Mark Klein

Mark Klein
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | MIT · MIT Center for Collective Intelligence

PhD

About

419
Publications
59,080
Reads
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7,692
Citations
Citations since 2016
29 Research Items
1708 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
Additional affiliations
September 2013 - October 2015
University of Zurich
Position
  • Researcher
January 1997 - present
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Position
  • Group Leader

Publications

Publications (419)
Preprint
Full-text available
Open innovation platforms (web sites where crowds post ideas on some topic in a shared space) enable us to elicit huge volumes of potentially valuable solutions for problems we care about. Identifying the best ideas in these collections can however be prohibitively expensive and time-consuming for the customers of such open innovation engagements....
Chapter
Full-text available
Many of humanity's most pressing and challenging problems-such as environmental degradation, physical and economic security, and public health-are inherently complex (involve many different interacting components) as well as widely impactful (effect many diverse stakeholders). Solving such problems requires crowd-scale deliberation in order to cove...
Preprint
Full-text available
With the advances in social media technology, it became possible to involve large group in deliberations. Online discussion environments, such as forums and argumentation maps websites, allow solutions to be outsourced and bred from the crowd. Nevertheless, as a discussion develops, making sense of its content represents a big challenge for newcome...
Preprint
Full-text available
Large-scale deliberation mapping technologies effectively utilize the knowledge of the crowd to tackle complex problems. The crowd contributes to creating a tree of questions, answers, and arguments. A downside to deliberation mapping is that inputting new posts requires manually scanning the entire map to find the best placement. This results in u...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper reviews the recent progress that has been made by the author and his colleagues on developing technology to enable effective crowd-scale deliberation. The paper includes the following five sections: 1. Goals: what our research is working to achieve 2. Context: the limitations of existing technologies 3. Maps: the core knowledge schema...
Article
Full-text available
The global outbreak of the coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) showed how epidemics today can spread very rapidly, with potentially ruinous impact on economies and societies. Whereas medical research is crucial to define effective treatment protocols, technology innovation and social research can contribute by defining effective approaches to emergenc...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This paper provides a short critical review of crowd-scale online deliberation support technology. It distinguishes five main types, including time-centric, topic-centric, question-centric, debate-centric, and argument-centric, and outlines their strengths and weaknesses in terms of the comprehensiveness and quality of the content, as well as in te...
Preprint
Full-text available
Nowadays society is more and more dependent on critical infrastructures. Critical network infrastructures (CNI) are communication networks whose disruption can create a severe impact. In this paper we propose REACT, a distributed framework for reactive network resilience, that is, allowing a network to reconfigure itself in the event of a security...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays society is more and more dependent on critical infrastructures. Critical network infrastructures (CNI) are communication networks whose disruption can create a severe impact. In this paper we propose REACT, a distributed framework for reactive network resilience, which allows networks to reconfigure themselves in the event of a security in...
Article
Full-text available
At the present time, Wi-Fi networks are everywhere. They operate in unlicensed radio-frequency spectrum bands (divided in channels), which are highly congested. The purpose of this paper is to tackle the problem of channel assignment in Wi-Fi networks. To this end, we have modeled the networks as multilayer graphs, in a way that frequency channel a...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper presents an approach, building on techniques from computational geometry, for compiling nonmonotonic utility functions into a form that substantially speeds utility calculation. We demonstrate speedups of up to 70x in our experimental evaluations.
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we report the results of an e-democracy experiment in which a group of supporters of a large political party were asked to debate online about ways to reform the electoral law. We compare a traditional forum with an online collaborative argumentation platform to capture the various proposals and their associated pros and cons. The aim...
Article
Full-text available
Automated negotiation mechanisms can be helpful in contexts where users want to reach mutually satisfactory agreements about issues of shared interest, especially for complex problems with many interdependent issues. A variety of automated negotiation mechanisms have been proposed in the literature. The effectiveness of those mechanisms, however, m...
Preprint
Full-text available
Open Innovation has pioneered as a troubleshooting method based on massively magnifying the source of solvers who bring new and unusual perspectives to solutions. Successful crowdsourcing brings a new challenge: the selection of ideas that deserve attention. This paper describes a new method for filtering ideas based on crowd evaluation: pBOL. The...
Working Paper
Full-text available
