Mark Huxham

Mark Huxham
Edinburgh Napier University · Department of Biological Sciences

Doctor of Philosophy

About

125
Publications
112,994
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
4,845
Citations
Citations since 2016
51 Research Items
3108 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600

Publications

Publications (125)
Article
Full-text available
Natural climate solutions are crucial interventions to help countries and companies achieve their net-zero carbon emissions ambitions. Blue carbon ecosystems such as mangroves, seagrasses, and tidal marshes have attracted particular attention for their ability to seques-ter and store carbon at densities that can far exceed other ecosystems. The sci...
Article
Full-text available
Protecting existing mangrove forests is a priority for global conservation because of the wide range of services that these coastal forests provide to humankind. Despite the recent reduction in global rates of mangrove loss, high historical loss rates mean that there are at least 800,000 ha globally that are potentially suitable for mangrove re-est...
Article
Full-text available
Blue Carbon Ecosystems (BCEs) help mitigate and adapt to climate change but their integration into policy, such as Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), remains underdeveloped. Most BCE conservation requires community engagement, hence community-scale projects must be nested within the implementation of NDCs without compromising livelihoods o...
Article
Full-text available
Blue Carbon Ecosystems (BCEs) help mitigate and adapt to climate change but their integration into policy, such as Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), remains underdeveloped. Most BCE conservation requires community engagement, hence community-scale projects must be nested within the implementation of NDCs without compromising livelihoods o...
Article
Mangroves support coastal fisheries, particularly by providing nurseries for juvenile fish. However, much remains unknown about the fish and crustacean communities in mangroves and about the lifecycles and behaviours of individual species. This study is the first to describe the fish and crustacean communities in the Vanga mangrove ecosystem, the l...
Article
Many efforts to improve the sustainable management of renewable natural resources in low- and middle-income countries seek to achieve ‘win-win’ outcomes – improved ecosystem health and improved livelihoods. Yet achieving such win–win outcomes is challenging, since many variables affect the potential for synergies. These variables include the qualit...
Article
Seagrasses are highly productive ecosystems and hotspots for biodiversity, providing a plethora of benefits to the environment and to people. Their value in sequestering and storing carbon is increasingly being recognised, as the world searches for ways to mitigate the effects and slow the pace of climate change. However, many uncertainties remain,...
Article
Full-text available
Seagrass meadows deliver multiple ecosystem services that are of particular importance to resource-poor coastal communities, yet they are rapidly declining globally. The Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) approach has been used to fund the protection of other ‘Blue Carbon’ Ecosystems (BCE), yet seagrass has been incorporated in just one PES proj...
Article
Seagrass meadows deliver multiple ecosystem services that are of particular importance to resource-poor coastal communities, yet they are rapidly declining globally. The Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) approach has been used to fund the protection of other ‘Blue Carbon’ Ecosystems (BCE), yet seagrass has been incorporated in just one PES proj...
Article
Full-text available
Defined as ‘networks of learning relationships among students and significant others’, peer assisted learning takes a bewildering array of forms in higher education. A useful way to conceptualise these is to draw from ideas of communities of practice and communicative rationality, with the degree of student autonomy a third key element. We illustra...
Article
Sri Lanka is at the forefront of global mangrove conservation. It is the first country to officially protect all its remaining mangrove forests and has embarked on an ambitious plan to restore 10,000 ha of wetland during the United Nations Decade of Ecosystem Restoration. One incentive for this conservation effort is a recognition, based on researc...
Article
Full-text available
For centuries, mangrove forests and adjacent ecosystems have been cast in a negative light due to their (often perceived) ecosystem disservices. We give contemporary examples of how such viewpoints about mangroves continue to be communicated today, with potentially adverse consequences for mangrove conservation and public support. Since public perc...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Seagrass meadows are important marine ecosystems, providing a range of services including carbon sequestration, nursery habitats for fish and coastal protection. They are suffering rapid global decline in the face of eutrophication and other pollution, damage caused by fishing activities, tourism and coastal development. Degradation and loss of sea...
Article
Full-text available
The 2015–2016 El Niño had large impacts globally. The effects were not as great as anticipated in Kenya, however, leading some commentators to call it a ‘non-event’. Our study uses a novel combination of participatory Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis tools, and new and existing social and biophysical data, to analyse vulnerability to, an...
Chapter
Full-text available
The SDG14 targets cover more than 70 per cent of the planet, including the coastal zone, where a range of forest resources are located. In this chapter we investigate the potential negative consequences of SDG14 on forest resources, using the example of coastal mangrove forests. SDG14 is likely to have negative impacts on forest resources because i...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
This article adds to the corpus of writing that examines collegiality's idealistic yet elusive nature in Higher Education by focusing specifically on how collegiality can be enacted in student–staff partnership work. An innovative initiative, ‘Students as Colleagues in the Review of Teaching Practices’, provides a case to qualitatively explore the...
Article
Full-text available
