Mark T Greenberg

Mark T Greenberg
Pennsylvania State University | Penn State · Prevention Research Center

University of Virginia, Ph.D.

About

418
Publications
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Publications

Publications (418)
Article
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Objectives Significant concerns have been raised about the “mental health crisis” on college campuses, with attention turning to what colleges can do beyond counseling services to address students’ mental health and well-being. We examined whether primarily first-year (89.1%) undergraduate students (n = 651) who enrolled in the Art and Science of H...
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Background Education is broader than academic teaching. It includes teaching students social–emotional skills both directly and indirectly through a positive school climate. Objective To evaluate if a universal school-based mindfulness training (SBMT) enhances teacher mental health and school climate. Methods The My Resilience in Adolescence para...
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Background Systematic reviews suggest school-based mindfulness training (SBMT) shows promise in promoting student mental health. Objective The My Resilience in Adolescence (MYRIAD) Trial evaluated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of SBMT compared with teaching-as-usual (TAU). Methods MYRIAD was a parallel group, cluster-randomised control...
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Background Preventing mental health problems in early adolescence is a priority. School-based mindfulness training (SBMT) is an approach with mixed evidence. Objectives To explore for whom SBMT does/does not work and what influences outcomes. Methods The My Resilience in Adolescence was a parallel-group, cluster randomised controlled trial (K=84...
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There are fewer evidence-based social and emotional learning programs for middle school students compared to younger grades. This randomized controlled trial tests the effectiveness of Facing History and Ourselves (hereafter, Facing History) with a sample of 694 (Facing History n = 437; Comparison n = 257) students from a low-resourced school distr...
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Objectives We examined 3-month effects of a mindfulness-based intervention with first-year college students. First, we evaluated the intervention effects on measures of life satisfaction and distress. Second, we examined the potential mediators of these effects, in particular a change in mindfulness states and the use of mindfulness practice after...
Article
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There is evidence that universal school-based mindfulness training (SBMT) can have positive effects for young people. However, it is unknown who benefits most from such training, how training exerts effects, and how implementation impacts effects. This study aimed to provide an overview of the evidence on the mediators, moderators, and implementati...
Article
This study evaluated emerging adult effects of the PROmoting School‐Community‐University Partnerships to Enhance Resilience (PROSPER) universal prevention delivery system implemented in middle schools. Twenty‐eight rural school districts were randomized to intervention and control conditions, with 1985 nineteen‐year‐old participants (90.6% White, 5...
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Objective Little is known about the process by which teachers learn the skills necessary to teach a school-based mindfulness program (SBMP), including how they come to understand and embody mindfulness. The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to explore how teachers experienced implementing an SBMP over time, including their embodiment of...
Article
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Mindfulness training (MT) is considered appropriate for school teachers and enhances well-being. Most research has investigated the efficacy of instructor-led MT. However, little is known about the benefits of using self-taught formats, nor what the key mechanisms of change are that contribute to enhanced teacher well-being. This study compared ins...
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Social and emotional learning (SEL) has become more central to education because of demand from educators, parents, students, and business leaders alongside rigorous research showing broad, positive impacts for students and adults. However, all approaches to SEL are not equal. Systemic SEL is an approach to create equitable learning conditions that...
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Objective: This study explores whether variability in the implementation of an undergraduate course on human flourishing is differentially associated with student outcomes. Participants: 101 students in the "Art and Science of Human Flourishing" course across three large, public, R1 universities in Fall 2018 participated in the study. Methods:...
Preprint
There is evidence that universal school-based mindfulness training (SBMT) can have positive effects for young people. However, it is unknown who benefits most from such training, how implementation quality impacts effects, and how training exerts effects. No known scoping reviews have comprehensively reviewed moderation, mediation and implementatio...
Preprint
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We hypothesized that college students who enrolled in the Art and Science of Human Flourishing (ASHF), a novel academic and experiential for-credit course on human flourishing, would demonstrate improved mental health and strengthen skills and behaviors associated with flourishing relative to control students. In a two-wave, multi-site, propensity-...
