Mark A. Fenelon

Mark A. Fenelon
TEAGASC - The Agriculture and Food Development Authority · Department of Food Chemistry and Technology

About

115
Publications
36,261
Reads
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4,164
Citations
Citations since 2017
54 Research Items
3032 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (115)
Article
Full-text available
Increasing consumer awareness, scale of manufacture, and demand to ensure safety, quality and sustainability have accelerated the need for rapid, reliable, and accurate analytical techniques for food products. Spectroscopy, coupled with Artificial Intelligence-enabled sensors and chemometric techniques, has led to the fusion of data sources for dai...
Article
The effect of β-casein reduction (LB) and high heat treatment (HHT, 120 °C ×15 s) of whey protein-reduced milk on the ripening properties of Emmental cheese was investigated. Cheeses were manufactured from low-heat skim milk powder (LH), micellar casein concentrate powder (MCC) and β-casein reduced MCC powder (LB- or HHT LB) respectively, then ripe...
Article
Protein transmission, permeate flux and energy consumption during MF of skim milk was evaluated at 7 °C using two discrete 800 kDa polymeric MF membranes. Filtration trials determined optimum process parameters (i.e., transmembrane pressure and volume concentration factor) and membrane configuration (in-series or in-parallel) to maximise serum prot...
Article
This study investigated the rheological, microstructural and syneretic properties of rennet gels as influenced by the addition of soy soluble polysaccharides (2.5 g/kg, 5 g/kg) or konjac glucomannan (0.2 g/kg, 0.4 g/kg) to skim milk. The addition of all polysaccharides enhanced rennet coagulation properties, by reducing rennet coagulation time (RCT...
Article
The aim of this study was to produce a colloidally stable whey protein concentrate enriched in β-casein. Microfiltration (MF) of skim milk was completed at ∼7 °C (pore size 0.1 μm) followed by ultrafiltration of the MF permeate at ∼9 °C to concentrate the β-casein-whey protein fraction (BWPC). The casein:whey protein ratio of the BWPC system was ∼2...
Chapter
Whey is a co-product of cheese and casein manufacturing processes. Historically, whey was a waste product with associated challenges on disposal due to its high organic matter content and biological oxygen demand. However, with the emergence of fractionation technology, whey has gained recognition as a source of nutritional and bioactive compounds,...
Article
Membrane filtration is a common processing technology that has evolved within the dairy sector and is nowadays responsible for the concentration, separation, enrichment and isolation of dairy components at commercial scale. Membrane filtration is a key valorization technology applied to dairy streams (e.g., milk, whey) to produce protein (and other...
Article
Removal of 40–95% of native serum proteins from skimmed milk may be achieved by microfiltration (MF) to generate micellar casein concentrate (MCC). The MCC may be used to prepare cheese milk of the target composition and resultant cheeses of the desired quality and functionality. Herein, factors affecting the composition of MCC, different methods t...
Article
Micellar casein concentrate (MCC) of high casein content, (93.64 % of total protein), was produced by microfiltration of pasteurised skim milk. Cheesemilk of typical (1×) or high (1.5×) casein content were formulated from MCC which received either: no further heat treatment; pasteurisation (72 °C×15 s) or high heat treatment (90 °C×15 s), prior to...
Article
To study the effect of removing β-casein of cheesemilk on cheese manufacture, cheesemilk was formulated from low heat skim milk powder (LH CM), micellar casein concentrate with 1.83% β-casein reduction (MCC CM) and β-casein-reduced micellar casein concentrate with 4.25% β-casein reduction (LB CM) or high heat treatment (HHT; 120 °C, 15 s) LB CM to...
Book
4.1 Infant formula (IF) and follow-on (FO) powders are formulated products used for early-life nutrition. Typical processing steps used in the manufacture of IF/FO powdered formulae include batch make-up, heating, homogenization, evaporation and drying. Both IF and FO powdered formulae must be manufactured to the highest safety standards, with incr...
