Mark Holden

Mark Holden
University of Central Lancashire | UCLAN · School of Physical Sciences and Computing

About

35
Publications
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844
Citations
Introduction

Publications

Publications (35)
Article
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Clouds containing supercooled water are important for both climate and weather, but our knowledge of which aerosol particle types nucleate ice in these clouds is far from complete. Combustion aerosols have strong anthropogenic sources and if these aerosol types were to nucleate ice in clouds they might exert a climate forcing. Here, we quantified t...
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Acidic macromolecules are traditionally considered key to calcium carbonate biomineralisation and have long been first choice in the bio-inspired synthesis of crystalline materials. Here, we challenge this view and demonstrate that low-charge macromolecules can vastly outperform their acidic counterparts in the synthesis of nanocomposites. Using go...
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The influence of soluble additives on the growth of calcite (CaCO3) is usually rationalized based on changes in crystal morphologies, where preferential association of the additives with either the acute or obtuse steps on the crystal surface gives rise to specific growth forms. In this work we investigate the influence of a highly acidic organic a...
Article
With their potential to offer new properties, single crystals containing nanoparticles provide an attractive class of nanocomposite materials. However, to fully profit from these, it is essential that we can characterise their 3D structures, identifying the locations of individual nanoparticles, and the defects present within the host crystals. Usi...
Article
With their potential to offer new properties, single crystals containing nanoparticles provide an attractive class of nanocomposite materials. However, to fully profit from these, it is essential that we can characterise their 3D structures, identifying the locations of individual nanoparticles, and the defects present within the host crystals. Usi...
Article
Mineral dust particles are thought to be an important type of ice-nucleating particle (INP) in the mixed-phase cloud regime around the globe. While K-feldspar has been identified as being a particularly important component of mineral dust for ice nucleation, it has been shown that quartz is also relatively ice nucleation active. Given quartz typica...
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Full-text available
Mineral dust particles are thought to be an important type of ice-nucleating particle (INP) in the mixed-phase cloud regime around the globe. While K-rich feldspar (K-feldspar) has been identified as being a particularly important component of mineral dust for ice nucleation, it has been shown that quartz is also relatively ice-nucleation active. G...
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The ability to control crystallization reactions is required in a vast range of processes including the production of functional inorganic materials and pharmaceuticals and the prevention of scale. However, it is currently limited by a lack of understanding of the mechanisms underlying crystal nucleation and growth. To address this challenge, it is...
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There is a significant drive to identify alternative materials that exhibit room temperature phosphorescence for technologies including bio-imaging, photodynamic therapy and organic light-emitting diodes. Ideally, these materials should be non-toxic and cheap, and it will be possible to control their photoluminescent properties. This was achieved h...
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Soluble additives provide a versatile strategy for controlling crystallization processes, enabling selection of properties including crystal sizes, morphologies, and structures. The additive species can also be incorporated within the crystal lattice, leading for example to enhanced mechanical properties. However, while many techniques are availabl...
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Understanding how surfaces direct nucleation is a complex problem that limits our ability to predict and control crystal formation. We here address this challenge using high-speed imaging to identify and quantify the sites at which ice nucleates in water droplets on the two natural cleavage faces of macroscopic feldspar substrates. Our data show th...
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A minute fraction of atmospheric particles exert a disproportionate effect on the phase of mixed-phase clouds by acting as ice-nucleating particles (INPs). To understand the effects of these particles on weather and climate, both now and into the future, we must first develop a quantitative understanding of the major INP sources worldwide. Previous...
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Organic molecules such as steroids or amino acids form crystals that can facilitate the formation of ice -- arguably the most important phase transition on earth. However, the origin of the ice nucleating ability of organic crystals is still largely unknown. Here, we combine experiments and simulations to unravel the microscopic details of ice form...
