Mark Chignell

Mark Chignell
University of Toronto | U of T · Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

Ph.D
See www.centivizer.com for Exergaming, and ltc.braintagger.com for cognitive assessment games for use in care homes.

About

411
Publications
71,159
Reads
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Introduction
Mark Chignell is a Professor in the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto. Mark does research in Human Factors and Human-computer Interaction. One project he has been working on is 'Predicting Likelihood to Recommend and Churn Based on Cumulative Experience of Online Services'. He is also working on technologies for aging including physical and cognitive exercises for people with dementia. His latest project involves design of user interfaces for communicating efficiently and effectively with artificially intelligent agents.
Additional affiliations
July 1990 - present
University of Toronto
Position
  • Professor (Full)
September 1984 - June 1990
University of Southern California
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
May 1982 - April 1983
The Ohio State University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • I worked on research in visual psychophysics (the same different matching task) under the supervision of Lester Krueger.
Education
January 1978 - February 1981
University of Canterbury
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (411)
Article
We review HCI history from both the perspective of its 1980s split with human factors and its nature as a discipline. We then revisit human augmentation as an alternative to user friendliness that seems particularly relevant in the areas of inclusive design and artificial intelligence. Viewing human-AI interaction as a kind of human augmentation ra...
Article
Curved displays are believed to create a feeling of immersiveness similar to virtual reality. However systematic studies are needed to demonstrate that this is, in fact, true and under what conditions. In an experimental study 24 participants compared five different displays (concave, convex, hemisphere, sphere and a flat display) in terms of their...
Article
Full-text available
Psychological resilience has emerged as a key factor in mental health during the global COVID-19 pandemic. However, no work to date has synthesised findings across review work or assessed the reliability of findings based on review work quality, so as to inform public health policy. We thus conducted a meta-review on all types of review work from t...
Article
Full-text available
The focus of this collection of papers is on ways in which technology can be used within ambient spaces so as to enhance the lives of the people living, working, travelling or in other ways experiencing those places. Sensor-based devices and ambient displays, often combined with AI techniques for machine learning about user behaviours, already prov...
Article
Full-text available
Delirium is an acute neurocognitive disorder, which is difficult to identify and predict. Using GEMINI, Canada's largest hospital data and analytics study, we had a labeled sample of around 4,000 cases with approximately 25% of cases being labeled as having delirium. Based on this labeled data, we developed machine learning (ML) models and interact...
Article
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Recently, there has been a growing demand to address failures in the fairness of artificial intelligence (AI) systems. Current techniques for improving fairness in AI systems are focused on broad changes to the norms, procedures and algorithms used by companies that implement those systems. However, some organizations may require detailed methods t...
Article
Serious games aim to provide cognitive assessments that are more enjoyable and easier to self-administer, potentially leading to more frequent assessments. We carried out two studies examining the relationship between game-playing enjoyment, game difficulty, and cognitive (game) performance. In the first study, 16 participants played three serious...
Article
Background: Retrospective studies estimate Emergency Department (ED) delirium recognition at <20%; few prospective studies have assessed delirium recognition and outcomes for patients with unrecognized delirium. Objectives: To prospectively measure delirium recognition by ED nurses and physicians, document their confidence in diagnosis and dispo...
Article
Full-text available
The picture-word interference (PWI) paradigm has been used to investigate the time course of processes involved in word retrieval, but is challenging to implement online due to dependence on measurements of vocal reaction time. We performed a series of four experiments to examine picture-word interference and facilitation effects in a form of cover...
Chapter
Full-text available
After eliciting 129 potential task-gesture combinations for 23 Smart TV tasks with a Canadian sample (N = 22), we then conducted studies that collected participant preference scores on mid-air bare-hand gestures for TV control in both Canada (N = 747) and China (N = 300), and we analyzed the effect of characteristics of individual participants on g...
Conference Paper
This workshop explores socially expressive technology design us- ing collaborative principles of theater, dance and music. Building on shared roots of making something together, technologies (including virtual agents, physical devices, storytelling multimedia) and artistic provocation can create playful, productive and healthy experiences for commu...
Article
Full-text available
In today’s digital economy, the Internet of Things (IoT) has connected devices, humans, and everyday objects to each other in ways that were unimaginable before. Vast amounts of data are collected everywhere and disrupting how we design systems and products. Data science and emerging technologies offer challenges and opportunities for early-career...
