Mark Jessopp

Mark Jessopp
University College Cork | UCC · School of Biological, Earth & Environmental Sciences

PhD

About

104
Publications
26,410
Reads
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1,679
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2010 - present
University College Cork
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (104)
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the sensory ecology of species is vital if we are to predict how they will function in a changing environment. Visual cues are fundamentally important for many predators when detecting and capturing prey. However, many marine areas have become more turbid through processes influenced by climate change, potentially affecting the abilit...
Preprint
Body-mounted accelerometers provide a new prospect for estimating power use in flying birds, as the signal varies with the two major kinematic determinants of aerodynamic power: wingbeat frequency and amplitude. Yet wingbeat frequency is sometimes used as a proxy for power output in isolation. There is therefore a need to understand which kinematic...
Article
Full-text available
For odontocetes, passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) can be used to differentiate between occurrence and foraging through analysis of click characteristics. Feeding buzzes and navigation/searching echolocation clicks of harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) were differentiated within C-POD data from northwest Ireland between 2009 and 2017. The spa-tiot...
Article
Full-text available
Marine predator populations are crucial to the structure and functioning of ecosystems. Like many predator taxa, pinnipeds face an increasingly complex array of natural and anthropogenic threats. Understanding the relationship between at-sea processes and trends in abundance at land-based monitoring sites requires robust estimates of at-sea distrib...
Preprint
Animal-borne telemetry devices provide essential insights into the life-history strategies of far-ranging species and allow us to understand how they interact with their environment. Many species in the seabird family Alcidae undergo a synchronous moult of all primary flight feathers during the non-breeding season, making them flightless and more s...
Article
Advances in artificial intelligence for computer vision hold great promise for increasing the scales at which ecological systems can be studied. The distribution and behavior of individuals is central to ecology, and computer vision using deep neural networks can learn to detect individual objects in imagery. However, developing supervised models f...
Article
Full-text available
Fisheries bycatch is recognised as the dominant anthropogenic threat facing many protected species globally. Estimates of total bycatch are often associated with wide confidence intervals as a result of limited coverage by on-board observers. This makes it difficult for managers to assess risk and design effective management plans. Here, we present...
Article
Full-text available
Many animals show sexually divergent foraging behaviours reflecting different physiological constraints or energetic needs. We used a bioenergetics approach to examine sex differences in foraging behaviour of the sexually monomorphic northern gannet. We derived a relationship between dynamic body acceleration and energy expenditure to quantify the...
Article
Full-text available
Habitat-use and distribution models are essential tools of conservation biology. For wide-ranging species, such models may be challenged by the expanse, remoteness and variability of their habitat, these challenges often being compounded by the species’ mobility. In marine environments, direct observations and sampling are usually impractical over...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) conducted during pre-construction phase of offshore wind farms clearly identified interactions between turbines and marine wildlife, especially seabirds, as a concern requiring further investigation. Mortality associated with collision could lead to negative impacts on seabird populations, and needs to be asse...
Article
Full-text available
Each winter, the North Atlantic Ocean is the stage for numerous cyclones, the most severe ones leading to seabird mass-mortality events called ‘‘winter wrecks.’’ During these, thousands of emaciated seabird carcasses are washed ashore along European and North American coasts. Winter cyclones can therefore shape seabird population dynamics by affect...
Article
We report on still/video photographic studies in 2018/9 of diurnal and nocturnal benthic scavenging on carrion in shallow water (2 m and 12 m depths) within Lough Hyne (a biodiverse Irish sea lough) using natural light during replicated 6 h daytime deployments and dim red light (630 nm) during 6 h deployments at night. In 2018 at 2 m depth in the N...
Article
Full-text available
Habitat selection and spatial usage are important components of animal behavior influencing fitness and population dynamic. Understanding the animal–habitat relationship is crucial in ecology, particularly in developing strategies for wildlife management and conservation. As this relationship is governed by environmental features and intra- and int...
Preprint
Full-text available
Advances in artificial intelligence for image processing hold great promise for increasing the scales at which ecological systems can be studied. The distribution and behavior of individuals is central to ecology, and computer vision using deep neural networks can learn to detect individual objects in imagery. However, developing computer vision fo...