Article
Full-text available
Shotgun metagenomic sequencing is a valuable tool for the taxonomic and functional profiling of microbial communities. However, this approach is challenging in samples, such as milk, where a low microbial abundance, combined with high levels of host DNA, result in inefficient and uneconomical sequencing. Here we evaluate approaches to deplete host...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of diet on the water-soluble vitamin composition of skim milk powder and whey protein ingredients produced from the milk of cows fed pasture or concentrate-based diets was examined. Fifty-one Holstein-Friesian cows were randomly assigned into three diets (n=17) consisting of outdoor grazing of perennial ryegrass (GRS), perennial ryegr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Shotgun metagenomic sequencing is a valuable tool for the taxonomic and functional profiling of microbial communities. However, this approach is challenging in samples, such as milk, where a low microbial abundance, combined with high levels of host DNA, result in inefficient and uneconomical sequencing. Results: Here we evaluate approa...
Article
The functional properties of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders are often hindered by their poor solubility. Calcium chelating salts have been shown to improve powder solubility, but generally their action contributes to higher viscosity due to disintegration of casein micelles and higher levels of serum-phase calcium. To help mitigate increase...
Article
Full-text available
Microorganisms can enter and persist in dairy at several stages of the processing chain. Detection of microorganisms within dairy food processing is currently a time-consuming and often inaccurate process. This study provides evidence that high-throughput sequencing can be used as an effective tool to accurately identify microorganisms along the pr...
Article
Calcium chelating agents, such as sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), can be added to milk protein (MPC) solutions to aid in rehydration; however, this leads to a concomitant increase in solution viscosity due to micelle swelling/dissociation. Crosslinking casein proteins in MPC using transglutaminase (TGase) can help retain casein micelle structure a...
Article
Full-text available
The physical properties of 15 commercially available infant formulas (IF) and follow-on (FO) formulas were analysed. Powders made with intact milk proteins were classified into two groups; Type I—homogenous mixtures of milk powder particles (n = 6); and Type II—heterogeneous mixtures of milk powder particles and tomahawk-shaped α-lactose monohydrat...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of bovine diet on the metabolome of reconstituted skim milk powder (SMP) and protein ingredients produced from the milk of cows fed on pasture or concentrate-based diets was investigated. Cows were randomly assigned to diets consisting of perennial ryegrass only (GRS), perennial ryegrass/white clover sward (CLV), or indoor total mixed...
Article
Milk protein concentrate (MPC) and sodium caseinate (NaCas) were hydrolysed using the enzyme trypsin and the subsequent physical properties of the two ingredients were examined. Trypsin hydrolysis was carried out at pH 7 and at 45 °C on 11.1% (w/w) protein solutions. Heat inactivation of trypsin was carried out when the degree of hydrolysis reached...
Poster
Full-text available
The poster presented at the FSAI conference 2019. This details research into the removal of chlorate from milk using nanofiltration membrane processing
Article
Full-text available
Milk is a highly nutritious food that contains an array of macro and micro components, scientifically proven to be beneficial to human health. While the composition of milk is influenced by a variety of factors, such as genetics, health, lactation stage etc., the animal’s diet remains a key mechanism by which its nutrition and processing characteri...
Article
Full-text available
Low-heat skim milk powder (LHSMP) was manufactured on 3 separate occasions in mid lactation (ML, July 4-20) and late lactation (LL, September 27 to October 7) from bulk milk of 3 spring-calving dairy herds on different feeding systems: grazing on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pasture (GRO), grazing on perennial ryegrass and white clover (T...
Article
This study examined the effect of dietary factors on compositional and functional properties of whole milk powder (WMP) produced from bovine milk. Raw milk samples were obtained from 3 groups of 18 Holstein Friesian spring-calving cows randomly assigned to diets based on perennial ryegrass (GRS), perennial ryegrass/white clover sward (CLV), and tot...
Article
The study investigated the effects of reducing daily herbage allowance (DHA) from 15.0 to 11.8 kg dry matter per cow (>3.5 cm post grazing sward height) to a spring-calved herd during early lactation on the composition, rennet coagulability and heat stability characteristics of milk during early lactation (EL, 29–70 days in milk, DIM), mid lactatio...
Article
The untargeted metabolic profiles of ripened Maasdam cheese samples prepared from milk derived from three herd groups, fed: (1) indoors on total mixed ration (TMR), or outdoors on (2) grass only pasture (GRA) or (3) grass and white clover pasture (CLO) were studied using high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H NMR), high resolution magic ang...
