’ unique reproductive and foraging ecology. We assessed the influence of sea ice extent and phenology on seabird breeding biology using monitoring data collected for northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), glaucous g...
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Seabirds are exposed to a variety of environmental contaminants in the Arctic. While the persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of some groups of contaminants have been well-studied in seabirds since the 1970s, there is less known about polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). With increased vessel traffic, and potential oil and gas development in...
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The Arctic is changing rapidly due to climate change, which is allowing unprecedented levels of vessel traffic to transit the region. Vessel traffic can negatively affect marine wildlife in a number of ways, particularly in areas where vessels overlap with high concentrations of ecologically important species, and the significance of these impacts...
Article
Identifying optimal habitat and predicting species distributions are essential components in developing management priorities for species of concern. In Nova Scotia, Canada, the breeding population of American woodcock (Scolopax minor) has been in decline over the past 50 years, likely in part because of reduced availability of habitat. We aimed to...
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Sabine’s gulls ( Xema sabini ) undertake the longest migration of any gull, a trans-equatorial journey between Arctic breeding and southern hemisphere wintering areas. For such long-distance migrants, quantifying within- and between-individual variation in migratory strategy is key towards understanding resilience to environmental variability encou...
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The Arctic is warming three times faster than the rest of the globe, causing rapid transformational changes in Arctic ecosystems. As these changes increase, understanding seabird movements will be important for predicting how they respond to climate change, and thus how we plan for conservation. Moreover, as most Arctic-breeding seabirds only spend...
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Polar systems of avian migration remain unpredictable. For seabirds nesting in the Nearctic, it is often difficult to predict which of the world's oceans birds will migrate to after breeding. Here, we report on three related seabird species that migrated across four oceans following sympatric breeding at a central Canadian high Arctic nesting locat...
Article
Contaminant levels and trends have been monitored in eggs of seabirds from the Canadian Arctic since 1975. Nearly 50 years of monitoring have provided key information regarding the temporal and spatial variation of various contaminant classes in different seabird species. However, previous work has primarily assessed individual or related contamina...
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Avian biovector transport is an important mechanism for the movement of contaminants and nutrients to remote locations, usually bird colonies, through excretion, molting and decomposition of carcasses. Methylmercury (MeHg) is a bioaccumulative neurotoxin and endocrine disruptor which is present in many remote ecosystems. We collected guano samples...
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Common eiders Somateria mollissima have been a focus of conservation and management efforts in eastern North American for over a century; however, the complex population structure and multiple subspecies make assessing the status of populations challenging. The coastlines of Nova Scotia, Canada, are an important wintering area for common eiders, an...
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The addition of eggs to a nest by a conspecific is known for approximately 250 bird species. Understanding the evolution of conspecific brood parasitism (CBP) requires assessment of fitness consequences to the egg recipient (host). We addressed host traits and the effects of CBP on future reproduction (i.e., annual survival) and hatching success of...
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American black ducks, native to eastern North America, have been the focus of significant international conservation and management programs. The combined USA and Canadian population has traditionally been managed as a single population; however black duck demographics may vary by region. To help understand potential regional differences in black d...
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Methylmercury (MeHg) is a toxic and bioaccumulative organo-metallic compound that is naturally produced in many ecosystems. Organisms that occupy the lower trophic positions in food webs may be key factors in the assessment of MeHg biomagnification between ecosystems. Here we present a review of the peer-reviewed literature examining MeHg bioac-cum...
Article
Ingestion of plastic pollution by pelagic seabirds is well-documented globally, but increasingly, researchers are investigating plastic ingestion in generalist predators and scavengers like gulls. We studied the gut contents of two sympatric gull species, American herring gulls (Larus smithsoniansus) and great black-backed gulls (L. marinus), colle...
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The lack of long-term monitoring data for many wildlife populations is a limiting factor in establishing meaningful and achievable conservation goals. Even for well-monitored species, time series are often very short relative to the timescales required to understand a population's baseline conditions before the contemporary period of increased huma...
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Each winter, the North Atlantic Ocean is the stage for numerous cyclones, the most severe ones leading to seabird mass-mortality events called ‘‘winter wrecks.’’ During these, thousands of emaciated seabird carcasses are washed ashore along European and North American coasts. Winter cyclones can therefore shape seabird population dynamics by affect...
Article
While exposure of birds to oil-related contaminants has been documented, the related adverse effects this exposure has on Arctic marine birds remain unexplored. Metabolomics can play an important role to explore biologically relevant metabolite biomarkers in relation to different stressors, even at benchmark levels of contamination. The aim of this...
Technical Report
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The purpose of the guidelines is to review existing knowledge and provide guidance for designing an Arctic monitoring program that will track litter and MP. The topics of litter, plastic pollution, and MP are addressed in many fora, including several of the Arctic Council working groups: Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP; https://www...
Article
The Arctic tern is an iconic seabird, famous for its annual migrations between the Arctic and the Antarctic. Its wide geographical range has impeded knowledge of potential population bottlenecks during its annual bi-hemispheric movements. Although Arctic terns breed in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Arctic coasts of North America, few tracking studies...
