Mark Z Jacobson

Mark Z Jacobson
Stanford University | SU · Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

PhD

About

360
Publications
98,874
Reads
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32,694
Citations
Citations since 2016
64 Research Items
16698 Citations
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Introduction
Mark Z Jacobson currently works at the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering , Stanford University. Mark does research on Air Pollution, Climate, and Clean, Renewable Energy. Their most recent publication is 'Roadmaps to Transition Countries to 100% Clean, Renewable Energy for All Purposes to Curtail Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Risk: 100% clean, renewable energy systems.'

Publications

Publications (360)
Article
Full-text available
In their comment on our 2021 paper “How Green is Blue Hydrogen,” Romano et al. purport to provide “a more balanced perspective on blue hydrogen, which is in line with current best available practices.” We strongly disagree. First, we categorically dismiss their presentation on methane emissions. Methane dominates the greenhouse gas footprint of blu...
Article
A long-term solution to the climate and air pollution crises facing the world today includes electrification of almost all energy and obtaining that electricity from clean, renewable sources. Whereas electric alternatives exist for nearly all energy sectors, they do not exist for long-distance, heavy passenger aircraft, freight locomotives, or ship...
Article
Reliance on imported diesel fuel, with high transportation costs, has made power and water treatment expensive in remote diesel microgrids in the Arctic. Past attempts at implementing piped water in these areas have proven difficult due to the high cost of energy to pump, transport, and heat water with imported diesel fuel. A modular Water Reuse (W...
Article
Full-text available
Research on 100% renewable energy systems is a relatively recent phenomenon. It was initiated in the mid-1970s, catalyzed by skyrocketing oil prices. Since the mid-2000s, it has quickly evolved into a prominent research field encompassing an expansive and growing number of research groups and organizations across the world. The main conclusion of m...
Article
This study analyzes 2050–2051 grid stability in the 50 U S. states and District of Columbia after their all-sector (electricity, transportation, buildings, industry) energy is transitioned to 100% clean, renewable Wind-Water-Solar (WWS) electricity and heat plus storage and demand response (thus to zero air pollution and carbon). Stability is analy...
Article
Expeditionary contingency bases (non-permanent, rapidly built, and often remote outposts) for military and non-military applications represent a unique opportunity for renewable energy. Conventional applications rely upon diesel generators to provide electricity. However, the potential exists for renewable energy, improved efficiency, and energy st...
Article
Hydrogen is often viewed as an important energy carrier in a future decarbonized world. Currently, most hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of methane in natural gas (“gray hydrogen”), with high carbon dioxide emissions. Increasingly, many propose using carbon capture and storage to reduce these emissions, producing so-called “blue hydrogen,” f...
Article
Full-text available
The United States will need significant wind power to address climate change and air pollution. However, reaching proposed levels of wind installations sustainably and cost-effectively necessitates a better understanding of wind energy's land requirements. The objective of this study is to reduce the barriers to wind farm development by creating a...
Article
This study examines the impacts on energy costs and requirements of interconnecting versus isolating the electric grids of countries in Western Europe when each country's all-purpose energy is provided by 100 % wind, water, and sunlight (WWS). A weather model is used to predict wind and solar fields and building heat and cold loads. A grid model is...
Article
Full-text available
Keeping the electric and heat grids stable is the major challenge facing the world as it transitions away from fossil fuels to electricity and heat provided by wind, water, and sunlight (WWS). Because building heating and cooling demands and wind and solar energy supplies both depend on the same weather, building demands should be modeled consisten...
Article
This paper discusses and rebuts McKenna et al.'s (2020, hereinafter M20) critique of the European wind power potential analysis of Enevoldsen et al. (2019, hereinafter E19). This paper rebuts M20's five claims regarding 1) potential definitions and conceptualizations of sociotechnical systems, 2) incomplete literature review, 3) opaque and incorrec...
