Mark Caulfield

Mark Caulfield
Queen Mary, University of London | QMUL · William Harvey Research Institute

MB MD FRCP FMedSci

About

569
Publications
118,887
Reads
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86,250
Citations
Citations since 2017
106 Research Items
35200 Citations
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Additional affiliations
August 2003 - July 2018
Queen Mary, University of London
Position
  • Managing Director
Description
  • I direct the largest Pharmacology Institute in the UK with growth from 140 to 520 people since 2003. 90% were rated as World leading or Internationally excellent in the UK Research Assessment Exercise in 2014.
January 1999 - December 2012
Queen Mary, University of London
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (569)
Preprint
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The Cancer Programme of the 100,000 Genomes Project was a transformational UK government initiative that aimed to bring whole genome sequencing (WGS) to cancer patients and evaluate the opportunities for precision cancer care. Genomics England, in partnership with NHS England, generated whole genome analyses for 13,880 solid tumours across 33 diffe...
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Motile and non-motile cilia are associated with mutually-exclusive genetic disorders. Motile cilia propel sperm or extracellular fluids, and their dysfunction causes primary ciliary dyskinesia. Non-motile cilia serve as sensory/signalling antennae on most cell types, and their disruption causes single-organ ciliopathies such as retinopathies or mul...
Article
Ciliopathies may be classed as primary or motile depending on the underlying ciliary defect and are usually considered distinct clinical entities. Primary ciliopathies are associated with multisystem syndromes typically affecting the brain, kidney, and eye, as well as other organ systems such as the liver, skeleton, auditory system, and metabolism....
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Background The diagnostic rate of Mendelian disorders in sequencing studies continues to increase, along with the pace of novel disease gene discovery. However, variant interpretation in novel genes not currently associated with disease is particularly challenging and strategies combining gene functional evidence with approaches that evaluate the p...
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DNA transfer from cytoplasmic organelles to the cell nucleus is a legacy of the endosymbiotic event—the majority of nuclear-mitochondrial segments (NUMTs) are thought to be ancient, preceding human speciation 1–3 . Here we analyse whole-genome sequences from 66,083 people—including 12,509 people with cancer—and demonstrate the ongoing transfer of m...
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An important fraction of patients with rare disorders remains with no clear genetic diagnostic, even after whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing, posing a difficulty in giving adequate treatment and genetic counseling. The analysis of genomic data in rare disorders mostly considers the presence of single gene variants in coding regions that follow...
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The aim of this study was to investigate coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) biosynthesis pathway defects in inherited retinal dystrophy. Individuals affected by inherited retinal dystrophy (IRD) underwent exome or genome sequencing for molecular diagnosis of their condition. Following negative IRD gene panel analysis, patients carrying biallelic variants in CoQ1...
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The kidney-specific gene UMOD encodes for uromodulin, the most abundant protein excreted in normal urine. Rare large-effect variants in UMOD cause autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease (ADTKD), while common low-impact variants strongly associate with kidney function and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general populati...
Article
Purpose Biallelic variants in UCHL1 have been associated with a progressive early-onset neurodegenerative disorder, autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia type 79. In this study, we investigated heterozygous UCHL1 variants on the basis of results from cohort-based burden analyses. Methods Gene-burden analyses were performed on exome and genome dat...
Article
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) permits comprehensive cancer genome analyses, revealing mutational signatures, imprints of DNA damage, and repair processes that have arisen in each patient’s cancer. We performed mutational signature analyses on 12,222 whole-genome–sequenced tumor-normal matched pairs from patients recruited via the UK National Health...
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Mitochondria are implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) but the reasons for this are not well understood. Maternally-inherited population variants of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) which affect all mtDNA molecules (homoplasmic) are associated with cardiometabolic traits and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. However...
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Background Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of cancers is becoming an accepted component of oncological care, and NHS England is currently rolling out WGS for all children with cancer. This approach was piloted during the 100,000 genomes (100 K) project. Here we share the experience of the East of England Genomic Medicine Centre (East-GMC), reporting...