Article
Maasdam cheese was manufactured from standardized milk derived from each of three feeding systems: grass (GRA), grass and clover pasture (CLO), and indoor feeding of total mixed ration (TMR). Pasture‐derived cheeses had significantly lower L* (whiteness) and higher b* values (yellowness) compared to TMR‐derived cheeses. Acetate levels were signific...
Article
Full-text available
Delactosed permeate (DLP) is the co‐product generated during the separation of pre‐crystallised lactose from milk and whey permeates. DLP production has grown with the increased production of high protein content ingredients such as whey protein concentrates and isolates. Although DLP is nutritionally rich, with approximately 0.5–1.5, 68–70, 9–10 a...
Article
This work aimed to model the effect of heat treatment on viscosity of milk protein concentrate (MPC) using kinetic data. MPC obtained after ultrafiltration was subjected to different time-temperature heat treatment combinations. Heat treatment at high temperature and short time (i.e., 100 or 120 °C×30 s) led to a significant increase in viscosity i...
Article
Full-text available
The presence of chlorate in milk and dairy products can arise from the use of chlorinated water and chlorinated detergents for cleaning and sanitation of process equipment at both farm and food processor level. Chlorate and other oxychlorine species have been associated with inhibition of iodine uptake in humans and the formation of methemoglobin,...
Article
The influence of dairy cow feeding regime was investigated using ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Two different NMR analytical systems were deployed: high field ¹H NMR to investigate the influence on milk metabolomics and low field NMR to characterise proton relaxation linked to changes in the state of mozzarella cheese moisture during ripening...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The physical properties of 12 commercially available infant milk formula (IMF) and follow-on (FO) powders were assessed. Polarised light micrographs of powders revealed that two types of powders existed: Type I - homogenous mixtures of milk powder particles and Type II – heterogeneous mixtures of milk powder particles and tomahawk-shaped a-lactose...
Article
Denaturation and consequent aggregation in whey protein solutions is critical to product functionality during processing. Solutions of whey protein isolate (WPI) prepared at 1, 4, 8, and 12% (wt/wt) and pH 6.2, 6.7, or 7.2 were subjected to heat treatment (85°C × 30 s) using a pilot-scale heat exchanger. The effects of heat treatment on whey protei...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effects of 3 dairy cow feeding systems on the composition, yield, and biochemical and physical properties of low-moisture part-skim Mozzarella cheese in mid (ML; May-June) and late (LL; October-November) lactation. Sixty spring-calving cows were assigned to 3 herds, each consisting of 20 cows, and balanced on parity, cal...
Article
Full-text available
The ability of sporeformers to remain dormant in a desiccated state is of concern from a safety and spoilage perspective in dairy powder. Traditional culturing techniques are slow and provide little information without further investigation. We describe the identification of mesophilic sporeformers present in powders produced over 1 year, using nov...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Sixty spring-calved cows were allocated to one of three dietary treatments: grazing on perennial ryegrass pasture (GRO), grazing on perennial ryegrass plus white clover pasture (GRC), or housed indoors and offered total mixed ration (TMR). Milk from each treatment was collected on 6 occasions during mid-lactation (17 June - 22 September). The milks...
Article
The effect of pH, adjusted using either hydrochloric acid (HCl), citric acid or sodium hydroxide, on calcium ion (Ca²⁺) activity, and consequent changes in viscosity and heat coagulation time (HCT) of milk protein concentrate (MPC) was investigated. Reducing the pH of MPC dispersions resulted in a reduction in their viscosity, which subsequently in...
Article
Bovine milk is commonly exposed to processing, which can alter the structure, biochemical composition, physico-chemical properties and sensory quality. While many of these changes have been studied extensively, little is known about their effect on digestive behaviour. In this study, heat treatments of pasteurisation at 72 °C for 15 s or Ultra-High...
Article
The effects of heat treatment and protein standardisation on the physical properties of skim milk concentrates were determined. Protein standardisation was carried out by the addition of lactose or milk permeate to skim milk. Unstandardised and standardised skim milk was subjected to pasteurisation temperatures of 90 or 120 °C prior to evaporation...