Article
Full-text available
The conservation of migratory marine species, including pelagic seabirds, is challenging because their movements span vast distances frequently beyond national jurisdictions. Here, we aim to identify important aggregations of seabirds in the North Atlantic to inform ongoing regional conservation efforts. Using tracking, phenology, and population da...
Article
Full-text available
Sex differences in diet and foraging behaviour are common in sexually dimorphic species, often driven by differences in the cost of locomotion or ability to exploit different ecological niches. However, sex-specific foraging strategies also occur in monomorphic or slightly dimorphic species where the drivers are poorly understood. Here, we study se...
Article
Full-text available
Mapping heterogeneity of the ocean's surface waters is important for understanding bio-geographical distributions, ocean surface habitat mapping, and ocean surface stability. This article describes the Ocean-surface Heterogeneity MApping (OHMA) algorithm-an objective, replicable approach that uses hypertemporal, satellite-derived datasets to map th...
Article
Full-text available
We explored the implications of reaching the Paris Agreement Objective of limiting global warming to <2°C for the future winter distribution of the North Atlantic seabird community. We predicted and quantified current and future winter habitats of five North Atlantic Ocean seabird species (Alle alle, Fratercula arctica, Uria aalge, Uria lomvia and...
Article
Recoveries of gray seal (Halichoerus grypus) populations across their eastern Atlantic distribution have led to a steady increase in seal‐fishery interactions. Fishers have estimated depredation of salmonids (Salmo spp.) and monkfish (Lophius spp.) as high as 40% and 59% respectively in Ireland. However, empirical evidence for the consumption of th...
Preprint
1. Understanding the animal-habitat relationship at local scale is crucial in ecology, particularly to develop strategies for wildlife management and conservation. As this relationship is governed by environmental features and intra and inter-specific interactions, habitat selection of a population may vary locally between its core and edges. 2. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Fisheries bycatch represents a major anthropogenic threat to marine megafauna worldwide. To identify populations at risk, it is essential to estimate the total number of individuals removed from a population as bycatch. However, estimating total bycatch remains challenging due to the often-limited scope of monitoring programmes. In this study, we a...
Article
Full-text available
Predicting the distribution and behaviour of animals is a fundamental objective in ecology and a cornerstone of conservation biology. Modelling the distribution of ocean-faring species like seabirds remains a significant challenge due to ocean dynamics, colony-specific effects and the vast ranges seabirds can cover. We used a spatial and behavioura...
Article
When species coexist, it is expected that they will reduce competition through niche partitioning or spatial segregation. We investigated the importance of niche partitioning versus spatial segregation across a seabird community where food and foraging constraints vary seasonally. Spatial clustering of seabird density in the western Irish Sea occur...
Article
Full-text available
Haematological analyses can reveal the physiological condition of birds, which are known to efficiently disguise symptoms of stress and disease. However, the interpretation of such analyses requires species-specific baseline data, which are lacking for most free-living seabird species. We provide baseline reference data for several haematological p...
Article
Several species of deep-diving odontocetes, including beaked whales, sperm whales and pilot whales, are associated with steep continental slope habitat in the northeast Atlantic, where they feed on cephalopods and meso-bathypelagic fish. Some species such as sperm whales are listed as vulnerable by the IUCN red list, whilst many beaked whale specie...
Article
Full-text available
Noise pollution is increasing globally, and as oceans are excellent conductors of sound, this is a major concern for marine species reliant on sound for key life functions. Loud, impulsive sounds from seismic surveys have been associated with impacts on many marine taxa including mammals, crustaceans, cephalopods, and fish. However, impacts across...
Article
Full-text available
Fisheries produce large amounts of waste, providing food subsidies for scavengers. Discards influence seabird movement, demography and community structure, but little is known about seabird-fishery interactions where discarding is banned. Here, we investigate how northern gannets Morus bassanus respond to fishing vessels in Iceland, where discardin...
Article
During the construction of a pipeline from an offshore gas field in northwest Ireland, shore-based watches and opportunistic boat-based photo-identification surveys for bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus were undertaken. Seven years of data were used to investigate the influence of Construction-Related Activity (CRA) on the occurrence of dolphi...