Article
Differing estimates have emerged about how much land or water area is used by existing wind farms and how much power can be obtained from that area. Whereas, no single unique method exists to define wind farm spacing area, the spacing area (thus installed and output power densities) of a wind farm can be determined in a way to meet specific logical...
Article
Full-text available
High transportation costs make energy and food expensive in remote communities worldwide, especially in high-latitude Arctic climates. Past attempts to grow food indoors in these remote areas have proven uneconomical due to the need for expensive imported diesel for heating and electricity. This study aims to determine whether solar photovoltaic (P...
Article
Full-text available
To date, roadmaps and policies for transitioning from fossil fuels to clean, renewable energy have been developed for nations, provinces, states, cities, and towns in order to address air pollution, global warming, and energy insecurity. However, neither roadmaps nor policies have been developed for large metropolitan areas (aggregations of towns a...
Chapter
100% Clean, Renewable Energy and Storage for Everything - by Mark Z Jacobson October 2020
Chapter
100% Clean, Renewable Energy and Storage for Everything - by Mark Z Jacobson October 2020
Chapter
100% Clean, Renewable Energy and Storage for Everything - by Mark Z Jacobson October 2020
Chapter
100% Clean, Renewable Energy and Storage for Everything - by Mark Z Jacobson October 2020
Chapter
100% Clean, Renewable Energy and Storage for Everything - by Mark Z Jacobson October 2020
Chapter
100% Clean, Renewable Energy and Storage for Everything - by Mark Z Jacobson October 2020
Chapter
100% Clean, Renewable Energy and Storage for Everything - by Mark Z Jacobson October 2020
Chapter
100% Clean, Renewable Energy and Storage for Everything - by Mark Z Jacobson October 2020
Chapter
100% Clean, Renewable Energy and Storage for Everything - by Mark Z Jacobson October 2020
Chapter
100% Clean, Renewable Energy and Storage for Everything - by Mark Z Jacobson October 2020
Chapter
100% Clean, Renewable Energy and Storage for Everything - by Mark Z Jacobson October 2020
Article
As wind farm numbers and areas increase worldwide, it has become increasingly important to examine the impact of wind energy on the surrounding environment. One effect in some scenarios is noise, which depends on the type and age of the wind turbines and the distances between them and the residential buildings. Previous research on wind farm layout...
Article
To be competitive in the electricity markets, various technologies have been reported to increase profits of wind farm owners. Combining battery storage system, wind farms can be operated as conventional power plants which promotes the integration of wind power into the power grid. However, high expenses on batteries keep investors away. Retired EV...
Article
Full-text available
This study introduces a novel concept to provide both electric charging and hydrogen refueling at the same location. A hybrid hydrogen/electricity refueling station (HERS) powered only by solar photovoltaics in a remote area without access to the electrical grid is proposed. This station provides electricity for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and...
Poster
Full-text available
For the first time, we have developed a wind atlas to determine the onshore wind power potential of each U.S. state. Previously, Geographical Information System (GIS)-based wind atlases have been developed that include multiple parameters for identifying sites suitable for wind energy development. Such atlases contain data and exclusions for houses...
Article
Full-text available
Global warming, air pollution, and energy insecurity are three of the greatest problems facing humanity. To address these problems, we develop Green New Deal energy roadmaps for 143 countries. The roadmaps call for a 100% transition of all-purpose business-as-usual (BAU) energy to wind-water-solar (WWS) energy, efficiency, and storage by 2050 with...
Article
Data from a coal with carbon capture and use (CCU) plant and a synthetic direct air carbon capture and use (SDACCU) plant are analyzed for the equipment’s ability, alone, to reduce CO2. In both plants, natural gas turbines power the equipment. A net of only 10.8% of the CCU plant’s CO2-equivalent (CO2e) emissions and 10.5% of the CO2 removed from t...