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The abnormal vascular structures of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) often cause severe anemia due to recurrent hemorrhage, but HHT-causal genes do not predict the severity of hematological complications. We tested for chance inheritance and clinical associations of rare deleterious variants where loss-of-function causes bleeding or hemo...
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Critical Covid-19 is caused by immune-mediated inflammatory lung injury. Host genetic variation influences the development of illness requiring critical care1 or hospitalisation2–4 following SARS-CoV-2 infection. The GenOMICC (Genetics of Mortality in Critical Care) study enables the comparison of genomes from critically-ill cases with population c...
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Background Repeat expansion disorders affect about 1 in 3000 individuals and are clinically heterogeneous diseases caused by expansions of short tandem DNA repeats. Genetic testing is often locus-specific, resulting in underdiagnosis of people who have atypical clinical presentations, especially in paediatric patients without a previous positive fa...
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p>Background: repeat expansion disorders affect about 1 in 3000 individuals and are clinically heterogeneous diseases caused by expansions of short tandem DNA repeats. Genetic testing is often locus-specific, resulting in underdiagnosis of people who have atypical clinical presentations, especially in paediatric patients without a previous positive...
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The mutational landscape is shaped by many processes. Genic regions are vulnerable to mutation but are preferentially protected by transcription-coupled repair ¹ . In microorganisms, transcription has been demonstrated to be mutagenic 2,3 ; however, the impact of transcription-associated mutagenesis remains to be established in higher eukaryotes ⁴...
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Alport syndrome is the commonest inherited kidney disease and nearly half the pathogenic variants in the COL4A3–COL4A5 genes that cause Alport syndrome result in Gly substitutions. This study examined the molecular characteristics of Gly substitutions that determine the severity of clinical features. Pathogenic COL4A5 variants affecting Gly in the...
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Purpose Ocular coloboma arises from genetic or environmental perturbations that inhibit optic fissure (OF) fusion during early eye development. Despite high genetic heterogeneity, 70% to 85% of patients remain molecularly undiagnosed. In this study, we have identified new potential causative genes using cross-species comparative meta-analysis. Met...
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Background: The pharmacogenetic effect on cardiovascular disease reduction in response to statin treatment has only been assessed in small studies. In a pharmacogenetic genome wide association study (GWAS) analysis within the Genomic Investigation of Statin Therapy (GIST) consortium, we investigated whether genetic variation was associated with the...
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Multi-locus Inherited Neoplasia Allele Syndrome (MINAS) refers to individuals with germline pathogenic variants in two or more cancer susceptibility genes(CSGs). With increased use of exome/genome sequencing it would be predicted that detection of MINAS would become more frequent. Here we review recent progress in knowledge of MINAS. A systematic l...
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Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant multisystemic vascular dysplasia, characterized by arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), mucocutaneous telangiectasia and nosebleeds. HHT is caused by a heterozygous null allele in ACVRL1, ENG, or SMAD4, which encode proteins mediating bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. Sev...
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Objective Germline loss-of-function mutations in DEPDC5, and in its binding partners (NPRL2/3) of the mTOR repressor GATOR1 complex, cause focal epilepsies and increase the risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Here, we asked whether DEPDC5 haploinsufficiency predisposes to primary cardiac defects that could contribute to SUDEP and t...
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The development of computational methods to assess pathogenicity of pre-messenger RNA splicing variants is critical for diagnosis of human disease. We assessed the capability of eight algorithms, and a consensus approach, to prioritize 249 variants of uncertain significance (VUSs) that underwent splicing functional analyses. The capability of algor...
Preprint
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Critical illness in COVID-19 is caused by inflammatory lung injury, mediated by the host immune system. We and others have shown that host genetic variation influences the development of illness requiring critical care or hospitalisation following SARS-Co-V2 infection. The GenOMICC (Genetics of Mortality in Critical Care) study is designed to compa...
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Possession of a clinical or molecular disease label alters the context in which life-course events operate, but rarely explains the phenotypic variability observed by clinicians. Whole genome sequencing of unselected endothelial vasculopathy patients demonstrated more than a third had rare, likely deleterious variants in clinically-relevant genes u...