The term Blue Carbon (BC) was first coined a decade ago to describe the disproportionately large contribution of coastal vegetated ecosystems to global carbon sequestration. The role of BC in climate change mitigation and adaptation has now reached international prominence. To help prioritise future research, we assembled leading experts in the fie...
Chapter
Interactions in the Marine Benthos - edited by Stephen J. Hawkins August 2019
Article
Written submissions are traditionally used in the assessment of applications for Fellowship of the Higher Education Academy, with dialogue offering an alternative approach. Quite why individuals elect for dialogue has received little attention. Using a mixed methods approach, data were gathered from two Universities offering dialogic and written ro...
Article
Full-text available
Seagrass habitats are important natural carbon sinks, with an average of ~14 kg C m−2 buried in their sediments. The fate of this carbon following seagrass removal or damage has major environmental implications but is poorly understood. Using a removal experiment lasting 18 months at Gazi Bay, Kenya, we investigated the impacts of seagrass loss on...
Article
Full-text available
Mangroves are increasingly being recognised for the important ecosystem services they provide, including carbon fixation, shoreline protection and fisheries habitats. In addition, they provide typical forest goods such as timber and firewood; harvesting these can cause forest degradation and loss. In Kenya, a large proportion of the rural populatio...
Article
Knowledge of seagrass distribution is limited to a few well-studied sites and poor where resources are scant (e.g. Africa), hence global estimates of seagrass carbon storage are inaccurate. Here, we analysed freely available Sentinel-2 and Landsat imagery to quantify contemporary coverage and change in seagrass between 1986 and 2016 on Kenya's coas...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review We use the ‘seascape’ concept to explore how interactions between mangrove forests, tidal marshes and seagrass influence the storage of carbon in these ecosystems. Mangrove forests, with the other two ‘blue carbon’ habitats, are exceptionally powerful carbon sinks. Maintaining and enhancing these sinks is an emerging priority in c...
Article
TreeDivNet is the largest network of biodiversity experiments worldwide, but needs to expand. We encourage colleagues to establish new experiments on the relation between tree species diversity and forest ecosystem functioning, and to make use of the platform for collaborative research.
Article
Full-text available
Key Messages Improving effectiveness 1. Greater cooperation and coordination is essential between actors, including within and across government. 2. An ecosystem-based approach could encourage greater coordination, plus recognition of multiple ecosystem services and of potential trade-offs from policy. Transparent processes for resolving trade-of...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research on participatory forest management (PFM) in the global south has highlighted the existence of a widespread “implementation gap” between the ambitious intent enshrined in legislation and the often partial, disappointing rollout of devolved forest governance on the ground. Here, through an ethnographic case study of forest officers (F...
Article
Full-text available
Six wide-ranging mangrove species, Rhizophora apiculata, R. mucronata, Avicennia marina, A. officinalis, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, and B. sexangula, were selected to study the growth and survival of seedlings under three contrasting salinity treatments over a 30-week period: low (3-5psu), moderate (15-17psu) and high (33-36psu). Seedlings grown under...
Chapter
Full-text available
Mangrove forests provide many services, some of which are used mostly or exclusively by local people, often the relatively poor and marginalised. Here, such ‘local ecosystem services’ are defined as those benefitting people living zero to tens of kilometres from a forest. The provision of fuel, timber, fodder, crustacean, fin-fish and shoreline pro...
Article
Full-text available
Seagrass meadows provide numerous ecosystem services and their rapid global loss may reduce human welfare as well as ecological integrity. In common with the other ‘blue carbon’ habitats (mangroves and tidal marshes) seagrasses are thought to provide coastal defence and encourage sediment stabilisation and surface elevation. A sophisticated underst...
Article
Full-text available
Vegetated marine habitats are globally important carbon sinks, making a significant contribution towards mitigating climate change, and they provide a wide range of other ecosystem services. However, large gaps in knowledge remain, particularly for seagrass meadows in Africa. The present study estimated biomass and sediment organic carbon (Corg) st...
Data
Carbon density (mean ± 95% C.I.) along depth profiles in the vegetated and un-vegetated areas associated with the dominant seagrass species of Gazi Bay (a. T. hemprichii b. E. acoroides c. T. ciliatum d. S. isoetifolium). (XLSX)
Data
Relative % of the total Corg (± 95% C.I) for the sediment and the biomass associated with the four dominant seagrass species at Gazi Bay. (XLSX)
Data
Variation in sediment Corg between the vegetated and un-vegetated areas for the four seagrass species (means± 95% C.I.). (XLSX)
Book
Full-text available
The Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBV) concept proposed by GEO BON, Space Agencies, and the Earth Observation research community at large aims to support efforts for biodiversity monitoring. GOFC-GOLD and GEO BON propose a new sourcebook to promote the best operational monitoring practices for the relevant EBVs based on scientific literature, a...
Article
Understanding the effects of seedling density on sediment accretion, biogeochemistry and belowground biomass in mangrove systems can help explain ecological functioning and inform appropriate planting densities during restoration or climate change mitigation programs. The objectives of this study were to examine: 1) impacts of mangrove seedling den...
Chapter
Full-text available
Authors In addition to the core editors, a number of international experts in remote sensing, and biodiversity field measurement have contributed to the development of the Sourcebook and are thankfully acknowledged for their support. This Sourcebook is the result of a joint voluntary effort from more than 70 contributing authors from different inst...