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We review what is known about ecosystem service (ES) delivery from agricultural dykelands and tidal wetlands around the dynamic Bay of Fundy in the face of climate change and sea-level rise, at the outset of the national NSERC ResNet project. Agricultural dykelands are areas of drained tidal wetland that have been converted to agricultural lands an...
Technical Report
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The Canadian Lakes Loon Survey (CLLS) is one of the longest-running and most popular monitoring programs delivered by Birds Canada. In 40 years, over 4000 volunteers have monitored Common Loons on 4500 lakes. This report reviews what we have learned by studying the extensive CLLS dataset. In this report, we discuss the value of monitoring Common Lo...
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The factors underlying gene flow and genomic population structure in vagile seabirds are notoriously difficult to understand due to their complex ecology with diverse dispersal barriers and extensive periods at sea. Yet, such understanding is vital for conservation management of seabirds that are globally declining at alarming rates. Here, we eluci...
Article
Human industrialization has resulted in rapid climate change, leading to wide-scale environmental shifts. These shifts can modify food web dynamics by altering the abundance and distribution of primary producers (ice algae and phytoplankton), as well as animals at higher trophic levels. Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neuro-endocrine disrupting compound...
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The conservation of migratory marine species, including pelagic seabirds, is challenging because their movements span vast distances frequently beyond national jurisdictions. Here, we aim to identify important aggregations of seabirds in the North Atlantic to inform ongoing regional conservation efforts. Using tracking, phenology, and population da...
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After successful conservation and management efforts throughout much of the twentieth century that led to the recovery of common eiders (Somateria mollissima) breeding in several jurisdictions in eastern North America, their abundance has declined in recent years, probably linked to various environmental stressors. To evaluate where to focus future...
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Increasing pollution in the Arctic poses challenges in terms of geographical and ecological monitoring. The Baffin Bay-Davis Strait (BBDS) region in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago is of particular concern due to the potential for increased shipping traffic and oil exploration. However, data on background contaminants associated with oil exploratio...
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Opportunist gulls use anthropogenic food subsidies, which can bolster populations, but negatively influence sensitive local ecosystems and areas of human settlement. In the eastern Gulf of Maine, Canada, breeding herring gulls Larus argentatus have access to resources from aquaculture, fisheries and mink farms, but the relative influence of industr...
Article
Despite much interest and research into marine litter (including plastic debris) on beaches globally, relatively little is known about the density and distribution of this pollutant in Arctic environments, particularly Arctic Canada and West Greenland. We used two sources of data, observations of floating litter from vessels at sea, and quadrat sur...
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Monitoring plastic in stomachs of beached northern fulmars for OSPAR’s Ecological Quality Objectives (EcoQOs) has been incorporated into the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). This paper aims to provide the appropriate tools to interpret the monitoring results. MSFD requires a data-derived threshold value (Fulmar-TV) representing...
Article
Metal mining and smelting in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, began in the 1880s and peaked in the 1950s and 1960s. By the mid-1970s, thousands of lakes had been acidified by sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted from Sudbury metal smelters. Common loons (Gavia immer) are top predators in lakes across Ontario, and lake acidification has resulted in loss of prey fo...
Article
Productivity of Gavia immer (Common Loon) has declined in Ontario and across southern Canada. Variations in the timing of lake ice-off have the potential to negatively influence productivity of Common Loons, but there is conflicting evidence as to how ice-off dates affect this species’ reproductive success. Our study investigated the association be...
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Full-text available
Plastic pollution is a contaminant of global concern, as it is present even in remote ecosystems – like the Arctic. Arctic seabirds are vulnerable to ingesting plastic pollution, and these ingested particles are shed in the form of microplastics via guano. This suggests that Arctic seabird guano may act as a vector for the movement of microplastics...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This literature review assesses information to 2020 on plastic ingestion by Arctic seabirds
Article
Full-text available
Marine plastic is a ubiquitous environmental problem that can have an impact on a variety of marine biota, such as seabirds, making it an important concern for scientists and policy makers. Although research on plastic ingestion by seabirds is increasing, few studies have examined policies and long-term monitoring programs to reduce marine plastic...
Article
Full-text available
https://arctox.cnrs.fr/en/home/ Mercury (Hg) is a natural trace element found in high concentrations in top predators, including Arctic seabirds. Most current knowledge about Hg concentrations in Arctic seabirds relates to exposure during the summer breeding period when researchers can easily access seabirds at colonies. However, the few studies f...
Article
Full-text available
Marine plastic is a ubiquitous environmental problem that can have an impact on a variety of marine biota, such as seabirds, making it an important concern for scientists and policy makers. Although research on plastic ingestion by seabirds is increasing, few studies have examined policies and long-term monitoring programs to reduce marine plastic...
Article
Seabirds in the Canadian Arctic congregate in large colonies, producing oases of biological productivity and diversity in coastal regions. Here, we examined sterols, stanols, and stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) in three 14C-dated pond sediment cores near a large seabird colony and archaeological site on Devon Island (Nunavut, Canada), showing histo...
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We explored the implications of reaching the Paris Agreement Objective of limiting global warming to <2°C for the future winter distribution of the North Atlantic seabird community. We predicted and quantified current and future winter habitats of five North Atlantic Ocean seabird species (Alle alle, Fratercula arctica, Uria aalge, Uria lomvia and...