Mark P Little

Mark P Little
National Institutes of Health | NIH · Radiation Epidemiology Branch

D.Phil.

About

554
Publications
68,253
Reads
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12,941
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2010 - present
National Cancer Institute (USA)
Position
  • Senior Investigator
Description
  • Senior Investigator (tenured)
March 2000 - March 2010
Imperial College London
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • Reader (Associate Professor) in Statistics
July 1999 - February 2000
University of Birmingham
Position
  • Senior Researcher
Description
  • Honorary Senior Research Fellowship
Education
October 1981 - August 1985
University of Oxford
Field of study
  • Mathematics (functional analysis)
October 1979 - June 1980
University of Cambridge
Field of study
  • Mathematics Tripos Part III
October 1976 - June 1979
University of Cambridge
Field of study
  • Mathematics

Publications

Publications (554)
Article
Full-text available
The lessons learned from the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are numerous. Low dose radiotherapy (LDRT) was used in the pre-antibiotic era as treatment for bacterially/virally associated pneumonia. Motivated in part by these old clinical and radiobiological data, LDRT for treatment of COVID-19-associated pneumonia was proposed in early...
Article
Although nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with both reduced and increased cutaneous melanoma risk, few studies have examined these associations by ultraviolet radiation (UVR) or personal sun-sensitivity. We examined the associations between NSAID use and first primary invasive cutaneous melanoma among 58,227 non-Hi...
Article
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NASA has recently completed several long-duration missions to the International Space Station and is solidifying plans to return to the Moon, with an eye toward Mars and beyond. As NASA pushes the boundaries of human space exploration, the hazards of spaceflight, including space radiation, levy an increasing burden on astronaut health and performan...
Article
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Background: There is accumulating evidence of excess risk of cancer in various populations exposed at acute doses below several tens of mSv or doses received over a protracted period. There is also evidence that relative risks are generally higher after radiation exposures in utero or in childhood. Methods and Findings: We reviewed and summarised...
Article
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One of the principal uncertainties when estimating population risk of late effects from epidemiological data is that few radiation-exposed cohorts have been followed up to extinction. Therefore, the relative risk model has often been used to estimate radiation-associated risk and to extrapolate risk to the end of life. Epidemiological studies provi...
Preprint
Background The radiation-related risk of breast cancer among women following the Chornobyl accident remains uncertain. During pregnancy, there is rapid cell proliferation in the breast while radioactive iodine from fallout exposure can concentrate in lactating breast tissues. Methods We conducted a standardized incidence ratio (SIR) analysis of bre...
Article
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Background: A large excess risk of thyroid cancer was observed among Belarusian/Russian/Baltic Chornobyl cleanup workers. A more recent study of Ukraine cleanup workers found more modest excess risks of thyroid cancer. Dose errors in this data are substantial, associated with model uncertainties and questionnaire response. Regression calibration is...
Article
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STUDY QUESTION Are reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use associated with incidence of cutaneous melanoma while accounting for ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure across different life periods and sun sensitivity factors? SUMMARY ANSWER Earlier age at menarche and late age at first birth, but not other estrogen-related factors were associ...
Article
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Background: The detrimental health effects associated with the receipt of moderate (0.1–1 Gy) and high (>1 Gy) acute doses of sparsely ionising radiation are well established from human epidemiological studies. There is accumulating direct evidence of excess risk of cancer in a number of populations exposed at lower acute doses or doses received ov...
Article
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Computed tomography (CT) scan use has increased substantially since its introduction in the 1990s. Several studies report increased risk of leukemia and brain tumors associated with radiation exposure from CT. However, reverse causation is a concern, particularly for brain tumors; in other words, possibly the CT scan was taken because of pre-existi...
Article
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Background: While there is a robust literature on environmental exposure to iodine-131 (131I) in childhood and adolescence and the risk of thyroid cancer and benign nodules, little is known about its effects on thyroid volume. Methods: To assess the effect of 131I dose to the thyroid on the volume of the thyroid gland, we examined the data from...
Article
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Although much is known about the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer in those exposed at young ages, less is known about the risk due to adult exposure, particularly in men. We aimed to examine the association between thyroid radiation dose received during adulthood and thyroid cancer risk in men. We conducted a nested case–control study (149...
Article
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Objective: To describe the status and results of thyroid disease screening and assessment of reliability of radiationthyroid doses in the Belarusian in utero cohort of 2,965 individuals exposed to Chernobyl (Chornobyl) fallout. Materials and methods: Thyroid screening examinations are currently underway including thyroid palpation by anendocrino...
Article