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We sought to identify genome‐wide variants influencing antihypertensive drug response and adverse cardiovascular outcomes, utilizing data from four randomized controlled trials in the International Consortium for Antihypertensive Pharmacogenomics Studies (ICAPS). Genome‐wide antihypertensive drug‐SNP interaction tests for four drug classes (β‐block...
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Clinical validity assessments of gene-disease associations underpin analysis and reporting in diagnostic genomics, and yet wide variability exists in practice, particularly in use of these assessments for virtual gene panel design and maintenance. Harmonization efforts are hampered by the lack of agreed terminology, agreed gene curation standards,...
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Homeostatic control of blood glucose requires different physiological responses in the fasting and post-prandial states. We reasoned that glucose measurements under non-standardised conditions (random glucose, RG) may capture diverse glucoregulatory processes more effectively than previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of fasting glycaemia...
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Mutational signatures are imprints of pathophysiological processes arising through tumorigenesis. We generated isogenic CRISPR–Cas9 knockouts (∆) of 43 genes in human induced pluripotent stem cells, cultured them in the absence of added DNA damage and performed whole-genome sequencing of 173 subclones. ∆OGG1, ∆UNG, ∆EXO1, ∆RNF168, ∆MLH1, ∆MSH2, ∆MS...
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At the dawn of the new decade, it is judicious to reflect on the boom of knowledge about polygenic risk for essential hypertension supplied by the wealth of genome-wide association studies. Hypertension continues to account for significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, with increasing prevalence anticipated. Here, we overview recent advan...
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More than 4,000 genes have been associated with recognizable Mendelian/monogenic diseases. When faced with a new diagnosis of a rare genetic disorder, health care providers increasingly turn to internet resources for information to understand the disease and direct care. Unfortunately, it can be challenging to find information concerning treatment...
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Background: Background: While it has long been recognized that smooth muscle Na/K ATPase (NKA) modulates vascular tone and blood pressure (BP), the role of its accessory protein phopholemman (PLM) has not been characterized. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that PLM phosphorylation regulates vascular tone in vitro and this mechanism...
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Background The band 9p21.3 contains an established genomic risk zone for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Since the initial 2007 Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium study (WTCCC), the increased CVD risk associated with 9p21.3 has been confirmed by multiple studies in different continents. However, many years later there was still no confirmed repor...
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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Most patients with rare diseases do not receive a molecular diagnosis and the aetiological variants and causative genes for more than half such disorders remain to be discovered1. Here we used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in a national health system to streamline diagnosis and to discover unknown aetiological variants in the coding and non-coding...
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Background: We examined whether the greater severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) amongst men and Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) individuals is explained by cardiometabolic, socio-economic or behavioural factors. Methods: We studied 4510 UK Biobank participants tested for COVID-19 (positive, n = 1326). Multivariate logistic re...
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Background We examined whether the greater severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) amongst men and non-White ethnicities is explained by cardiometabolic, socio-economic, or behavioural factors. Methods We studied 4,510 UK Biobank participants tested for COVID-19 (positive, n=1,326). Multivariate logistic regression models including age, se...
Preprint
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Background We examined whether the greater severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) amongst men and non-White ethnicities is explained by cardiometabolic, socio-economic, or behavioural factors. Methods We studied 4,510 UK Biobank participants tested for COVID-19 (positive, n=1,326). Multivariate logistic regression models including age, sex...
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The electrocardiographic PR interval reflects atrioventricular conduction, and is associated with conduction abnormalities, pacemaker implantation, atrial fibrillation (AF), and cardiovascular mortality. Here we report a multi-ancestry (N = 293,051) genome-wide association meta-analysis for the PR interval, discovering 202 loci of which 141 have no...
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Several strands of evidence question the dogma that human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is inherited exclusively down the maternal line, most recently in three families where several individuals harbored a ‘heteroplasmic haplotype’ consistent with biparental transmission. Here we report a similar genetic signature in 7 of 11,035 trios, with allelic fra...