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Correction for ‘The enhancement and suppression of immersion mode heterogeneous ice-nucleation by solutes’ by Thomas F. Whale et al. , Chem. Sci. , 2018, 9 , 4142–4151.
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Biomineralisation processes invariably occur in the presence of multiple organic additives, which act in combination to give exceptional control over structures and properties. However, few synthetic studies have investigated the cooperative effectives of soluble additives. This work addresses this challenge and focuses on the combined effects of a...
Article
Biomineralisation processes invariably occur in the presence of multiple organic additives, which act in combination to give exceptional control over structures and properties. However, few synthetic studies have investigated the cooperative effectives of soluble additives. This work addresses this challenge and focuses on the combined effects of a...
Article
Full-text available
It has been hypothesized that black carbon (BC) influences mixed‐phase clouds by acting as an ice‐nucleating particle (INP). However, the literature data for ice nucleation by BC immersed in supercooled water are extremely varied, with some studies reporting that BC is very effective at nucleating ice, whereas others report no ice‐nucleating abilit...
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Heterogeneous nucleation of ice from aqueous solutions is an important yet poorly understood process in multiple fields, not least the atmospheric sciences where it impacts the formation and properties of...
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Our understanding of crystal nucleation is a limiting factor in many fields, not least in the atmospheric sciences. It was recently found that feldspar, a component of airborne desert dust, plays a dominant role in triggering ice formation in clouds, but the origin of this effect was unclear. By investigating the structure/property relationships of...
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From biomineralization to synthesis, organic additives provide an effective means of controlling crystallisation processes. There is growing evidence that these additives are often occluded within the crystal lattice, where this promises an elegant means of creating nanocomposites and tuning physical properties. Here, we use the incorporation of su...
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Mineral dust particles from wind-blown soils are known to act as effective ice nucleating particles in the atmosphere and are thought to play an important role in the glaciation of mixed phase clouds. Recent work suggests that feldspars are the most efficient nucleators of the minerals commonly present in atmospheric mineral dust. However, the feld...
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Full-text available
Mineral dust particles from wind-blown soils are known to act as effective ice nucleating particles in the atmosphere and are thought to play an important role in the glaciation of mixed phase clouds. Recent work suggests that feldspars are the most efficient nucleators of the minerals commonly present in atmospheric mineral dust. However, the feld...
Article
Microporous zincophosphate sodalite crystal growth has been studied in situ by atomic force microscopy. This simple model system permits an in depth investigation of some of the axioms governing crystal growth of nanoporous framework solids in general. In particular, this work reveals the importance of considering the growth of a framework material...
Article
In this paper we report the first in situ atomic force microscopy study on the crystal growth of zincophosphate-faujasite (ZnPO-FAU). Results show that growth at low to moderate supersaturation conditions takes place by a birth-and-spread and/or spiral growth mechanism. At medium-to-high supersaturation conditions, growth starts preferentially at c...
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Full-text available
The first examples of vinylidene complexes of the cycloheptatrienyl tungsten system [W(C=CHR)(dppe)(η-C₇H₇)](+) (dppe = Ph₂PCH₂CH₂PPh₂; R = H, 3; Ph, 4; C₆H₄-4-Me, 5) have been synthesised by reaction of [WBr(dppe)(η-C₇H₇)], 1, with terminal alkynes HC≡CR; a one-pot synthesis of 1 from [WBr(CO)₂(η-C₇H₇)] facilitates its use as a precursor. The X-ra...
Article
A molecular-scale understanding of crystal growth is critical to the development of important materials such as pharmaceuticals, semiconductors and catalysts. Only recently has this been possible with the advent of atomic force microscopy that permits observation of nanoscopic features on solid surfaces under a liquid or solution environment. This...
Article
We present the first in situ observations of the growth of a zeotype using atomic force microscopy. The {100} face of sodalite zincophosphate grows by a spiral growth mechanism forming an interlaced spiral pattern. This is caused by the anisotropic growth of sub-steps formed at the dislocation, which is related to the different condensation rates o...

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