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Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a manualized mindfulness-based program for adolescents, Learning to Breathe (L2B), on indicators of adolescent social-emotional well-being, mental health, substance use, and executive function. Methods Participants included 251 high school students attending an urban school di...
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Background MYRIAD (My Resilience in Adolescence) is a superiority, parallel group, cluster randomised controlled trial designed to examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a mindfulness training (MT) programme, compared with normal social and emotional learning (SEL) school provision to enhance mental health, social-emotional-behavioural...
Article
This study evaluated how individuals’ own substance use and their perception of peers’ substance use predict each other across development from early adolescence to middle adulthood. Participants were from two longitudinal studies: Fast Track (FT; N=463) and Child Development Project (CDP; N=585). Participants reported on their own and peers’ subst...
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Objective Recent studies suggest deteriorating youth mental health. The current UK policy emphasises the role of schools for mental health promotion and prevention, but little data exist on what aspects of schools explain pupils’ mental health. We explored school-level influences on the mental health of young people in a large school-based sample f...
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Objectives Mindful parenting and parenting cognitions likely have important linkages to each other and to parent-child communication, but these linkages have not been tested. In this article, we test the bidirectional linkages between mindful parenting and parenting cognitions (sense of competence, parent-centered attributions) and the underlying m...
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Research on mindfulness-based programs (MBPs) for adolescents suggests improvements in stress, emotion regulation, and ability to perform some cognitive tasks. However, there is little research examining the contextual factors impacting why specific students experience particular changes and the process by which these changes occur. Responding to t...
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Social emotional learning (SEL) programs are increasingly being implemented in elementary schools to facilitate development of social competencies, decision-making skills, empathy, and emotion regulation and, in effect, prevent poor outcomes such as school failure, conduct problems, and eventual substance abuse. SEL programs are designed to foster...
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Objectives The initial results of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) designed for teachers have shown promise for promoting teachers’ social and emotional competencies, their health, and well-being. The present study examined the effectiveness of CARE for Teachers program outside the USA in the country of Croatia, Europe, through self-report as...
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Background There is growing research support for the use of mindfulness training (MT) in schools, but almost no high-quality evidence about different training models for people wishing to teach mindfulness in this setting. Effective dissemination of MT relies on the development of scalable training routes. Objective To compare 4 training routes fo...
Article
The necessity to implement evidence-based programs to support the healthy development of youth and families is becoming part of national policy. Organizations that are not “ready” to do so will likely lose resources, disallowing them to serve as they have set out to do. Consequently, the current survey study draws from a national sample of Cooperat...
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Objective Mindfulness training has been shown to reduce rates of depression, anxiety, and perceived stress, but its impact on stress and emotion regulation in real-world settings in the college-aged population is unknown. This study examines the effect of an 8-session-long mindfulness training on first-year college students’ daily experiences of st...
Article
Contemplative professional development interventions seek to help educators manage stress and improve emotion regulation, yet the mechanisms of action revealing how they result in positive psychological and physical outcomes remain unclear. Using focus groups based on levels of attendance, this qualitative study examined how educators with differen...
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Objective The current study examined the contributions of cultural and economic contexts and family, child, and parent characteristics to explain variation within and between mothers' and fathers' mental state talk (i.e., cognition, desire, modulation of assertion, and other mental state talk) to their 6‐month‐old infants. Background Growing evide...
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Externalizing and internalizing behavior problems are known to often co-occur, but mechanisms underlying this co-occurrence remain unclear: whether the associations are due to causal influences of one domain on the other or due to common risk processes influencing both domains. This study aimed to better understand the sources of co-occurring behav...
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Objectives This study qualitatively examined the relationship between home practice and reperceiving for teachers who participated in the CARE program. We used distress tolerance, mindfulness, burnout, efficacy, compassion, and self-care as proxies for (or direct representations of) underlying components of reperceiving—awareness, emotion regulatio...