Article
The continuous development of onshore wind farms is an important feature of the European transition towards an energy system powered by distributed renewables and low-carbon resources. This study assesses and simulates potential for future onshore wind turbine installations throughout Europe. The study depicts, via maps, all the national and region...
Article
The Aliso Canyon (Porter Ranch), California, natural gas blowout lasted 112 days, from October 23, 2015 to February 11, 2016, releasing 97,100 tonnes of methane, 7,300 tonnes of ethane, and a host of other hydrocarbons into the Southern California air. This study estimates the impacts of the leak on transient weather, climate, air quality, and heal...
Article
Full-text available
Urban areas are expanding worldwide due to increasing population, standard of living, and migration from rural areas. This study uses satellite and road data to quantify the urbanization of two megacities, New Delhi and Los Angeles, between 2000 and 2009. It then estimates, with a three-dimensional nested global-through-urban climate, weather, and...
Article
Full-text available
We compare the cost of maintaining a proposed subsidy for New York's three upstate nuclear power plants with the cost of replacing the plants with renewable technologies from 2016 to 2050. Keeping nuclear operating with subsidy until 2050 is the most expensive option, costing $32.4 billion (2014 USD) over that period in the base business as usual c...
Article
This study provides estimates of photovoltaic (PV) panel optimal tilt angles for all countries worldwide. It then estimates the incident solar radiation normal to either tracked or optimally tilted panels relative to horizontal panels globally. Optimal tilts are derived from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's PVWatts program. A simple 3rd-o...
Article
Towns and cities worldwide emit significant pollution and are also increasingly affected by pollution's health and climate impacts. Local decision makers can alleviate these impacts by transitioning the energy they control to 100% clean, renewable energy and energy efficiency. This study develops roadmaps to transition 53 towns and cities in the Un...
Article
Matching electricity, heat, and cold demand with supply at low cost is the greatest concern facing countries seeking to provide their all-purpose energy with 100% clean, renewable wind, water, and sunlight (WWS). Implementing WWS worldwide could eliminate 4–7 million annual air pollution deaths, first slow then reverse global warming, and provide e...
Article
Solving the problems of global warming, air pollution, and energy security requires a massive effort by individuals, communities, businesses, nonprofits, and policy makers around the world. The first step in that process is to have a plan. To that end, roadmaps to transition 139 countries of the world to 100% clean, renewable wind, water, and solar...
Article
We really could run the world purely on clean, renewable energy, says Mark Jacobson
Article
In response to electricity markets with growing levels of wind energy production and varying electricity prices, this research examines incentives for investments in integrated renewable energy power systems. A strategy for using optimization methods for a power system consisting of wind turbines, electrolyzers, and hydrogen fuel cells is explored....
Article
Full-text available
We develop roadmaps to transform the all-purpose energy infrastructures (electricity, transportation, heating/cooling, industry, agriculture/forestry/fishing) of 139 countries to ones powered by wind, water, and sunlight (WWS). The roadmaps envision 80% conversion by 2030 and 100% by 2050. WWS not only replaces business-as-usual (BAU) power, but al...
Article
This study inter-compares, among five global models, the potential impacts of all commercial aircraft emissions worldwide on surface ozone and PM2.5. The models include climate-response models (CRMs) with interactive meteorology, chemical-transport models (CTMs) with prescribed meteorology, and models that integrate aspects of both. Model inputs ar...
Article
Full-text available
Analyses of the climate effects of 2050 aviation emissions have been conducted with two coupled Chemistry Climate Models (CCMs) including experiments with coupled ocean models. The baseline 2050 aviation emissions scenario projects emissions ~ 5 times those in 2006. Simulations suggest a corresponding growth in the climate impact of aviation by 205...
Conference Paper
Greenhouse gas reduction is one of the main challenges toward obtaining a more sustainable energy system. The diffusion of electricity generation technologies that rely on renewable resources is one promising option to tackle this problem. However, the temporal mismatch of intermittent electricity generation (e.g. from wind power or photovoltaics)...
