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Mark W. Luckenbach

Mark W. Luckenbach
Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary · Biological Sciences

Ph.D.

About

82
Publications
19,440
Reads
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5,968
Citations
Citations since 2016
9 Research Items
2914 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
Introduction

Publications

Publications (82)
Article
Coastal areas are especially vulnerable to habitat loss, sea-level rise, and other climate change effects. Oyster-dominated eco-engineered reefs have been promoted as integral components of engineered habitats enhancing coastal resilience through provision of numerous ecological, morphological, and socio-economic services. However, the assessed ‘su...
Article
Full-text available
There have been increasing attempts to reverse habitat degradation through active restoration, but few large-scale successes are reported to guide these efforts. Here, we report outcomes from a unique and very successful seagrass restoration project: Since 1999, over 70 million seeds of a marine angiosperm, eelgrass (Zostera marina), have been broa...
Article
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Coastal ecosystem restoration is accelerating globally as a means of enhancing shoreline protection, carbon storage, water quality, fisheries, and biodiversity. Among the most substantial of these efforts have been those focused on re‐establishing oyster reefs across the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Despite considerable investment, it is unclear ho...
Article
Virginia supported the most productive bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) fishery in the United States in 1930, but the fishery disappeared three years later and never recovered. This collapse highlights a tipping point, but managers of extant bay scallop fisheries have not looked to this case for guidance, because the collapse has long been attrib...
Article
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Aquaculture of the northern quahog (=hard clam) Mercenaria mercenaria (Linnaeus, 1758) is widespread in shallow waters of the United States from Cape Cod to the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Grow-out practices generally involve bottom planting and the use of predator exclusion mesh. Both the extent and scale of clam farms have increased in recent decades...
Article
As bivalve aquaculture expands worldwide, an understanding of its role in nutrient cycling is necessary to ensure ecological sustainability and determine the potential of using bivalves for nutrient mitigation. Whereas several studies, primarily of epifaunal bivalves, have assessed denitrification, few have considered nutrient regeneration processe...
Article
Significance Oysters are important organisms in estuaries around the world, influencing water quality, constructing habitat, and providing food for humans and wildlife. Following over a century of overfishing, pollution, disease, and habitat degradation, oyster populations in the Chesapeake Bay and elsewhere have declined dramatically. Despite prov...
Article
Predation is a key determinant of community structure and function, and thus should play a central role in successful ecological restoration strategies. The bay scallop, Argopecten irradians, was once abundant in the coastal bays of Virginia, U.S.A., until the complete loss of their eelgrass habitat, Zostera marina, in the 1930s. With the successfu...
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Shellfish aquaculture is a widely practiced way of producing food for human consumption in coastal areas. When farming intertidal clams, farmers commonly protect young seedling clams from predatory losses by covering farmed plots with netting or screening. Recent discussion of the effectiveness of protective nets or screens and their environmental...
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Restoration of degraded ecosystems is an important societal goal, yet inadequate monitoring and the absence of clear performance metrics are common criticisms of many habitat restoration projects. Funding limitations can prevent adequate monitoring, but we suggest that the lack of accepted metrics to address the diversity of restoration objectives...
Article
High densities of bivalves found in aquaculture can exert 'top-down' control on primary production through feeding while simultaneously influencing local 'bottom-up' effects on production by enhancing nutrient recycling. Thus bivalves may decrease or increase localized eutrophication (sensu Nixon), depending on environmental conditions and specific...
Article
Small (∼15 mm) and large (∼30 mm) calcein-marked bay scallops, Argopecten irradians, held for 2, 4, and 6 wk in the laboratory under natural illumination and conditions of high and low flow rates deposited significantly more striae on the surface of the left (dark) shell valve compared with the right (light) shell valve. Small scallops deposited an...
Article
Oysters, like the vast majority of sessile marine invertebrates, shed sperm and eggs into the water column where fertilization subsequently occurs. The fate of the gametes depends on their passive movements at various scales in a high-viscosity environment, the longevity of the sperm's ability to affect oriented movement, the rate of sperm movement...
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Historic baselines are important in developing our understanding of ecosystems in the face of rapid global change. While a number of studies have sought to determine changes in extent of exploited habitats over historic timescales, few have quantified such changes prior to late twentieth century baselines. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the fi...
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A century-long decline of the fishery for the Eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791) in Maryland and Virginia stimulated numerous efforts by federal, state, and nongovernmental agencies to restore oyster populations, with limited success. To learn from recent efforts, we analyzed records of restoration and monitoring activities underta...
Article
The costs and benefits of non-native introductions as a restoration tool should be estimated prior to any action to prevent both undesirable consequences and waste of restoration resources. The suggested introduction of non-native oyster species, Crassostrea ariakensis, into Chesapeake Bay, USA, provides a good example in which the survival of non-...
Article