Article
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Human Factors Engineering (HFE) is an applied discipline that uses a wide range of methodologies to better the design of systems and devices for human use. Underpinning all human factors design is the maxim to fit the human to the task/machine/system rather than vice versa. While some HFE methods such as task analysis and anthropometrics remain rel...
Article
In Canada, over 15,000 residents of long-term care have died from COVID-19 since the start of the pandemic representing 59 percent of all COVID-19 deaths (National Institute of Ageing, 2021). Urgent research and subsequent applied action are needed to save life and quality of life including the presence of family (CFHI, 2020). Social and physical f...
Article
Cybersecurity is emerging as a major issue for many organizations and countries. Machine learning has been used to recognize threats, but it is difficult to predict future threats based on past events, since malicious attackers are constantly finding ways to circumvent defences and the algorithms that they rely on. Interactive Machine learning (iML...
Article
Full-text available
Human activity recognition is a key to a lot of applications such as healthcare and smart home. In this study,we provide a comprehensive survey on recent advances and challenges in human activity recognition (HAR) with deep learning. Although there are many surveys on HAR, they focused mainly on the taxonomy of HAR and reviewed the state-of-the-art...
Conference Paper
In Canada, over 15,000 residents of long-term care have died from COVID-19 since the start of the pandemic representing 59 percent of all COVID-19 deaths (National Institute of Ageing, 2021). Urgent research and subsequent applied action are needed to save life and quality of life including the presence of family (CFHI, 2020). Social and physical f...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The global COVID-19 pandemic continues to have wide-ranging implications for health, including psychological well-being. A growing corpus of research reviews has emerged on the topic of psychological resilience in the context of the pandemic. However, this body of work has not been systematically reviewed for its quality, nor with resp...
Article
Older adults living in long-term care facilities typically receive insufficient exercise and have long periods of the day when they are not doing anything other than sitting or lying down, watching television, or ruminating (Wilkinson et al., 2017). We developed an intervention called the Experiential Centivizer, which provides residents with oppor...
Article
Loss of cognitive potential is one of the greatest impediments to human wellbeing and productivity. Our healthcare system does a poor job of managing cognitive development and cognitive decline because it measures cognitive status relatively infrequently and in the limited times when cognitive measures are taken, the instruments used tend to be blu...
Chapter
Full-text available
Serious games have grown significantly in popularity, but proving their scientific validity through research studies is a common hurdle for researchers and game developers. To scale up capacity to collaborate with different groups of researchers, Centivizer Inc. (a University of Toronto spinoff company) has employed a user-centered design process t...
Chapter
This paper reports on the Patient Safety Research and Application Competition that was held in conjunction with the 2021 International Ergonomics Association Conference. The objectives of this competition were to: (1) Formulate research problem statements and innovative solutions to improve patient safety through the application of human factors/er...
Conference Paper
This case study involves: the design and evaluation of serious games; the use of longitudinal research and remote testing in an international setting. Current methods for cognitive assessment tend to be inconvenient, costly and infrequently performed. This is unfortunate because cognitive assessment is an important tool. In the young it can detect...
Chapter
Traditional Human Factors Engineering (HFE) education focuses on bridging the gap between human and system design. Given the rapid, and accelerating technological advancement, particularly in areas such as machine learning and data science, how should HFE education adapt to better equip students for working in industry? This project sought to ident...
Article
italic xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">A novel quality assessment system design for closed captioning (CC) is proposed. CC was originally designed to serve hearing-impaired audiences. Traditional quality assessment models focus on empirical methods only, measuring quantitative accuracy by co...
Preprint
Full-text available
While many machine learning methods have been used for medical prediction and risk factor analysis on healthcare data, most prior research has involved single-task learning (STL) methods. However, healthcare research often involves multiple related tasks. For instance, implementation of disease scores prediction and risk factor analysis in multiple...
Conference Paper
There has been considerable research on design of menu hierarchies in general spanning several decades. However there is much less research on menus relating to specific types of product in online retail settings. Thus there is little guidance in the research literature on specific issues such as how to place luxury items within a beauty product hi...
