Mark L Carroll

Mark L Carroll
NASA · Biospheric Sciences Laboratory

Doctor of Philosophy

About

72
Publications
22,799
Reads
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4,439
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2011 - present
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center - Science Systems and Applications Inc.
Position
  • Researcher
March 2000 - October 2011
University of Maryland, College Park
Position
  • Remote Sensing Scientist
Education
September 2014 - May 2018
University of Maryland, College Park
Field of study
  • Department of Geographical Sciences
January 2008 - May 2010
University of Maryland, College Park
Field of study
  • Department of Geographical Sciences
September 1991 - May 1996
University of Maryland, College Park
Field of study
  • Natural Resources Management

Publications

Publications (72)
Article
Remote Sensing affords the opportunity to monitor and evaluate data scarce regions where field collection efforts are costly. A particular challenge is monitoring and evaluation in regions with smallholder agricultural systems (∼1 ha) that are often subsistence focused, vulnerable to food insecurity and data scarce. Using multi-day moderate resolut...
Article
We present a data set containing the light curves of all stars brighter than 16th magnitude in the TESS full frame images from the primary mission (Years 1 and 2; Sectors 1–26). This includes a total of over 150 million light curves, making it the largest set of TESS light curves released to date.
Article
Full-text available
MERRA/Max provides a feature selection approach to dimensionality reduction that enables direct use of global climate model outputs in ecological niche modeling. The system accomplishes this reduction through a Monte Carlo optimization in which many independent MaxEnt runs, operating on a species occurrence file and a small set of randomly selected...
Preprint
Full-text available
MERRA/Max provides a feature selection approach to dimensionality reduction that enables direct use of global climate model outputs in ecological niche modeling. The system accomplishes this reduction through a Monte Carlo optimization in which many independent MaxEnt runs, operating on a species occurrence file and a small set of randomly selected...
Article
Full-text available
Seasonal and interannual variations in global wetland area are a strong driver of fluctuations in global methane (CH4) emissions. Current maps of global wetland extent vary in their wetland definition, causing substantial disagreement between and large uncertainty in estimates of wetland methane emissions. To reconcile these differences for large-s...
Article
Full-text available
The Pleistocene sand sea on the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of northern Alaska is underlain by an ancient sand dune field, a geological feature that affects regional lake characteristics. Many of these lakes, which cover approximately 20 % of the Pleistocene sand sea, are relatively deep (up to 25 m). In addition to the natural importance of ACP san...
Article
Full-text available
MaxEnt is an important aid in understanding the influence of climate change on species distributions. There is growing interest in using IPCC-class global climate model outputs as environmental predictors in this work. These models provide realistic, global representations of the climate system, projections for hundreds of variables (including Esse...
Article
Two decades of global annual fractional vegetation cover products have been derived using daily surface reflectance and land surface temperature data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite. These MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF) products are unique and a distinct advance over...
Preprint
Full-text available
Seasonal and interannual variations in global wetland area is a strong driver of fluctuations in global methane (CH4) emissions. Current maps of global wetland extent vary with wetland definition, causing substantial disagreement and large uncertainty in estimates of wetland methane emissions. To reconcile these differences for large-scale wetland...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing availability of very-high resolution (VHR; <2 m) imagery has the potential to enable agricultural monitoring at increased resolution and cadence, particularly when used in combination with widely available moderate-resolution imagery. However, scaling limitations exist at the regional level due to big data volumes and processing cons...
Conference Paper
Smallholder farms in South East Asia are characterized by small irregular field patterns, dense cloud cover and haze which limits our ability to observe changes in agriculture land-use. Very-high resolution (VHR, < 5 m) Earth observing (EO) satellites have grown into constellations with global repeat coverage that can support multiple observations...
Preprint
Full-text available
MaxEnt is an important aid in understanding the influence of climate change on species distributions and abundance. There is growing interest in using IPCC-class global climate model outputs as environmental predictors in this work. These models provide realistic, global representations of the climate system, projections for hundreds of variables (...
Article
Full-text available
Lack of national data on water-related ecosystems is a major challenge to achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 targets by 2030. Monitoring surface water extent, wetlands, and water quality from space can be an important asset for many countries in support of SDG 6 reporting. We demonstrate the potential for Earth observation (EO) data...
Article
Full-text available
Climate and weather data such as precipitation derived from Global Climate Models (GCMs) and satellite observations are essential for the global and local hydrological assessment. However, most climatic popular precipitation products (with spatial resolutions coarser than 10km) are too coarse for local impact studies and require “downscaling” to ob...
Article
Full-text available