Article
Full-text available
Relatively simple foraging radius models have the potential to generate predictive distributions for a large number of species rapidly, thus providing a cost‐effective alternative to large‐scale surveys or complex modelling approaches. Their effectiveness, however, remains largely untested. Here we compare foraging radius distribution models for al...
Article
Bycatch of protected species in static net fisheries is a global conservation concern and is currently considered the dominant anthropogenic threat facing many marine mammal species. Effective bycatch mitigation remains challenging, contingent on an understanding of the underlying mechanisms that cause individuals to become entangled. We combined d...
Article
Full-text available
Increases in the temporal frequency of satellite-derived imagery mean a greater diversity of ocean surface features can be studied, modelled, and understood. The ongoing temporal data “explosion” is a valuable resource, having prompted the development of adapted and new methodologies to extract information from hypertemporal datasets. Current suita...
Article
Full-text available
Distribution maps of cetaceans and seabirds at basin and monthly scales are needed for conservation and marine management. These are usually created from standardised and systematic aerial and vessel surveys, with recorded animal densities interpolated across study areas. However, distribution maps at basin and monthly scales have previously not be...
Article
Sampling approaches used to census and monitor populations of flora and fauna are diverse, ranging from simple random sampling to complex hierarchal stratified designs. Usually the approach taken is determined by the spatial and temporal distribution of the study population, along with other characteristics of the focal species. Long-term monitorin...
Article
Understanding how animals forage is a central objective in ecology. Theory suggests that where food is uniformly distributed, Brownian movement ensures the maximum prey encounter rate, but when prey is patchy, the optimal strategy resembles a Lévy walk where area-restricted search (ARS) is interspersed with commuting between prey patches. Such move...
Article
Passive acoustic monitoring is increasingly used as a cost‐effective way to study wildlife populations, especially those that are difficult to census using conventional methods. Burrow‐nesting seabirds are amongst the most threatened birds globally, but they are also one of the most challenging taxa to census, making them prime candidates for resea...
Article
Parental care can lead to a conflict of interest between parents and offspring. For central place foragers, conflict is expected to be particularly intensive in species that feed on relatively inaccessible, distant food resources. Some pelagic seabirds use distinct foraging strategies when provisioning young versus self-feeding: short trips near th...
Article
Full-text available
In ecological studies it is often assumed that predator foraging strategies and resource use are geographically and seasonally homogeneous, resulting in relatively static trophic relationships. However, certain centrally placed foragers (e.g. seals) often have terrestrial sites for breeding, resting, and moulting that are geographically distinct, a...
Data
Prey abundances, frequencies, weights, and seal ID and tracking locations. (XLSX)
Article
Weeverfish are widely distributed venomous fish that inhabit shallow sandy waters ranging from Norway to Morocco and extending to the Black Sea. Despite the painful sting produced by their venom, we report the first indication of grey seals apparently specialising on this venomous prey. Weeverfish occurred in high numbers within 4% of seal scat sam...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Although common minke whales occur in relatively high numbers in the North Atlantic, relatively little is known about their seasonal movements or the location of their breeding and calving grounds. This lack of knowledge compromises our ability to protect potentially important areas for this species. Here we report high latitude winter sig...
Article
Full-text available
There is worldwide concern about the status of elasmobranchs, primarily as a result of over-fishing and bycatch with subsequent ecosystem effects following the removal of top predators. Whilst abundant and wide-ranging, blue sharks (Prionace glauca) are the most heavily exploited shark species having suffered marked declines over the past decades,...
Data
Observed (x-axis) and predicted (y-axis) blue sharks’ mean proportion of time at the surface (0-1m) with the best zero-one inflated beta distribution model using Bayesian inference. This model included a random intercept comprised of Shark ID and day and factor variables ‘shelf’ and ‘time bin’. The solid line represents a perfect fit of the model t...
Data
Data used in density surface models for blue shark abundance. (XLSX)
Data
Blue shark availability data. (XLSX)
Data
Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a) across the area where the aerial surveys were conducted, over the tagging period and during the summer aerial surveys. Mean is denoted with black circles and the whiskers represent standard deviation. The data for the plots were retrieved from https://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi...