Article
As the number and complexity of power system planning models grows, understanding the impact of modeling choices on accuracy and computational requirements becomes increasingly important. This study examines empirically various temporal and spatial tradeoffs using the POWER planning model for scenarios of a highly renewable US system. First, the co...
Technical Report
Full-text available
http://www.igsd.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/EMBARGOED_Under2C_High-Level-Summary.pdf
Preprint
Full-text available
Different treatments of the Kelvin effect in LES modeling of early contrails are shown to cause variations in the survival rate of ice particles by up to a factor of 4 and in optical depth and mean particle size by up to 50 %. The Kelvin effect which varies exponentially with particle size, can reduce or even suppress the impact of other important...
Article
Full-text available
Under the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) Aviation Climate Change Research Initiative (ACCRI), non-CO2 climatic impacts of commercial aviation are assessed for current (2006) and for future (2050) baseline and mitigation scenarios. The effects of the non-CO2 aircraft emissions are examined using a number of advanced climate and atmospheric...
Article
This study explores various scenarios and flexibility mechanisms to integrate high penetrations of renewable energy into the US (United States) power grid. A linear programming model – POWER (Power system Optimization With diverse Energy Resources) – is constructed and used to (1) quantify flexibility cost-benefits of geographic aggregation, renewa...
Article
The need for new energy storage is often seen as an obstacle to integrating renewable electricity into national power systems. Modelling shows that existing technologies could provide significant emissions reductions in the US without the need for storage, however.
Article
Full-text available
Current and future climate impacts of aviation emissions are quantified using a combination of atmospheric models, surface and satellite observations and laboratory experiments.
Article
Full-text available
Significance The large-scale conversion to 100% wind, water, and solar (WWS) power for all purposes (electricity, transportation, heating/cooling, and industry) is currently inhibited by a fear of grid instability and high cost due to the variability and uncertainty of wind and solar. This paper couples numerical simulation of time- and space-depen...
Article
Full-text available
Natural circulation patterns along the west coast of North America periodically draw subthermocline, low pH waters into shallow coastal areas. The presence of corrosive, low pH waters, caused by ocean acidification (OA), is frequently observed along the North American west coast. Reduction of global atmospheric CO2 inputs is the appropriate managem...
Article
Full-text available
This study presents roadmaps for each of the 50 United States to convert their all-purpose energy systems (for electricity, transportation, heating/cooling, and industry) to ones powered entirely by wind, water, and sunlight (WWS). The plans contemplate 80-85% of existing energy replaced by 2030 and 100% replaced by 2050. Conversion would reduce ea...
Article
The transient climate, soil, and air quality impacts of the rapid urbanization of Beijing between 2000 and 2009 are investigated with three-dimensional computer model simulations. The simulations integrate a new satellite data set for urban extent and a geolocated crowd-sourced data set for road surface area and consider differences only in urban l...
Article
Full-text available
Jurisdictions throughout the world are contemplating greenhouse gas (GHG) miti-gation strategies that will enable meeting long-term GHG targets. Many jurisdictions are now focusing on the 2020–2050 timeframe. We conduct an inter-model comparison of nine California statewide energy models with GHG mitigation scenarios to 2050 to better understand co...
Article
Full-text available
The transition to a future electricity system based primarily on wind and solar PV is examined for all regions in the contiguous US. We present optimized pathways for the build-up of wind and solar power for least backup energy needs as well as for least cost obtained with a simplified, lightweight model based on long-term high resolution weather-d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study uses a Fickian-Distribution parameterization [Chen & Lamb, 1994] to model the effects of ice habits on contrail formation within a large eddy simulation (LES). Box model cases were first performed at various ambient temperatures and relative humidities over ice (RHi) and results compared with available laboratory data of ice crystal grow...
Article
This study presents a roadmap for converting California's all-purpose (electricity, transportation, heating/cooling, and industry) energy infrastructure to one derived entirely from wind, water, and sunlight (WINS) generating electricity and electrolytic hydrogen. California's available WWS resources are first evaluated. A mix of WWS generators is...