Article
Children’s representational models of self and relationship quality with caregivers in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV) were investigated using family drawings created by children in their first-grade year. The present study examines the mediating role of mothers’ and fathers’ sensitive parenting behaviors in the relations between IPV...
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This study examines crossover effects of adolescent substance misuse preventive interventions on academic success in college. It evaluates pathways of influence on college grades, via effects on school engagement, problem‐solving skills, and substance misuse in high school. Data were collected as part of an Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) evaluat...
Article
The current study examined unfolding relations among mothers’ mindful parenting, parent–adolescent recurrent conflict, and adolescents’ externalizing and internalizing problems. In a community sample of 117 families (31% black, Asian, American Indian, or Latino), parents and adolescents (52% female; average age = 12.13 years) were followed over 15...
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Youth substance use remains a significant public health issue. Although there are numerous evidence-based substance use preventive interventions, room for program improvement remains. Mindfulness practice, due to its feasibility of implementation, capacity to promote neuro-networks associated with delayed substance use initiation and progression to...
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This policy brief, created by The Pennsylvania State University, is one of a series of briefs that addresses the future needs and challenges for research, practice, and policy on social and emotional learning (SEL). SEL is defined as the process through which children and adults acquire and effectively apply the knowledge, attitudes, and skills nec...
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The current study examined a comprehensive set of individual and organizational factors as potential predictors of how the Promoting Alternative THinking (PATHS) Curriculum was implemented by teachers in an urban Midwestern school district. The study used data from a randomized trial of an implementation support model conducted in 28 urban elementa...
Article
Home visitation programs are recognized as a preferred model for delivering services to children, parents, and families identified as at-risk. This study compares newly hired home visitors' (N = 82) perceptions of their job readiness, initial training, supervision and support, commitment to the intervention model, and job satisfaction from ten site...
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As the demand for mindfulness-based interventions grows, so does the need to monitor implementation to ensure effective delivery. Research has shown that the fidelity and quality of program implementation can impact intervention outcomes. This study reports on the development and use of implementation monitoring measures for the Cultivating Awarene...
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The Good Behavior Game (GBG, Barrish, Saunders, & Wolf, 1969) and the PATHS Curriculum (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies; Greenberg, Kusche, Cook, & Quamma, 1995) represent 2 universal, elementary school, preventive interventions which have been shown in large-scale, randomized controlled trials to have an immediate and beneficial impact (...
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As interest increases in mindfulness in education programs for youth, there is a need to develop reliable measures of the quality of program implementation. This paper describes the development and psychometric properties of a measure that can be used to assess and monitor quality of implementation of mindfulness programs/curricula in typical class...
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Better integrating human developmental factors in genomic research is part of a set of next steps for testing gene-by-environment interaction hypotheses. This study adds to this work by extending prior research using time-varying effect modeling (TVEM) to evaluate the longitudinal associations between the PROSPER preventive intervention delivery sy...
Chapter
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Laudable progress has occurred over the past 30 years in the field of substance use prevention, with several empirically supported, or “evidence-based,” preventive interventions. However, many other programs fail to affect meaningful change on measures directly related to substance use and even within efficacious programs subgroups of participants...
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In this paper, we aim to integrate the current conceptual approaches to stress and coping processes during the college transition with the potential role of mindfulness and compassion skills on students' well‐being and development. First, we provide an overview of the issues and challenges emerging adults are facing during the transition to college...
Article
Objective: There is growing interest in mindful parenting and how this form of intentional, compassionate interactions with youth are associated with developmental outcomes. We investigated how mindful parenting changes over time, either naturally or in response to interventions, and how that change is associated with other proximal developmental...
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This qualitative collective case study investigates elementary teachers’ experience with stress and the mechanisms of change related to developing resilience following a mindfulness-based intervention, Cultivating Awareness and Resilience in Education (CARE). Results suggest that the amount of stress teachers experience is less important than how t...
Article
A strong body of research indicates that evidence-based programs designed to promote social and emotional learning (SEL) can lead to positive developmental outcomes for children and youth. Although these evidence-based programs have demonstrated benefits for students, it is also well-established that programs must be implemented with quality and su...