Observations taken over the last few decades indicate that dramatic changes are occurring in the Arctic‐Boreal Zone (ABZ), which are having significant impacts on ABZ inhabitants, infrastructure, flora and fauna, and economies. While suitable for detecting overall change, the current capability is inadequate for systematic monitoring and for improv...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. The Pleistocene Sand Sea on the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of northern Alaska is underlain by an ancient sand dune field, a geological feature that affects regional lake characteristics. Many of these lakes, which cover approximately 20 % of the Pleistocene Sand Sea, are relatively deep (up to 25 m). In addition to the natural importance...
Conference Paper
Commercial very high-resolution (VHR) Earth observing (EO) satellites have grown into constellations with global repeat coverage that can support existing NASA EO missions with stereo and multispectral capabilities. Sub-meter data from these instruments exceeds petabytes per year and the cost for data, storage systems and compute power have all dro...
Article
Accurate and timely population distribution maps are critical to addressing health epidemics, coordinating natural disaster response, tracking global changes for environmental conservation, confronting human rights issues, and more. Satellite imagery has opened numerous ways for mapping population distribution – previously unattainable without cond...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of drought-related weather index insurance (WII) is to protect smallholder farmers against the risk of weather shocks and to increase their agricultural productivity. Estimates of precipitation and vegetation greenness are the two dominant satellite datasets. However, ignoring additional moisture- and energy-related processes that influenc...
Article
Full-text available
Global food production in the developing world occurs within sub-hectare fields that are difficult to identify with moderate resolution satellite imagery. Knowledge about the distribution of these fields is critical in food security programs. We developed a semi-automated image segmentation approach using wall-to-wall sub-meter imagery with high-pe...
Article
Full-text available
Accurately quantifying surface water extent in wetlands is critical to understanding their role in ecosystem processes. However, current regional- to global-scale surface water products lack the spatial or temporal resolution necessary to characterize heterogeneous or variable wetlands. Here, we proposed a fully automatic classification tree approa...
Article
Full-text available
The accelerated rate of warming in the Arctic has considerable implications for all components of ecosystem functioning in the High Northern Latitudes. Changes to hydrological cycle in the Arctic are particularly complex as the observed and projected warming directly impacts permafrost and leads to variable responses in surface water extent which i...
Chapter
Significant flooding is a common occurrence in many parts of the globe, and remote sensing from satellite platforms can provide near real-time information for response during flooding disasters. This same information is also valuable for flood mitigation, preparedness, and recovery including large-scale infrastructure planning, settling insurance c...
Article
Full-text available
We present a fully automated and scalable algorithm for quantifying surface water inundation in wetlands. Requiring no external training data, our algorithm estimates sub-pixel water fraction (SWF) over large areas and long time periods using Landsat data. We tested our SWF algorithm over three wetland sites across North America, including the Prai...
Article
Very high resolution (VHR) satellite data is experiencing rapid annual growth, producing petabytes of remotely sensed data per year. The WorldView constellation, operated by DigitalGlobe, images over 1.2 billion km² annually at < 2 m spatial resolution. Due to computation, data cost, and methodological concerns, VHR satellite data has mainly been u...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last several decades, warming in the Arctic has outpaced the already impressive increases in global mean temperatures. The impact of these increases in temperature has been observed in a multitude of ecological changes in North American tundra including changes in vegetative cover, depth of active layer, and surface water extent. The low t...
Article
Data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) on-board the Earth Observing System Terra and Aqua satellites are processed using a land water mask to determine when an algorithm no longer needs to be run or when an algorithm needs to follow a different pathway. Entering the fourth reprocessing (Collection 6 (C6)) the MODIS tea...
Article
Full-text available
As our climate changes through time there is an ever-increasing need to quantify how and where it is changing so that mitigation strategies can be implemented. Urban areas have a disproportionate amount of warming due, in part, to the conductive properties of concrete and asphalt surfaces, surface albedo, heat capacity, lack of water, etc. that mak...
Article
Full-text available
The availability of a dense time series of satellite observations at moderate (30 m) spatial resolution is enabling unprecedented opportunities for understanding ecosystems around the world. A time series of data from Landsat was used to generate a series of three maps at decadal time step to show how surface water has changed from 1991 to 2011 in...
Article
As our climate changes through time there is an ever increasing need to quantify how and where it is changing so that mitigation strategies can be implemented. Urban areas have a disproportionate amount of warming due, in part, to the conductive properties of concrete and asphalt surfaces that make up an urban environment. The NASA Climate Adaptati...
Article
The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will provide soil moisture data with unprecedented accuracy, resolution, and coverage, enabling models to better track agricultural drought and estimate yields. In turn, this information can be used to shape policy related to food and water from commodity markets to humanitarian relief efforts. New da...