Article
Thank you, Atmospheric Sciences section of AGU for bestowing this humbling honor on me. Thank you, Dr. Ramanathan, for your gracious nomination. Thank you to all my mentors, colleagues, students, special friends, parents, children, and even critics, over the years who supported my pushing the envelope to better understand the impacts of black carbo...
Article
This paper examines the effects on climate and air pollution of open biomass burning (BB) when heat and moisture fluxes, gases and aerosols (including black and brown carbon, tar balls, and reflective particles), cloud absorption effects (CAEs) I and II, and aerosol semi-direct and indirect effects on clouds are treated. It also examines the climat...
Article
Full-text available
Hurricanes are causing increasing damage to many coastal regions worldwide. Offshore wind turbines can provide substantial clean electricity year-round, but can they also mitigate hurricane damage while avoiding damage to themselves? This study uses an advanced climate-weather computer model that correctly treats the energy extraction of wind turbi...
Conference Paper
Global warming, air pollution, and energy insecurity are three of the most significant problems facing the world today. This talk discusses a technical and economic plan to solve these problems by powering 100% of the world, individual countries, and states for all purposes, including electricity, transportation, industry, and heating/cooling, with...
Article
Wind and solar PV generation data for the entire contiguous US are calculated, on the basis of 32 years of weather data with temporal resolution of one hour and spatial resolution of 40x40km$^2$, assuming site-suitability-based as well as stochastic wind and solar PV capacity distributions throughout the country. These data are used to investigate...
Article
This paper provides global and seasonal estimates of the “practical” wind power obtained with a 3-D numerical model (GATOR-GCMOM) that dynamically calculates the instantaneous wind power of a modern 5 MW wind turbine at 100-m hub height at each time step. “Practical” wind power is defined as that delivered from wind turbines in high-wind locations...
Article
[1] One of the significant uncertainties in understanding the effects of aviation on climate is the effects of aviation emissions on ozone and atmospheric chemistry. In this study the effects of aviation emissions on atmospheric ozone for 2006 and two projections for 2050 are compared among seven models. The models range in complexity from a two-di...
Article
[1] This is a study to examine the impact of modeling photochemistry from aircraft emissions in an expanding plume versus at the grid scale in an atmospheric model. Differences in model treatments for a single flight occurred at all altitudes during takeoff, cruise, and landing. After 10 h, the plume treatment decreased grid-scale ozone production...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the 20-year impacts of emissions from all commercial aircraft flights worldwide on climate, cloudiness, and atmospheric composition. Aircraft emissions from each individual flight worldwide were modeled to evolve from the subgrid to grid scale with the global model described and evaluated in Part I of this study. Simulations wit...
Article
Full-text available
The hygroscopic growth of atmospheric particles affects atmospheric chemistry and Earth's climate. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) constitutes a significant fraction of the dry submicron mass of atmospheric aerosols, thus affecting their water uptake properties. Although the WSOC fraction is comprised of many compounds, a set of model substance...
Article
Full-text available
The hygroscopic growth of atmospheric particles affects atmospheric chemistry and Earth's climate. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) constitutes a significant fraction of the dry submicron mass of atmospheric aerosols, thus affecting their water uptake properties. Although the WSOC fraction is comprised of many compounds, a set of model substance...
Article
The combustion of fossil fuels is largely responsible for the problems of climate change, air pollution, and energy insecurity. A combination of wind, water, and solar power is the best alternative to fossil fuels, the authors write, because renewable energy sources have near-zero emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants, no long-term...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study aims at using a three-dimensional large-eddy simulation (LES) model for quantifying the effects of non-sphericity of ice particles on the dynamics of aircraft condensation trails. A new model to incorporate ice habits is proposed and used with LES calculations for a time horizon of 20 minutes after the aircraft has passed. It is found th...