Article
This qualitative collective case study investigates elementary teachers’ experience with stress and the mechanisms of change related to developing resilience following a mindfulness-based intervention, Cultivating Awareness and Resilience in Education (CARE). Results suggest that the amount of stress teachers experience is less important than how t...
Article
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Over a decade ago, the Society for Prevention Research endorsed the first standards of evidence for research in preventive interventions. The growing recognition of the need to use limited resources to make sound investments in prevention led the Board of Directors to charge a new task force to set standards for research in analysis of the economic...
Chapter
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Between 2014 and 2017, an interdisciplinary group of researchers examined whether a high school health class that incorporated mindfulness techniques lowered students’ stress and improved their wellbeing. We received a grant from the Institute of Educational Sciences from the United States Department of Education to (1) train high school health tea...
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In this study, we investigate the experiences of first-year college students with Just BREATHE (JB), an eight-session voluntary mindfulness-based wellness program. We collected qualitative interview data from 26 participants selected as a convenience sample from the larger quantitative study at three points in time: pre-implementation, post-impleme...
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The aim of study was to examine the effectiveness of PATHS program on children’s and teachers’ behaviors by evaluating perceptions of children and teachers in regard to their relationships with each other. The sample included 129 children (5-6 aged) and 28 teachers in the intervention group and 114 children (5-6 aged) and 30 teachers in the compari...
Article
Sources of bias in Gorman critique of bias: again a need for more reasonable, valid conclusions with true dialogue - R. Spoth, C. Redmond, C. Shin, M. Greenberg, M. Feinberg, L. Trudeau
Article
Studies show teaching is a highly stressful profession and that chronic work stress is associated with adverse health outcomes. This study analysed physiological markers of stress and self-reported emotion regulation strategies in a group of middle school teachers over 1 year. Chronic physiological stress was assessed with diurnal cortisol measures...
Article
This study extends previous work conducted with a sample of primarily low-income children attending an enhanced, publicly funded preschool program and assesses the effect of preschool dosage (i.e., receiving one or two years of preschool) on children’s academic and executive function (EF) outcomes at first and second grade. Because random assignmen...
Article
Data from the in-school sample of the PROSPER preventive intervention dissemination trial were used to investigate associations between alcohol dehydrogenase genes and alcohol use across adolescence, and whether substance misuse interventions in the 6th and 7th grades (targeting parenting, family functioning, social norms, youth decision making, an...
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This study examined the quality of start–up planning of two Early Head Start (EHS) agencies and its association with staff satisfaction, burnout, and turnover a year after program implementation. Respondents (N = 65) completed interviews and surveys at two time points. Data were analyzed in the context of the Head Start's EHS Organizational Readine...
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Background Mindfulness-based approaches for adults are effective at enhancing mental health, but few controlled trials have evaluated their effectiveness or cost-effectiveness for young people. The primary aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a mindfulness training (MT) programme to enhance mental health, wel...
Article
Background Substance misuse and associated health-risking behaviors are prevalent in emerging adulthood. There is a knowledge gap concerning the post-high school effects of community-based delivery systems for universal preventive interventions implemented during young adolescence. This study reports effects of the PROSPER delivery system through a...
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This quasi-experimental study examined the effects of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) Preschool Program on the outcomes of children's social-emotional competence, perceived relationships between teacher and children and teachers' ability to create a positive classroom atmosphere. Two hundred and eighty five children (48–72 mon...
Article
Person-oriented methods recently have been used to examine school readiness patterns of strengths and weaknesses across multiple domains, but more research in high-risk samples is needed. The current study used latent profile analysis to examine whether teacher ratings could be used to identify distinct and valid readiness profiles among 301 high-r...
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To examine patterns of conduct problems across the home and school context, we used latent class analysis to analyze primary caregivers’ and teachers’ ratings on the conduct problems subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 581–586, 1997) in the Family Life Project (N = 1,292)...