Mark Goulding

Mark Goulding

Doctor of Philosophy

About

35
Publications
2,700
Reads
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360
Citations
Introduction
From synthetic organic chemistry and R&D leading in display and electronic materials, through technology scouting and optimisation of early stage innovation processes to R&D digitalisation initiative within Merck and now as an independent Consultant. The vision of the paper-free, connected, fully digitalised lab has many aspects to consider; applications, instruments, connectivity, data, security but most importantly people and their user experience https://mycelialconsulting.com.
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (35)
Article
Full-text available
Self-assembling poly(lauryl methacrylate)-b-poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PLMAx-PBzMAy) diblock copolymers were synthesised for the first time using solution atom transfer radical polymerisation (ATRP). The PLMA degree of polymerisation (x) was fixed at 14 and the PBzMA degree of polymerisation (y) was varied from 34 to 74. Post-polymerisation transfe...
Article
Aerosol OT (AOT) is a commonly used surfactant and charging agent in nonpolar liquids. Properties such as the conductivity of AOT suspensions in nonpolar liquids and the behavior of charged AOT inverse micelles at interfaces have been studied recently, but still little is known about the generation dynamics of charged AOT inverse micelles. In this...
Patent
This invention relates to colored polymer particles preferably with surface functionality for charge retention, a process for their preparation, the use of these particles for the preparation of an electrophoretic device, color electrophoretic displays comprising such particle, and new water-soluble dyes.
Patent
This invention relates to polymer particles comprising monomer units of at least one reactive mesogen, a process for their preparation, the use of these particles for the preparation of optical, electrooptical, electronic, electrochemical, electrophotographic, electrowetting and electrophoretic displays and/or devices and security, cosmetic, decora...
Article
Full-text available
Merck and George Gray had an association lasting for 30 years in the field of liquid crystals (LCs). From first contact in 1972, through to the conclusion of his work as a consultant for Merck around 2002, George made a significant contribution and impact on Merck’s development and commercialisation of LCs.
Article
We report on the advanced implementation of the biprimary color system in applications where subtractive color is performed inside a single pixel to alter the magnitude and color of reflection (electronic paper displays) or the optical transmission and color temperature (smart windows). A novel device structure can switch between four states: clear...
Conference Paper
Electrophoretic-based (EP) technology is a leading option for black & white reflective display media, notably for e-Readers. There is great future potential to extend electrophoretic and other colloidal dispersion based displays into a range of new application fields, such as digital signage, wearable displays and “smart windows”. These new applica...
Patent
This invention relates to white reflective polymer particles prepared by a reverse emulsion solvent removal process, electrophoretic fluids comprising such particles, and electrophoretic display devices comprising such fluids.
Patent
This invention relates to coloured polymer particles prepared by a reverse emulsion solvent removal process, electrophoretic fluids comprising such particles, and electrophoretic display devices comprising such fluids.
Article
Transient current measurements are used to characterize a wide variety of charge carriers in nonpolar liquids. The transient current method allows to obtain both the concentration and mobility of charge carriers and therefore also the hydrodynamic radius using Stokes' law. In this paper, five different surfactants in dodecane are investigated: OLOA...
Patent
This invention relates to colored polymer particles preferably with surface functionality for charge retention, a process for their preparation, the use of these particles for the preparation of an electrophoretic device, and to color electrophoretic displays comprising such particles.
Conference Paper
We demonstrate the “biprimary” color system with dual particle electrophoretic dispersions and a 3-electrode system. Preliminary contrast ratios reach 10:1. Furthermore an electrokinetic cell is demonstrated confirming basic functionality for EKD panels. A theoretical pixel simulation confirms biprimary doubles the color performance compared to RGB...
Article
A new biprimary color system is demonstrated for single-layer reflective displays, capturing much of the improved color performance of multilayer displays while potentially maintaining single-layer display advantages in high resolution and faster switching. Electrophoretic pixels were operated with dual-particle complementary-colored dispersions su...
Article
Particles used in electrophoretic display applications must possess a number of specific properties ranging from stability in a non-aqueous solvent, high reflectivity, low polydispersity, high charge density to name but a few. The manufacture of such particles is best carried out in the solvent of choice for the EPD. This opens up new interests in...
Patent
This invention relates to colored polymer particles preferably with surface functionality for charge retention, a process for their preparation, the use of these particles for the preparation of an electrophoretic device, color electrophoretic displays comprising such particle, and new water-soluble dyes.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Colour reflective display media with "printed paper" luminance characteristics and moderate response times remain a challenging target for display designers. An alternative to using a colour filter array over black & white electrophoretic display (EPD) is the use of EPD fluids with intrinsic colour, based on colour particles and related concepts. T...
Article