Humanity now finds itself faced with pressing and highly complex problems – such as climate change, the spread of disease, international and economic insecurity, and so on - that call upon us to deliberate together at unprecedented scale, incorporating the input of large numbers of experts and stakeholders in order to find and agree upon the best s...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we study a problem family inspired by a prominent network optimization problem (graph coloring), enriched and extended towards a real-world application (Wi-Fi channel assignment). We propose a utility model based on this scenario, and we generate an extensive set of test cases, against which we run both a complete information optimiz...
Chapter
This paper focuses on enabling the use of negotiation for complex system optimisation, which main challenge nowadays is scalability. Our hypothesis is that analysing the underlying network structure of these systems can help divide the problems in subproblems which facilitate distributed decision making through negotiation in these domains. In this...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Existing approaches to social media analysis are deeply limited by the fact that they typically incorporate little or no information about the semantics of the user interactions: they analyze who talked to whom but not what they talked about. In this paper, we present deliberation-centric social network analysis, a "semi-formal" approach that is bu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Optimizing resource use in complex networks with self-interested participants (e.g. transportation networks, electric grids, Internet systems) is a challenging and increasingly critical real-world problem. We propose an approach for solving this problem based on multi-agent nonlinear negotiation, and demonstrate it in the context of Wi-Fi channel a...
Article
Existing approaches to social media analysis are deeply limited by the fact that they typically incorporate little or no information about the semantics of the user interactions: they analyze who talked to whom but not what they talked about. In this paper, we present deliberation-centric social network analysis, a "semi-formal" approach that is bu...
Conference Paper
Sunbelt conference of the International Network for Social Network Analysis http://insna.org/sunbelt2017
Article
Full-text available
Conference Paper
Proceedings of workshop "Crowd Dynamics: Exploring Conflicts and Contradictions in Crowdsourcing ", a part of the 2016 Computer-Human Interaction Conference ISSN 1861-4280
Technical Report
Full-text available
The CATALYST analytics server is a free open-source web service that provides a substantive library of deliberation analytics for assessing large-scale argument-centric deliberations. It was developed as part of the EU CATALYST project (http://catalyst-fp7.eu/).
Article
Full-text available
Open innovation platforms (web sites where crowds post ideas in a shared space) enable us to elicit huge volumes of potentially valuable solutions for problems we care about, but identifying the best ideas in these collections can be prohibitively expensive and time-consuming. This paper presents an approach, called the "bag of lemons", which enabl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There has been rapidly growing interest in studying and designing online deliberative processes and technologies. This SIG aims at providing a venue for continuous and constructive dialogue between social, political and cognitive sciences as well as computer science, HCI, and CSCW. Through an online community and a modified version of world cafe di...
Article
Full-text available
With the advances in social media technology, it became possible to involve large group in deliberations. Online discussion environments, such as forums and argumentation maps websites, allow solutions to be outsourced and bred from the crowd. Nevertheless, as a discussion develops, making sense of its content represents a big challenge for newcome...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides a short critical review of crowd-scale online deliberation support technology. It distinguishes five main types, including time-centric, topic-centric, question-centric, debate-centric, and argument-centric, and outlines their strengths and weaknesses in terms of the comprehensiveness and quality of the content, as well as in te...
Chapter
Automated negotiation mechanisms can be helpful in contexts where users want to reach mutually satisfactory agree- ments about issues of shared interest, especially for complex problems with many interdependent issues. A variety of automated negotiation mechanisms have been proposed in the literature. The effectiveness of those mechanisms, how- eve...
Article
Full-text available
Open innovation systems have provided organizations with unprecedented access to the “wisdom of the crowd,” allowing them to collect candidate solutions for problems they care about, from potentially thousands of individuals, at very low cost. These systems, however, face important challenges deriving, ironically, from their very success: they can...
Chapter
Full-text available
Automated negotiation mechanisms can be helpful in contexts where users want to reach mutually satisfactory agree- ments about issues of shared interest, especially for complex problems with many interdependent issues. A variety of automated negotiation mechanisms have been proposed in the literature. The effectiveness of those mechanisms, how- eve...
Article
Full-text available
A critical review of open innovation systems.
Article
Full-text available
Open innovation systems have provided organizations, ranging from businesses and governments to universities and NGOs, with unprecedented access to the "wisdom of the crowd", allowing them to collect candidate solutions, for problems they care about, from potentially thousands of individuals, at very low cost. These systems, however, face important...
Article
Full-text available
A large number of interdependent issues in complex contract negotiation poses a significant challenge for current approaches, which becomes even more apparent when negotiation problems scale up. To address this challenge, we present a structured anytime search process with an agenda management mechanism using a hierarchical negotiation model, where...