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Native oyster reefs once dominated many estuaries, ecologically and economically. Centuries of resource extraction exacerbated by coastal degradation have pushed oyster reefs to the brink of functional extinction worldwide. We examined the condition of oyster reefs across 144 bays and 44 ecoregions; our comparisons of past with present abundances i...
Book
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Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) has declined dramatically in the Chesapeake Bay and worldwide, largely as a result of stress from poor water quality. In response, the Chesapeake Bay Program established a goal of achieving 185,000 acres of SAV bay wide, recognizing that this level of restoration would be dependent upon improved water quality. As...
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We examined the possibility that a nonnative oyster species would provide an ecologically functional equivalent of the native oyster species if introduced into the Chesapeake Bay. Habitat complexity and associated benthic communities of experimental triploid Crassostrea virginica and Crassostrea ariakensis reefs were investigated at 4 sites of vary...
Article
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During their transition from the pelagic larval form to the benthic adult form, larvae are likely to encounter a diverse assemblage of resident invertebrates on oyster reefs. Fouling epifauna are generally believed to reduce the settlement of interspecific larvae through competitive exclusion and predation. Studies of these interactions, however, o...
Article
Many of the world's coastal ecosystems are impacted by multiple stressors each of which may be subject to different management strategies that may have overlapping or even conflicting objectives. Consequently, management results may be indirect and difficult to predict or observe. We developed a network simulation model intended specifically to exa...
Article
Hurricane Isabel reached the Eastern seaboard of North America on 18 September 2003 causing estimated damage >3 billion US dollars and the death of ∼50 people. Isabel is considered to be one of the most significant tropical cyclones to affect Virginia, since the Chesapeake Potomac Hurricane of 1933 and Hurricane Hazel in 1954. A study of the tempor...
Article
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Survival and growth of triploid Crassostrea virginica and triploid C. ariakensis were investigated at four sites Surrounding Chesapeake Bay, United States, that varied tried in salinity, tidal regime, water depth, predation intensity and disease pressure. Four experimental treatments were established at each site: C. virginica; C. ariakensis; 50:50...
Article
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The Suminoe oyster (Crassostrea ariakensis) is being considered for introduction into the Chesapeake Bay. However, our current understanding of the biology and ecology of C. ariakensis is insufficient to predict whether an introduction will be successful, provide desired benefits, or have adverse impacts. Behavior of native Eastern oyster (C. virgi...
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The feeding rate and behaviour of whelks (Buccinum undatum) offered cockles (Cerastoderma edule) in laboratory experiments were examined. When presented with cockles in a range of sizes (10–40 mm), 14 B. undatum (34.6–88.3 mm), held individually in aquaria, consumed a wide size range of cockles. Small whelks (<40 mm) consumed cockles (<23 mm), wher...
Article
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The importance of restoring filter-feeders, such as the Eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, to mitigate the effects of eutrophication (e.g. in Chesapeake Bay) is currently under debate. The argument that bivalve molluscs alone cannot control phytoplankton blooms and reduce hypoxia oversimplifies a more complex issue, namely that ecosystem enginee...
Article
Efforts to restore the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) reef habitats in Chesapeake Bay typically begin with the placement of hard substrata to form three-dimensional mounds on the seabed to serve as a base for oyster recruitment and growth. A shortage of oyster shell for creating large-scale reefs has led to widespread use of other materials...
Article
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Cultural eutrophication in estuaries and other coastal systems has increased over the last 50 yr. Some recently proposed strategies to reverse this trend have included the restoration of bivalve suspension feeders as an ecological tool for reducing phytoplankton biomass. The ecological benefits accruing from such bivalve restoration will be depende...
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The most commonly used methods for measuring the amount of seston removed from the water column (uptake) by populations of suspension-feeding bivalve molluscs involve taking discrete water samples followed by laboratory analyses. Here we describe a new method based on in situ fluorometry that provides rapid measurement of seston removal rates. The...
Article
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Many of the methods currently employed to restore Chesapeake Bay populations of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, assume closed recruitment in certain sub-estuaries despite planktonic larval durations of 2–3weeks. In addition, to combat parasitic disease, artificially selected disease tolerant oyster strains are being used for population s...
Article
Most Atlantic and Gulf coast U.S. states with an oyster fishery have operated some form of oyster reef enhancement program over the past 50 years. Although programs were initially only directed at oyster fisheries augmentation, recent emphasis has shifted to include the restoration of their ecological functions. Furthermore, many of these programs...
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The dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum (P. minimum) can be found in all seasons and over a broad range of habitat conditions in the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. Blooms (>3000 cells ml−1), locally referred to as ‘mahagony tides’, were restricted to salinities of 4.5–12.8 psu, water temperatures of 12–28 °C, and occurred most frequently in Ap...
Article