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Background: High blood pressure (BP) is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. While BP is regulated by the function of kidney, vasculature, and sympathetic nervous system, recent experimental data suggest that immune cells may play a role in hypertension. Methods: We studied the relationship between major white blood cell typ...
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Background and aims: Recent studies have unveiled an association between ADAMTS7 gene variation and coronary artery disease (CAD) caused by atherosclerosis. We investigated if the ADAMTS7 Serine214-to-Proline substitution arising from a CAD-associated variant affected angiogenesis, since neovascularization plays an important role in atherosclerosi...
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High blood pressure remains the major heritable and modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Persistent high blood pressure, or hypertension, is a complex trait with both genetic and environmental interactions. Despite swift advances in genomics, translating new discoveries to further our understanding of the underlying molecular me...
Preprint
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The electrocardiographic PR interval reflects atrioventricular conduction, and is associated with conduction abnormalities, pacemaker implantation, atrial fibrillation (AF), and cardiovascular mortality 1,2 . We performed multi-ancestry (N=293,051) and European only (N=271,570) genome-wide association (GWAS) meta-analyses for the PR interval, disco...
Article
Background: Subclinical changes on the electrocardiogram are risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. Recognition and knowledge of electrolyte associations in cardiac electrophysiology are based on only in vitro models and observations in patients with severe medical conditions. Objectives: This study sought to investigate associations between...
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There is evidence that lower height is associated with a higher risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). It is not clear though whether these associations are causal, direct or mediated by other factors. Here we show that one standard deviation higher genetically determined height (~6.5 cm) is causally asso...
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Body-fat distribution is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular health consequences. We analyzed the association of body-fat distribution, assessed by waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index, with 228,985 predicted coding and splice site variants available on exome arrays in up to 344,369 individuals from five major ancestries (discovery)...
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of quantitative electrocardiographic (ECG) traits in large consortia have identified more than 130 loci associated with QT interval, QRS duration, PR interval, and heart rate (RR interval). In the current study, we meta-analyzed genome-wide association results from 30,000 mostly Dutch samples on four ECG trait...
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In this trans-ethnic multi-omic study, we reinterpret the genetic architecture of blood pressure to identify genes, tissues, phenomes and medication contexts of blood pressure homeostasis. We discovered 208 novel common blood pressure SNPs and 53 rare variants in genome-wide association studies of systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure in up to 776...
Preprint
We investigated by Mendelian Randomisation (MR) analyses the causal effect of adult height on coronary artery disease (CAD) (23,755 cases, 425,339 controls) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) (29,427 cases, 416,908 controls) in UK Biobank. We then examined whether such effects are mediated via known cardiometabolic risk factors including body mass index (BM...
Article
Patients with grade 2‐3 essential hypertension and postplacebo mean clinic systolic blood pressure (SBP) 160‐190 mm Hg and 24‐hour SBP 140‐175 mm Hg by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) received 40 mg azilsartan medoxomil (AZL‐M) monotherapy for 4 weeks. “Nonresponders” were then randomized to 8 weeks of double‐blind treatment with AZL‐M...
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Hypertension continues to be a major risk factor for global mortality, and recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have expanded in size, leading to the identification of further genetic loci influencing blood pressure. In light of the new knowledge from the largest cardiovascular GWAS to date, we review the potential impact of genomics on di...
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2018 Next-generation sequencing has been invaluable in the elucidation of the genetic etiology of many subtypes of intellectual disability in recent years. Here, using exome sequencing and whole-genome sequencing, we identified three de novo truncating mutations in WAS protein family member 1 (WASF1) in five unrelated individuals with moderate to p...
Preprint
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Body fat distribution is a heritable risk factor for a range of adverse health consequences, including hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes. To identify protein-coding variants associated with body fat distribution, assessed by waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index, we analyzed 228,985 predicted coding and splice site variants available on...
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Multiple primary tumors (MPTs) affect a substantial proportion of cancer survivors and can result from various causes, including inherited predisposition. Currently, germline genetic testing of MPT-affected individuals for variants in cancer-predisposition genes (CPGs) is mostly targeted by tumor type. We ascertained pre-assessed MPT individuals (w...