Chapter
Even though ‘green’ options for addressing the impacts of climate change have gained in currency over recent years, they are yet to be fully mainstreamed into development policy and practice. One important reason is the lack of economic evidence as to why investing in ecosystems offers a cost-effective, equitable and sustainable means of securing c...
Article
Peer review is a powerful method to enhance teaching in higher education. Peers, however, may not be the most relevant people in evaluating teaching success; as the most important stakeholders in learning, students’ evaluations need to be heard. Whilst some efforts to capture ‘the student voice’ are simplistic and may foster consumerist approaches,...
Article
Despite covering only approximately 138,000 km2, mangroves are globally important carbon sinks with carbon density values 3-4 times that of terrestrial forests. A key challenge in evaluating the carbon benefits from mangrove forest conservation is the lack of rigorous spatially resolved estimates of mangrove sediment carbon stocks; most mangrove ca...
Article
There is growing interest in carbon stocks and flows in seagrass ecosystems, but recent global reviews suggest a paucity of studies from Africa. This paper reviews work on seagrass productivity, biomass and sediment carbon in Africa. Most work was conducted in East Africa with a major geographical gap in West Africa. The mean above-ground, below-gr...
Article
At present, aquaculture of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in the Puttalam district of Sri Lanka is unsustainable with more than 90% of the former shrimp ponds laying abandoned as a result of shrimp disease and improper management. Between 1992 and 1998, over 50% of the mangrove cover was removed in order to establish shrimp aquaculture. This...
Article
The expansion of shrimp aquaculture in Sri Lanka over the past three decades has dramatically changed the coastal landscape, in particular by converting mangrove forests. The current study quantified these impacts in the Puttalam lagoon, an area of the country that has experienced some of the most destructive development. Land use change was analys...
Article
Full-text available
Seagrass ecosystems provide numerous ecosystem services that support coastal communities around the world. They sustain abundant marine life as well as commercial and artisanal fisheries, and help protect shorelines from coastal erosion. Additionally, seagrass meadows are a globally significant sink for carbon and represent a key ecosystem for comb...
Article
Full-text available
Seagrass ecosystems provide numerous ecosystem services that support coastal communities around the world. They sustain abundant marine life as well as commercial and artisanal fisheries, and help protect shorelines from coastal erosion. Additionally, seagrass meadows are a globally significant sink for carbon and represent a key ecosystem for comb...
Article
Full-text available
Using the mountaineering metaphor of ‘natural lines’ this article describes the co-navigation of an honours course by students and teachers. It suggests the benefits and possibilities of going beyond the confines of conventional teaching and learning wisdom (as canonised in the notion of constructive alignment) and offering just and joyful ways for...
Article
Mangrove forests are under global pressure. Habitat destruction and degradation persist despite longstanding recognition of the important ecological functions of mangroves. Hence new approaches are needed to help stakeholders and policy-makers achieve sound management that is informed by the best science. Here we explore how the new policy concept...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of mangrove forests in carbon sequestration and coastal protection has been widely acknowledged. Large-scale damage of these forests, caused by hurricanes or clear felling, can enhance vulnerability to erosion, subsidence and rapid carbon losses. However, it is unclear how small-scale logging might impact on mangrove functions and se...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Healthy ecosystems are essential for the long-term wellbeing of humans as they provide vital services such as food production, pollination, climate regulation and flood protection. Global trends including population growth, changing diets and consumption patterns, urbanisation and climate change will exert increasing pressure on supplies of food an...
Article
Full-text available
In this review paper, we aim to describe the potential for, and the key challenges to, applying PES projects to mangroves. By adopting a "carbocentric approach," we show that mangrove forests are strong candidates for PES projects. They are particularly well suited to the generation of carbon credits because of their unrivaled potential as carbon s...
Chapter
Full-text available
Researchers who are interested in asking a number of questions about a particular phenomenon are increasingly looking to mixed methods as a useful research approach. In this case study, we discuss how mixed-methods research is situated in current debates about quantitative and qualitative methods. Then, we provide some reasons as to why we, and oth...
Article
Full-text available
Although the terms 'health' and 'healthy' are often applied to marine ecosystems and communicate information about holistic condition (e. g. as required by the Ecosystem Approach), their meaning is unclear. Ecosystems have been understood in various ways, from non-interacting populations of species to complex integrated systems. Health has been see...
Article
Full-text available
a b s t r a c t Mangroves are globally important carbon stores and as such have potential for inclusion in future forest-based climate change mitigation strategies such as Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degrada-tion (REDD+). Participation in REDD+ will require developing countries to produce robust estimates of forest above-ground biomass...
Chapter
Full-text available
Article
Deforestation of mangroves is of global concern given their importance for carbon storage, biogeochemical cycling and the provision of other ecosystem services, but the links between rates of loss and potential drivers or risk factors are rarely evaluated. Here we identified key drivers of mangrove loss in Kenya and compared two different approache...