Article
The thermal treatment of milk is one of the key processes routinely performed in the dairy industry. Several modifications occur in milk during heating, particularly with respect to its mineral equilibrium. As the temperature increases, the solubility of calcium and phosphate decreases leading to precipitation in the casein micelle as casein phosph...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of feeding system and lactation period on the gross composition, macroelements (Ca, P, Mg, and Na), and trace elements (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mo, Mn, Se, and Co) of bovine milk was investigated. The feeding systems included outdoor grazing on perennial ryegrass pasture (GRO), outdoor grazing on perennial ryegrass and white clover pasture (GRC),...
Article
Full-text available
A growing global population, combined with factors such as changing socio-demographics, will place increased pressure on the world's resources to provide not only more but also different types of food. Increased demand for animal-based protein in particular is expected to have a negative environmental impact, generating greenhouse gas emissions, re...
Article
Milk processing attributes represent a group of milk quality traits that are important to the dairy industry to inform product portfolio. However, because of the resources required to routinely measure such quality traits, precise genetic parameter estimates from a large population of animals are lacking for these traits. Milk processing characteri...
Article
The objective of the present study was to identify the factors associated with both the protein composition and free amino acid (FAA) composition of bovine milk predicted using mid-infrared spectroscopy. Milk samples were available from 7 research herds and 69 commercial herds. The spectral data from the research herds comprised 94,286 separate mor...
Article
The protein composition of bovine skim milk was modified using pilot scale membrane filtration to produce a whey protein-dominant ingredient with a casein profile closer to human milk. Bovine skim milk was processed at low (8.9 °C) or high (50 °C) temperature using ceramic microfiltration (MF) membranes (0.1 μm mean pore diameter). The resulting pe...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of calcium chelating agents on the dissolution and functionality of 10% (w/w) milk protein concentrate (MPC) powder. MPC powder dissolution rate and solubility significantly (P > 0.05) increased with addition of sodium phosphate, trisodium citrate (TSC) and sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), compared...
Article
Protein type and/or heat treatment pre- or post-homogenisation can affect the physical stability of infant formulations during manufacture. Previous research has described the use of α-lactalbumin addition in infant formulae, but has not demonstrated the effect of heating pre- or post-emulsion formulation during processing. The objective of this st...
Article
Despite milk processing characteristics being important quality traits, little is known about the factors underlying their variability, due primarily to the resources required to measure these characteristics in a sufficiently large population. Cow milk coagulation properties (rennet coagulation time, curd-firming time, curd firmness 30 and 60 min...
Article
Milk is extremely perishable, and yet it has to be preserved for later consumption. Membrane filtration, vacuum concentration lactose crystallization, homogenization and spray drying dehydration are valuable techniques to stabilize most dairy ingredients. Considering the ever increasing reach of international dairy trade, there is a need for the da...
Chapter
Infant follow-on foods may be defined as weaning and/or complementary foods and may start to be introduced 4–6 months postpartum. Complementary feeding is necessary to provide infants older than 4–6 months with sufficient micro- and macronutrients needed for healthy growth and development. The introduction of complementary food is carried out in co...
Article
Milk is extremely perishable, and yet it has to be preserved for later consumption. In this view, membrane filtration, vacuum concentration lactose crystallization, homogenization and spray drying dehydration are valuable techniques to stabilize most dairy ingredients. Considering the increasing development of dairy trade, there is a need for the d...
Article
Pea protein isolate (PPI) is used in many food formulations, due to its low cost, commercial availability and excellent amino acid profile. The objective of this study was to determine the emulsification properties of PPI. Particle size of PPI powders showed neither temperature (25-65. °C) nor time (up to 24. h) increased solubilisation of powder p...
Article
The color of milk affects the subsequent color features of the resulting dairy products; milk color is also related to milk fat concentration. The objective of the present study was to quantify the ability of mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) to predict color-related traits in milk samples and to estimate the correlations between these color-related...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mid-infrared spectroscopy in predicting milk protein and free amino acid (FAA) composition in bovine milk. Milk samples were collected from 7 Irish research herds and represented cows from a range of breeds, parities, and stages of lactation. Mid-infrared spectral data in the range of 900 t...