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Background: Pregnancy and lactation may constitute radiation-sensitive reproductive periods due to rapid cell proliferation and concentration of radioiodine in the lactating breast. However, there are limited epidemiological data among women exposed to radiation during these periods. Methods: We examined incidence of breast cancer in a cohort of...
Article
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There is limited evidence that non-leukaemic lymphoid malignancies are radiogenic. As radiation-related cancer risks are generally higher after childhood exposure, we analysed pooled lymphoid neoplasm data in nine cohorts first exposed to external radiation aged <21 years using active bone marrow (ABM) and, where available, lymphoid system doses, a...
Article
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The characterization of the effects of solar UVR on a broad set of circulating markers in systemic immunity and inflammation may provide insight into the mechanisms responsible for the UVR-associations observed for several benign and malignant diseases. We examined the associations between exposure to solar UVR and circulating levels of 78 markers...
Article
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Epidemiological studies of cancer rates associated with external and internal exposure to ionizing radiation have been subject to extensive reviews by various scientific bodies. It has long been assumed that radiation-induced cancer risks at low doses or low-dose rates are lower (per unit dose) than those at higher doses and dose rates. Based on a...
Article
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Background: Cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has long been associated with ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure, but data are limited on risks by anatomic site. Methods: We followed 63,912 cancer-free White US radiologic technologists from cohort entry (1983-1989/1994-1998) to exit (date first BCC via 2003-2005 questionnaire). We estimated a...
Article
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This is the meeting report of the Second Bill Morgan Memorial Symposium “An update on low dose biology, epidemiology, its integration and implications for radiation protection” held virtually on 20 October 2020 at the 66th Annual meeting of the Radiation Research Society.
Article
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Purpose There are well-known correlations between high and moderate doses (>0.5 Gy) of ionizing radiation exposure and circulatory system damage, also between radiation and posterior subcapsular cataract. At lower doses correlations with circulatory disease are emerging in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in some occupationally exposed groups...
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Purpose The overall aim of this contribution to the “Second Bill Morgan Memorial Special Issue” is to provide a high-level review of a recent report developed by a Committee for the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) titled “Approaches for Integrating Information from Radiation Biology and Epidemiology to Enhance Low-D...
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Purpose The projected existence and magnitude of carcinogenic effects of ionising radiation at low doses and low dose rates is perhaps the most important issue in radiation protection today. Studies of childhood cancer and natural background radiation have the potential to throw direct light on this question, into a dose range below a few tens of m...
Article
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Recently, it has been proposed that the doses received from 133Xe released during the accident in 1979 at the Three Mile Island (TMI) plant in Pennsylvania were much higher than has been conventionally assessed, due to a gross underestimation of the relative biological effectiveness of electrons from beta-particle-emitting radionuclides within the...
Article
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Objectives Cancer incidence and mortality are important outcomes in the surveillance of long-term astronaut health. We compare cancer incidence rates, cancer-specific mortality rates, and cancer case-fatality ratios in US astronauts with those in the US general population. Methods We use standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and standardised mortal...
Article
Full-text available
Thyroid enlargement can cause problems with swallowing or breathing and a decrease in accuracy of screening for thyroid cancer. Exposure to radioactive iodines after the 1986 Chernobyl accident is known to increase risk of thyroid cancer in those exposed at a young age, but little is known about its effects on thyroid volume, which could have impor...
Article
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Effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl nuclear accident remain a topic of interest. We investigated whether children born to parents employed as cleanup workers or exposed to occupational and environmental ionizing radiation post-accident were born with more germline de novo mutations (DNMs). Whole-genome sequencing of 130 children (born...
Article
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Radiation doses of parents exposed from the Chornobyl accident as cleanup workers or evacuees were estimated in the NCI-NRCRM trio (i.e. father, mother, offspring) study aimed at investigating the radiation effects on germline de novo mutations in children as well as other outcomes. Paternal (testes) and maternal (ovaries) gonadal doses were calcul...
Article
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Purpose: Currently, there are about 15 ongoing clinical studies on low dose radiation therapy for Coronavirus Disease 2019 pneumonia. One of the underlying assumptions is that irradiation of 0.5 to 1.5 Gy is effective at ameliorating viral pneumonia. We aimed to reanalyze all available experimental radiobiologic data to assess evidence for such ame...
Article
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Risks to health are the prime consideration in all human situations of ionizing radiation exposure and therefore of relevance to radiation protection in all occupational, medical, and public exposure situations. Over the past few decades, advances in therapeutic strategies have led to significant improvements in cancer survival rates. However, a wi...
Article