Article
Full-text available
There is an increasing interest in complex automated negotiations, where agents negotiate about multiple, interdependent issues and agent utility functions exhibit low autocorrelation. In these scenarios, the negotiation mechanisms used to find agreement solutions among agents tend to fail due to the complexity of agents’ preference spaces, and thi...
Article
Full-text available
Most real‐world negotiation involves multiple interdependent issues, which makes an agent’s utility functions nonlinear. Traditional negotiation mechanisms, which were designed for linear utilities, do not fare well in nonlinear contexts. One of the main challenges in developing effective nonlinear negotiation protocols is scalability; they cannot...
Chapter
Multiagent negotiation protocols, understood as a group decision making process, try to reach an agreement among all the negotiating agents. Traditionally, this agreement is an unanimous agreement. This consensus as unanimity may be quite difficult to achieve in practice or even undesirable in some situations. We propose a framework to incorporate...
Article
Full-text available
Open innovation platforms (web sites where crowds post ideas in a shared space) enable us to elicit huge volumes of potentially valuable solutions for problems we care about, but identifying the best ideas in these collections can be prohibitively expensive and time-consuming. This paper presents an approach, called the “bag of lemons”, which enabl...
Article
Full-text available
Automated negotiation protocols represent a potentially powerful tool for problem solving in decision support systems involving participants with conflicting interests. However, the effectiveness of negotiation approaches depends greatly on the negotiation problem under consideration. Since there is no one negotiation protocol that clearly outperfo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A growing challenge in social and collaborative computing is to develop tools for large-scale ideation and deliberation (LSID). Business and civic organizations are seeking new technologies and services to let their communities participate in discussions, while communities increasingly expect such opportunities. Some cases require tools for democra...
Article
Full-text available
Designing successful negotiation protocols for particular negotiation scenarios is a very challenging task. Negotiations not only have to cope with strategic behavior by the negotiators but also with restricted and false centrally available information. Recent research covers this design problem and proposes a variety of potential procedures. Howev...
Chapter
Although multiagent negotiation is usually seen as a process that had to seek the consensus of all the participants, there are situations where unanimous agreement either is not possible or simply the rules imposed by the system do not allow such unanimous agreement. One of this situations is consortium formation in brokerage events where a grand c...
Chapter
Most real-world negotiation involves multiple interdependent issues, which makes an agent's utility functions complex. Traditional negotiation mechanisms, which were designed for linear utilities, do not fare well in nonlinear contexts. One of the main challenges in developing effective nonlinear negotiation protocols is scalability; it can be extr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Negotiation is usually dealt with package deals, where all issues are considered together. We propose a hierarchical negotiation approach where various sets of issues are negotiated at different levels. As the number of interdependent issues in negotiation grows, it becomes computationally intractable to generate proposals on all issues and to eval...
Chapter
Full-text available
Most real-world negotiation involves multiple interdependent issues, which create agent utility functions that are nonlinear. In this paper, we employ utility functions based on "cone-constraints," which is more realistic than previ-ous formulations. Cone-constraints capture the intuition that agents' utilities for a contract usually decline gradua...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Humanity now finds itself faced with a range of highly complex and controversial challenges – such as climate change, the spread of disease, international security, scientific collaborations, product development, and so on- that call upon us to bring together large numbers of experts and stakeholders to deliberate collectively on a global scale. Co...
Article
Negotiating contracts with multiple interdependent issues may yield non- monotonic, highly uncorrelated preference spaces for the participating agents. These scenarios are specially challenging because the complexity of the agents’ utility functions makes traditional negotiation mechanisms not applicable. There is a number of recent research lines...
Article
Full-text available
New ways of combining networked humans and computers, such as collective intelligence and social computing, are important and likely to become truly transformative in domains such as education, industry, government, and arts. Systems that cover an enormous range of approaches, have been developed that look for individual task-focused geniuses. The...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Collective Intelligence (CI) research investigates the design of infrastructures to enable collectives to think and act intelligently, and intriguingly, more intelligently than individuals. Technologies such as idea management or argumentation tools, blogs, wikis, chats, forums, Q&A sites, and social networks provide unprecedented opportunities for...
Article
Full-text available
Most real-world negotiation involves multiple interdependent issues, which makes an agent’s utility functions nonlinear. Traditional negotiation mechanisms, which were designed for linear utilities, do not fare well in nonlinear contexts. One of the main challenges in developing effective nonlinear negotiation protocols is scalability; they can’t f...