Article
Full-text available
Milk produced in udder cells is sterile but due to its high nutrient content, it can be a good growth substrate for contaminating bacteria. The quality of milk is monitored via somatic cell counts and total bacterial counts, with prescribed regulatory limits to ensure quality and safety. Bacterial contaminants can cause disease, or spoilage of milk...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid, cost-effective monitoring of milk technological traits is a significant challenge for dairy industries specialized in cheese manufacturing. The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of mid-infrared spectroscopy to predict rennet coagulation time, curd-firming time, curd firmness at 30 and 60 min after rennet addition,...
Article
This study examined the effects of total solids (TS), preheat treatment temperature, and first- and second-stage homogenisation pressures on the stability of model infant formula emulsions, using factorial statistical design. Oil droplet size decreased with increasing first- and second-stage homogenisation pressures. The viscosity of emulsions afte...
Article
The effect of agglomeration on the density, morphology and subsequent reconstitution behaviours of milk powders was investigated. In this study, milk protein isolate, as a model system, was agglomerated in a fluid bed granulator with three different binders: water, lactose and sucrose solution (15% w/v). Morphology was quantified by circularity, co...
Article
Full-text available
Dietary crude protein (CP) and phosphorus (P) have the potential to alter dairy cow production, nutrient status, and milk heat stability, specifically in early lactation. This study examined the effect of supplementary concentrates with different CP and P concentrations on blood N and P status and on milk yield, composition, and heat stability. The...
Article
Understanding macronutrient interactions during heating is important for controlling viscosity during infant milk formula (IMF) manufacture. Thermal behavior of macronutrients (casein, whey, lactose, fat) was studied, in isolation and combination, over a range of concentrations. Addition of phospho-casein to whey protein solutions elevated denatura...
Article
A whey protein ingredient, in which β-lactoglobulin was selectivity hydrolysed, was evaluated during manufacturing of infant formulae. Three model infant milk formula (IMF) powders were produced containing: non-hydrolysed (NH) proteins (60:40; whey proteins:caseins); partially hydrolysed (PH) caseins and whey proteins; and selectively hydrolysed (S...
Article
The performance of exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was evaluated as adjunct culture during low-fat yoghurt manufacture. In situ produced EPS during yoghurt manufacture and storage increased to ∼561.09 mg L−1 after 28 days of storage. Performance and viability of the yoghurt cultures (∼109 cfu mL−1) were not influenc...
Conference Paper
Abstract Text: The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) to predict milk quality traits including free amino acids (FAA), milk protein fractions, and milk color. Milk samples were collected from a range of dairy breeds and individual milk proteins, FAA and color were quantified. Equations were develop...
Article
The objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties of spray dried nanoemulsions having different final water and sugar contents. Formulations consisting of lactose or a 70:30 mixture of lactose: sucrose (23.9%), sodium caseinate (5.1%) and sunflower oil (11.5%) in water were heat treated (100 °C, 30 s), homogenized (17 MP...
Article
Lactoferrin and β-casein represent a large proportion of the proteins in human milk and, as a result, are important ingredients for the manufacture of infant formula. At pH 7, lactoferrin has a net positive charge, compared to the negatively charged β-casein. The effects of CaCl2 and heat treatment on the stability of oil-in-water emulsions stabili...
Article
This paper examines the difference in costs associated with milk plants of differing dryer scale in Ireland. This is an important question for international competitiveness in the context of the removal of the EU milk quota in 2015 and the expectation that Irish milk production could increase considerably thereafter. Using confidential data obtaine...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction of more energy efficient processing practices, such as increasing the initial solids content from which powder is manufactured, is of interest to the infant formula industry. This study evaluated the use of an inline rotor-stator mixer followed by direct steam injection to disperse and heat-treat (110 °C, 3 s) high-solids (60% w/w) for...
Article
Gelatinisation of 5 wt% waxy maize starch (WMS) under shear (16.8 s−1), alone and in mixtures with 5 wt% α-lactalbumin (α-lac), β-lactoglobulin (β-lg), α-caseinate or β-caseinate, showed reinforcement of the starch granule structure by both caseinates, but not by the whey proteins (α-lac and β-lg). Reinforcement was evident from (i) later onset of...