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Although transgenerational effects of ionizing radiation exposure have long been a concern, human research to date has been confined to studies of disease phenotype in groups exposed to high dose and high dose rates, such as the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Transgenerational effects of parental irradiation can be addressed using powerful new gen...
Article
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The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has considered for over sixty years that the lens of the eye is among the most radiosensitive tissues, and has recommended dose limits for the lens to prevent occurrence of vision impairing cataracts (VICs). Epidemiological evidence that doses much lower than previously thought produce...
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A meta-analytic summary effect estimate often is calculated as an inverse-variance-weighted average of study-specific estimates of association. The variances of published estimates of association often are derived from their associated confidence intervals under assumptions typical of Wald-type statistics, such as normality of the parameter. Howeve...
Article
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Many public health databases index disease counts by age groups and calendar periods within geographic regions (e.g., states, districts, or counties). Issues around relative risk estimation in small areas are well-studied; however, estimating trend parameters that vary across geographic regions has received less attention. Additionally, small count...
Article
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Objectives: To evaluate cumulative occupational radiation dose response and haematopoietic malignancy mortality risks in the US radiologic technologist cohort. Methods: Among 110 297 radiologic technologists (83 655 women, 26 642 men) who completed a baseline questionnaire sometime during 1983-1998, a retrospective cohort study was undertaken to...
Article
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Dosimetric measurement error is known to potentially bias the magnitude of the dose response, and can also affect the shape of dose response. In this report generalized relative and absolute rate models are fitted to the latest Japanese atomic bomb survivor solid cancer, leukemia and circulatory disease mortality data (followed from 1950 through 20...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Cancer incidence and mortality are important outcomes in the surveillance of long-term astronaut health. In this research, we compare cancer incidence rates, cancer-specific mortality rates, and cancer case fatality ratios in US astronauts with those in the US general population. Methods: We use standardized incidence ratios and standar...
Article
Full-text available
Cataract is one of the major morbidities in the US population and it has long been appreciated that high and acutely delivered radiation doses of 1 Gy or more can induce cataract. Some more recent studies, in particular of the US Radiologic Technologists, have suggested that cataract may be induced by much lower chronically delivered doses of ioniz...
Book
The overall aim of this Report is to provide input for the development of biologically based dose-response (BBDR) models for radiation- induced cancers and circulatory disease that use an adverse outcome pathways and key-events approach for providing parameters for these models. These mechanistic data can be integrated with the most recent epidemio...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Ionizing radiation is an established carcinogen, but risks from low-dose exposures are controversial. Since the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation VII review of the epidemiological data in 2006, many subsequent publications have reported excess cancer risks from low-dose exposures. Our aim was to systematically review these studi...
Article
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This article addresses issues relevant to interpreting findings from 26 epidemiologic studies of persons exposed to low-dose radiation. We review the extensive data from both epidemiologic studies of persons exposed at moderate or high doses and from radiobiology that together have firmly established radiation as carcinogenic. We then discuss the u...
Article
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Whether low-dose ionizing radiation can cause cancer is a critical and long-debated question in radiation protection. Since the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation report by the National Academies in 2006, new publications from large, well-powered epidemiological studies of low doses have reported positive dose-response relationships. It has b...
Article
Full-text available
Background Ionizing radiation is an established carcinogen, but risks from low-dose exposures are controversial. Since the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation VII review of the epidemiological data in 2006, many subsequent publications have reported excess cancer risks from low-dose exposures. Our aim was to systematically review these studies...
Article
Full-text available
In April 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear accident resulted in wide-scale contamination of Belarus with significantly elevated levels of radioiodine isotopes, mainly iodine-131 (131I), and long-lived radiocaesium isotopes, mainly caesium-137 (137Cs). Various groups of the population were affected by exposure to ionising radiation, including pregnant wom...
Article
Full-text available
The empirical estimation of cancer risks in children associated with low-dose ionising radiation (<100 mSv) remains a challenge. The main reason is that the required combination of large sample sizes with accurate and comprehensive exposure assessment is difficult to achieve. An international scientific workshop, ‘Childhood cancer and background ra...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Previous analyses of cataract in radiation-exposed populations have assessed relative risk; radiogenic excess additive risk (EAR), arguably of more public health importance, has not been estimated. Previous analysis of a large prospective cohort of US radiologic technologists (USRT) quantified excess relative risk of cataract in relation...