Data
Most likely swimming path (red circles) of shark B reconstructed from pop-up satellite archival tag (PSAT) light intensity data. The first contour line from land depicts 150m depth contour The map was created using the R-package ‘marmap’ [62]. (PNG)
Data
Co-variates used in the density surface modelling of abundance of blue sharks. (DOCX)
Data
Start and end days and effort during aerial surveys of the Irish Exclusive Economic Zone. (DOCX)
Article
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are an important tool for the conservation of seabirds. However, mapping seabird distributions using at-sea surveys or tracking data to inform the designation of MPAs is costly and time-consuming, particularly for far-ranging pelagic species. Here we explore the potential for using predictive distribution models to exa...
Article
Which factors shape animals’ migration movements across large geographical scales, how different migratory strategies emerge between populations, and how these may affect population dynamics are central questions in the field of animal migration [1] that only large-scale studies of migration patterns across a species’ range can answer [2]. To addre...
Article
Full-text available
Search behavior is often used as a proxy for foraging effort within studies of animal movement, despite it being only one part of the foraging process, which also includes prey capture. While methods for validating prey capture exist, many studies rely solely on behavioral annotation of animal movement data to identify search and infer prey capture...
Article
Full-text available
The ocean sunfish, Mola mola, is the largest teleost fish in the world. Despite being found in all oceans of the world, little is known about its abundance and factors driving its distribution. In this study we provide the first abundance estimates for sunfish in offshore waters in the northeast Atlantic and the first record of extensive sunfish pr...
Article
Full-text available
For many marine migratory fish, comparatively little is known about the movement of individuals rather than the population. Yet, such individual-based movement data is vitally important to understand variability in migratory strategies and fidelity to foraging locations. A case in point is the economically important European sea bass (Dicentrarchus...
Article
The non-native barnacle species Austrominius modestus was first recorded in Ireland, close to Lough Hyne marine nature reserve in 1957. This species was not recorded inside the Lough until 1980, but by 2001 was the dominant intertidal barnacle within the reserve. It has been suggested that increases in the abundance of this species at other locatio...
Article
Full-text available
Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and salps are major macroplankton contributors to Southern Ocean food webs and krill are also fished commercially. Managing this fishery sustainably, against a backdrop of rapid regional climate change, requires information on distribution and time trends. Many data on the abundance of both taxa have been obtaine...
Article
Full-text available
Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and salps are major macroplankton contributors to Southern Ocean food webs and krill are also fished commercially. Managing this fishery sustainably, against a backdrop of rapid regional climate change, requires information on distribution and time trends. Many data on the abundance of both taxa have been obtaine...
Article
A dedicated observer programme was carried out in gillnet and entangling net fisheries off the west and southwest coasts of Ireland to monitor interactions with seals. No seals were observed as bycatch in gillnet fisheries suggesting the risk of bycatch in observed gillnet fisheries is low. Grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and to a lesser extent har...
Article
Full-text available
Seals and humans often target the same food resource, leading to competition. This is of mounting concern with fish stocks in global decline. Grey seals were tracked from southeast Ireland, an area of mixed demersal and pelagic fisheries, and overlap with fisheries on the Celtic Shelf and Irish Sea was assessed. Overall, there was low overlap betwe...
Data
Active and passive gear vms and seal effort data_seal forage areas. (XLSX)
Article
Full-text available
During the construction of a gas pipeline from an offshore gas field in northwest Ireland, a year-round shore-based marine mammal monitoring programme was undertaken. Using 6 yr of data, generalised estimating equations-generalised additive models (GEE-GAMs) were used to investigate if construction-related activity and vessel traffic influenced the...
Article
Full-text available
C-PODs are static passive acoustic monitoring devices used to detect odontocete vocalizations in the range of 20–160 kHz. However, falsely classified detections may be an issue, particularly with broadband species (i.e. many dolphin species) due to anthropogenic and other noise occurring at the same frequency. While porpoise detections are verified...
Article
Reports from the fishing industry suggest that seal depredation in Irish bottom-set gillnets and entangling net fisheries has increased substantially in recent years. A dedicated observer program was conducted in a range of such fisheries off the southwest and west coasts of Ireland to provide the first quantitative estimates of seal depredation. Z...