Article
We are developing whack-a-mole games for cognitive assessment. In prior research, we have shown that variants of the game assess cognitive speed and executive functioning (response inhibition), and can be used to screen for delirium in emergency departments. We have also found that whack-a-mole game performance is significantly correlated with over...
Article
Full-text available
With the rapidly aging population and the rising number of people living with dementia (PLWD), there is an urgent need for programming and activities that can promote the health and wellbeing of PLWD. Due to staffing and budgetary constraints, there is considerable interest in using technology to support this effort. Serious games for dementia have...
Preprint
Full-text available
Our answer-graph method to evaluate SPARQL conjunctive queries (CQs) finds a factorized answer set first, an answer graph, and then finds the embedding tuples from this. This approach can reduce greatly the cost to evaluate CQs. This affords a second advantage: we can construct a cost-based planner. We present the answer-graph approach, and overvie...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the rapidly aging population and the rising number of people living with dementia (PLWD), there is an urgent need for programming and activities that can promote the health and wellbeing of PLWD. Due to staffing and budgetary constraints, there is considerable interest in using technology to support this effort. Serious games for dementia have...
Article
Full-text available
In our aging societies, slowing and managing cognitive decline has become a significant challenge for older people, caregivers, andhealthcare providers. In the past decade, there has been an explosion in productsaimed at providing cognitive interventions for the elderly in response to the growing market need. In thispaper, we present a framework fo...
Chapter
Full-text available
Access to leisure and wellbeing can be difficult to arrive at due to constraints in health, income, location and time. With shifting demographics (inversion of the aging pyramid) and increasing urbanization, there is an increasingly urgent need to improve access to leisure activities, particularly for those living in crowded cities or who have limi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the rapidly aging population and the rising number of people living with dementia (PLWD), there is an increasing demand for programming and activities that can promote the health and well-being of PLWD. Mitigating staffing and budgetary constraints, affordable technology can offer valuable support to this effort. Serious games for dementia hav...
Chapter
Full-text available
A visit to a place of natural beauty is known to have restorative potential. Immersing oneself in nature - relaxing, contemplating, meditating, walking and so on – can help improve one’s mental and physical wellbeing. Suitably designed VR can encourage beneficial meditative states as well as healthy physical activities. We see fully immersive forms...
Chapter
The rapid aging of developed societies is creating an increasing number of cases of dementia and other aging-related diseases. Physical exercise has been shown to be beneficial for retaining cognitive, as well as physical function. In this paper we describe a system that we have developed for motivating older people to exercise. We begin by demonst...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We are developing whack-a-mole games for cognitive assessment. In prior research, we have shown that variants of the game assess cognitive speed and executive functioning (response inhibition), and can be used to screen for delirium in emergency departments. We have also found that whack-a-mole game performance is significantly correlated with over...
Article
Introduction: Mobility is an evidence-based non-pharmacologic strategy shown to reduce delirium and functional decline among older patients in the acute care setting. Activity trackers have been used in previous studies to objectively measure mobility in older hospitalized patients. This study aims to compare the feasibility and validate the accura...
Article
Closed Captioning (CC) is a service primarily designed for deaf and hard of hearing (D/HoH) viewers. The CC translates spoken speech into text for television or film screen display. The quality assessment methods for live captioning are limited to quantitative measures, while the viewers are still dissatisfied with the current quality. One method t...
Article
Objective We examine the relationships between contemporary progress in on‐road vehicle automation and its coherence with an envisioned “autopia” (automobile utopia) whereby the vehicle operation task is removed from all direct human control. Background The progressive automation of on‐road vehicles toward a completely driverless state is determin...
Article
Objective We examine the relationships between contemporary progress in on‐road vehicle automation and its coherence with an envisioned “autopia” (automobile utopia) whereby the vehicle operation task is removed from all direct human control. Background The progressive automation of on‐road vehicles toward a completely driverless state is determin...
Chapter
Many age-specific mental health problems can be related to maladaptive cognitive strategies for engaging with and processing the external environment in relation to self-perception and ego identity. These are essentially attentional balance problems, reflected in maladjustments of the subjective sense of presence in the external world. We present a...
Article
In previous research, we developed a serious target acquisition game (with moles as targets) for assessing cognitive speed. Tong, Chignell, Tierney, and Lee demonstrated that performance on the game may be a useful screening tool for risk of delirium onset. In this study, we validate a version of the game where there are not only targets (moles) th...