Surfactants such as Aerosol OT (AOT) are commonly used to stabilize and electrically charge nonpolar colloids in devices such as electronic ink displays. The electrical behavior of such devices is strongly influenced by the presence of charged inverse micelles, formed by excess surfactant that does not cover the particles. The presence of charged i...
Article
Full-text available
Realising bright and vivid full colour performance in electrophoretic displays presents a significant challenge to display architects and material designers. A range of dyed polymeric microparticles with tunable size, charge and colour have been developed. When formulated as colloidal dispersions in low dielectric constant media, the particles are...
Article
Realizing bright arid vivid full colour performance in electrophoretic displays presents a significant challenge to display architects and material designers. A range of dyed polymeric microparticles with tunable size, charge and colour have been developed. When formulated as colloidal dispersions in low dielectric constant media, the particles are...
Article
Full-text available
We report the synthesis and liquid crystalline behaviour of two series of para-substituted terphenyls as dopants with a rigid rod-like shape, rather than a wedge-, pear- or banana-shape, for guest–host nematic mixtures with flexoelectric properties. One series of liquid crystalline dopants is of low-to-strongly negative dielectric anisotropy and th...
Article
Full-text available
The synthesis is reported of new meta‐substituted quaterphenyls and several related dimers as dopants for nematic mixtures with flexoelectric properties. The number and nature of the terminal substituents is varied from apolar with a small dipole moment to polar with a strong dipole moment. The number of methylene units in the flexible aliphatic sp...
Article
The design, optimization, and formulation of a 231 member tertiary library of liquid crystals by using ink-jet printing (IJP)technology, followed by screening for phase transition was reported. IJP has been used to formulate libraries by mixing on substrates and overprinting. Inkjet printing was performed using an Autodrop system consisting of a MD...
Article
Full-text available
A technique has been developed for the high-throughput (HT) parallel screening of liquid crystal (LC) phase transitions, using optical anisotropic effects observed only in the LC state to allow the determination of melting and clearing points. A camera was used to monitor optical changes observed in arrays of LC samples upon heating, when illuminat...
Article
Full-text available
In the search for novel nematic liquid crystal materials for display applications, it is common to investigate several different alkyl chain homologues of a particular core structure. It is sometimes possible to develop a synthetic pathway that allows homologous variation in the ultimate step, but the majority of published methods for liquid crysta...
Article
Full-text available
Supertwisted nematic (STN) liquid crystal displays remain a leading technology for mobile communications applications, personal digital assistants (PDA) and personal convergence devices. Higher demands on display information content place ever increasing demands on the physical parameters of the liquid crystal mixture. To satisfy current and future...
Article
Full-text available
Key parameters for any bistable device are operating voltage and temperature range. The development of liquid crystal mixtures for use with grating aligned Zenithal Bistable Displays (ZBD™) is described for the first time. Latching at voltages less than 5V, with 20V addressing faster than 80μs per line and operation over a temperature range from −2...
Article
Full-text available
An important parameter of any LCD containing portable electronic device is a low power requirement. The reflective STN display mode offers a moderate to high information content display with low power consumption. One method to realise colour in this mode is to use a large retardation (d?n) value in the cell. For a cell gap of 6 ?m, and a retardati...
Article
Full-text available
Four series of direactive liquid crystals are presented and their physical properties characterised. The core groups are based on either a lateral chloro or methyl terphenyl and the reactive groups are either acrylates or vinyl ethers. It is shown that reactive liquid crystals with vinyl ether reactive groups have higher transition temperatures, bi...
Article
Full-text available
The synthesis and mesogenic properties of some lateral fluoro substituted 4-(trans-4-(n-propyl)cyclohexylethyl)-4′-thiomethylbiphenyls and 4-n-alkyl-4″-thiomethylterphenyls are described. Birefringence (Δn) and dielectric anisotropy (Δϵ) measurements for these compounds are also given and compared with analogous terminal chloro, cyano and methoxy c...
Article
Full-text available
The physical properties are reported for a series of positive dielectric anisotropy (δε) alkylbiphenyls possessing a halogen-containing terminal group and incorporating varying degrees of lateral fluorination. The nematic range and dielectric and optical anisotropies can be varied by the appropriate choice of terminal group and extent of lateral su...
Article
Full-text available
Liquid crystal mixtures for use over an active matrix substrate must have a high resistivity and, to maintain high value during the lifetime of the display, the materials must be very stable. Many such liquid crystal mixtures are known and used in twisted nematic displays but they are of low birefringence; very few high birefringence liquid crystal...
Article
Full-text available
By modification of the basic 4-alkyl-4″-chloro-1,1′:4′,1″-terphenyl structure with lateral fluoro substituents and ethyl linking groups, a wide range of mesogens has been synthesized. Control over the phase behaviour, especially optimization of nematic properties, can be achieved by the degree and position of lateral fluoro substitution and/or the...
Article
Full-text available
The liquid crystalline behaviour and nematic viscosities of a series of laterally fluorinated alkyl-oxoalkyl terphenyls are reported. The mesomorphic behaviour and nematic viscosity can be influenced by the position of the oxygen atom in the oxoalkyl chain as well as the position of lateral fluorination. Compounds have been synthesized that are sui...

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