The number and abundance of macro-faunal taxa was estimated from six floating structures (floats) used to culture the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) near Chincoteague Island, Virginia, USA. After a 10-mo grow-out period, all organisms found among and attached to the cultured oysters were counted. The final mean size of oysters was 80.5 (14....
Article
The use of plastic row covers (plastic mulch) on vegetable farms increases runoff of pesticides after rainfall events and has been linked to toxic events in adjacent tidal waters. In coastal Virginia, USA, runoff from tomato fields with plastic mulch was suspected of causing mortality of commercial hard clam larvae at a hatchery located downstream...
Article
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Aquaculture production of hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria, in the lower Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, U.S.A., has increased dramatically within the last decade. In recent years concern has been raised that some growing areas may be approaching the exploitation carrying capacity for clam production. Preliminary calculations indicate that large-scale i...
Article
We examined survival, growth, and disease susceptibility of triploid Crassostrea ariakensis ( = rivularis) and compared results with that of diploid Crassostrea virginica. Two hundred and fifty oysters (age = 2 yr, mean shell height = 60-64 mm) of each species were deployed at duplicate sites, (Chesapeake Bay, and the Atlantic Coast of Virginia) wi...
Article
Habitatrestoration encompasses a broad range of activities, emphasizing very different issues, goals, and approaches depending on the operational definition of ‘restoration’. This is particularly true for many shellfish (molluscan) dominated systems (e.g. oyster reefs, mussel beds, vermetid gastropod reefs). In contrast to other well-studied biogen...
Article
Oyster reef restoration, protection, and construction are important to meeting harvest, water quality, and fish habitat goals. However, the strategies needed to achieve harvest and conservation goals have often been considered to be at odds. We argue that these goals are, in fact, compatible and that the same strategies will promote a sustainable h...
Article
Restoration of degraded oyster reef habitat generally begins with the addition of substrate that serves as a reef base and site for oyster spat attachment. Remarkably, little is known about how substrate type and reef morphology affect the development of oyster populations on restored reefs. Three-dimensional, intertidal reefs were constructed near...
Article
To evaluate and compare the performance of triploid juvenile c. gigas (mean shell height = 19.2 mm) and triploid juvenile Crassostrea virginica (mean shell height = 31.7 mm), 600 oysters of each species were deployed for 1 year in floating mesh cages at three replicate sites within low, medium, and high salinity regimes (respectively, <15‰, 15-25‰,...
Article
Intertidal oyster reefs, 3-dimensional structures created by years of successive settlement of larval oysters on adult oyster shells, provide levels of surface and interstitial heterogeneity that are rare in marine ecosystems. Surprisingly, little is known about the ecological benefits for oysters (Crassostrea virginica) in these aerially exposed,...
Article
Eelgrass, Zostera marina, relies upon seed dispersal for colonization of new habitats. The seeds are not readily transported in suspension; however, they have low erosion thresholds and are subject to horizontal transport as bedload at relatively low bottom shear stress. Field germination patterns suggest that seeds rarely travel far from the point...
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Acknowledgments The ideas expressed here are the product of work conducted by the staff of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science Aquaculture Program, largely since 1989. Mike Castagna con- ceived of and initiated the program. Administrative support under the VIMS Dean and Director Frank O. Perkins and his successors Dennis L. Taylor and L. Donel...
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Although previous evidence indicates that larvae of benthic marine invertebrates can respond to wa- terborne cues in still water, the importance of waterborne cues in mediating natural settlement out of flowing water has been questioned. Here, we summarize the results of flume experiments demonstrating enhanced settlement of oyster larvae in small...
Article
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Seagrasses rely on both vegetative (rhizome elongation) and sexual (seeds) propagation for maintenance of existing beds and colonization of new areas. Yet mechanisms of seed dispersal and survival of seeds in new areas remain poorly described. We conducted seed dispersal experiments in the field and laboratory to better describe seed dispersal char...
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The ABC method for evaluating pollution-induced stress was tested using data from the Chesapeake Bay, Virgina. Three predictions were tested 1) benthic communities from estuarine transitional regions with salinities near the range of 5-8 ppt (horohalinicium) should be classified highly stressed due to major shifts in ionic composition producing phy...
Article
Habitat selection capabilities of the recruiting larval stages of marine invertebrates are limited, in part, by their ability to maneuver in flowing water. Distributional and experimental evidence suggest that blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) megalopae may preferentially settle into vegetated habitats. However, the behavior and swimming capabilities...
Article
Potential effects of impounding tidal creeks include alterations in the resource value of downstream wetland habitats. Benthic invertebrates serve as food for higher trophic levels (e.g. crabs and fishes) and, because of their sedentary life style, are constrained to cope with local environmental conditions. Comparisons of macrobenthic invertebrate...
Article
The free-living fourth crab stage of the inquiline pea crab Pinnotheres ostreum (Say) lacks typical antipredator defenses frequently found in planktonic and pelagic crustaceans, such as spines, cryptic coloration and/or diel vertical migration. However, in laboratory feeding trials, four species of estuarine fishes consumed many more first stage ju...
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Spisula solidissima, Mulinia lateralis and Rangia cuneata larvae concentrated in the region of highest gradient, (salinity discontinuity) regardless of species, stage of development or larval brood. -from Authors