Article
Curved displays promote three-dimensionality and may facilitate non-wearable virtual reality. Yet there is little design guidance on the optimal type of curvature that should be used. In this paper we have examined the perceived properties of convex and concave displays, at two different sizes. We conducted an experiment with 21 participants. Each...
Article
Models that predict satisfaction with a service over time need to consider the impact of emotions and remembered quality of experience in predicting overall attitudes towards a service. However, prior research on subjective quality of experience has typically focused on experiments conducted in a single session or over a short period of time. Thus,...
Article
In this paper we explore how memories of experience with streaming video affect Quality of Experience (QoE) indicators that are of interest to service providers and marketers. Since observations of experience are time consuming, and the effects of technical quality (TQ) are difficult to entangle from content quality (CQ), we examined the impact of...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, individually reported long-term care (LTC) quality indicators have been supplemented with the composite Qindex measure and applied to 614 homes in Ontario, Canada. This study (1) describes the overall quality performance of LTC homes across five years (2012-2017) and (2) determines if organizational factors impact quality performance...
Article
Objectives: Recognition of delirium in the emergency department (ED) is poor. Our objectives were to assess: (1) the diagnostic accuracy of the Predicting Emergency department Delirium with an Interactive Computer Tablet (PrEDICT) "serious game" to identify older ED patients with delirium compared to clinical recognition and (2) the feasibility of...
Article
Introduction : BACKGROUND: Recognition rates of delirium in older ED patients were reported between 13 to 25% in studies conducted in the U.S in the 1990's. Recently, there has been increased attention to delirium in Emergency Medicine, with the development of Geriatric curriculums in Canada specifically focused on delirium. However rates of deliri...
Article
Full-text available
Clustering prior to regression analysis improves accuracy of prediction in clinical decision making. However, most previously described methods focused on numerical data only. This paper investigated how well textual features can improve accuracy of regression predictions. Preliminary diagnosis, diagnosis summary, and drug names used in prescriptio...
Article
Full-text available
It is our great pleasure to welcome you to the 2017 ACM Workshop on Aging Well with Technology for Maintaining Good Mental and Cognitive Health – AMCH 2017, in conjunction with the 26th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW 2017). This is a new event that is inspired by recent interest in technologies for aging well, as exemplified in the AG...
Article
HCI education reflects the continual evolution of HCI, embracing the changing landscapes of technology, infrastructure, and technology use. This forum aims to provide a platform for HCI educators, practitioners, researchers, and students to share their perspectives, reflections, and experiences related to HCI education. --- Sukeshini Grandhi, Edito...
Article
New technologies, such as serious games and ambient activities, are being developed to address problems of under-stimulation, anxiety, and agitation in millions of people living with dementia in long term care homes. Frequent interactions with instrumented versions of these technologies may not only be beneficial for long term care residents, but m...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Systematic reviews are infrequently used by health care managers (HCMs) and policy-makers (PMs) in decision-making. HCMs and PMs co-developed and tested novel systematic review of effects formats to increase their use. Methods: A three-phased approach was used to evaluate the determinants to uptake of systematic reviews of effects an...
Article
Full-text available
Quality of Experience (QoE) is a measure of the overall level of customer satisfaction with a vendor. In telecommunications, consumer satisfaction is of great interest in the adoption of novel multimedia products and services. A number of factors can greatly influence the customer experience during a video session. Factors such as user perception,...
Conference Paper
This paper examines the relatively unexplored topic of changes in the sense of presence corresponding to individual development from early childhood to old age. How does presence change over the lifespan and how can presence-modulating interactive environments be designed to accommodate the needs of different age groups in the light of these change...
Article
Purpose: Although extensive research has been carried out on the determinants of mobile or wearable health care technology (mHealth), as well as on its acceptance by patients and other health care providers, very little research has been done on physiotherapists' perspectives on the use of mHealth in their current or future practice. The aims of th...
Article
Full-text available
–The Association of Computing Machinery (ACM) Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) has been supporting research into HCI education for many years, most actively in the last six years. At its CHI2014 conference, a workshop on developing a new Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) living curriculum was held, building on three year...
Thesis
Full-text available
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) has been supporting research into Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) education for many years, most actively in the last six years. This thesis proposes the preliminary framework for a Community of Practice (CoP) of HCI scholars and educators,...