Article
Full-text available
RECOVER is a site-specific decision support system that automatically brings together in a single analysis environment the information necessary for post-fire rehabilitation decision-making. After a major wildfire, law requires that the federal land management agencies certify a comprehensive plan for public safety, burned area stabilization, resou...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change and degradation of ecosystem services functioning may threaten the ability of current agricultural systems to keep up with demand for adequate and inexpensive food and for clean water, waste disposal and other broader ecosystem services. Human health is likely to be affected by changes occurring across multiple geographic and time sc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Can initial observations suggesting a beneficial role of forest cover for nutrition outcomes in one socio-environmental context be generalized to other forest ecotypes and socioeconomic contexts? This paper tests the hypotheses that 1) intact environments will have comparatively better capacity to provide essential ecosystem services, which transla...
Data
Full-text available
This Latency Study was initiated by the Earth Science Division (ESD) under the auspices of the Flight Program with the Applied Science Program to act as the study implementation lead. The objective of the study is to quantify the anticipated latency needs of application and science users for the upcoming Decadal Survey as well as current Earth Scie...
Article
Full-text available
Recent profound changes have been observed in the Arctic environment, including record low sea ice extents and high latitude greening. Studying the Arctic and how it is changing is an important element of climate change science. The Tundra, an ecoregion of the Arctic, is directly related to climate change due to its effects on the snow ice feedback...
Article
Wildland fire is a prominent component of ecosystem functioning worldwide. Nearly all ecosystems experience the impact of naturally occurring or anthropogenically driven fire. Here, we present a spatially explicit and regionally parameterized Fire Occurrence Model (FOM) aimed at developing fire occurrence estimates at landscape and regional scales....
Article
Full-text available
Over the past 3 decades the Arctic has seen substantial warming. Previous local to regional scale studies have shown a considerable reduction in the size of lakes in this region. The subsequent exposure of carbon- and methane-rich sediments and the direct changes in surface albedo feed back into the drivers of regional and global climate change. Un...
Article
Land cover change occurs at various spatial and temporal scales. For example, large-scale mechanical removal of forests for agro-industrial activities contrasts with the small-scale clearing of subsistence farmers. Such dynamics vary in spatial extent and rate of land conversion. Such changes are attributable to both natural and anthropogenic facto...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate depiction of the land and water is critical for the production of land surface parameters from remote sensing data products. Certain parameters, including the land surface temperature, active fires and surface reflectance, can be processed differently when the underlying surface is water as compared with land. Substantial errors in the und...
Article
Surface water bodies play an important role in local and regional climate variability with water being an agent in exchanging heat between land and atmosphere. A remote sensing based (Landsat TM/ETM+) time series analysis was performed in the tundra region of the high northern latitudes of North America (Northern Canada) to determine the changes in...
Article
Global temperatures have been rising for the past several decades. The impact of the rising temperatures is expected to be greatest in the Arctic region where ice and permafrost can be melted and longer snow/ice free periods may result in greater evaporation. We will show results from analyzing the 10 year MODIS data record at 250m resolution. Prel...
Article
Accurate characterization of the location and areal extent of inland water bodies represents an important parameter for a variety of scientific studies, ranging from landscape-scale studies of surface hydrology to continental and global-scale studies of land surface-atmosphere interactions. A highly distinctive feature of the sub-arctic and arctic...
Article
Full-text available
Forest cover is an important input variable for assessing changes to carbon stocks, climate and hydrological systems, biodiversity richness, and other sustainability science disciplines. Despite incremental improvements in our ability to quantify rates of forest clearing, there is still no definitive understanding on global trends. Without timely a...
Article
Full-text available
Monitoring and mapping of U.S. croplands has long been a primary goal of many users of earth observation satellite data. The advantages of using low spatial and high temporal resolution data are (i) increased ability to monitor the phenological change of crop plants, and (ii) the possibility of generating consistent large area crop cover maps. This...
Article
According to the nonequilibrium theory, livestock grazing has a limited effect on long-term vegetation productivity of semiarid rangelands, which is largely determined by rainfall. The communal lands in northeastern South Africa contain extensive degraded areas which have been mapped by the National Land Cover (NLC) program. Much evidence suggests...
Article
Automated methods for mapping forest cover change are presented using MODIS and Landsat data sets. Vegetation Continuous Fields of percent tree cover, a standard MODIS Land Science Team product, allow for the creation of forest change indicator maps. Inputs to the algorithm are time-series composites that are used to generate time-integrated annual...
Article
The authors will discuss a newly developed algorithm which utilizes the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites to derive an ongoing inventory of forested areas affected by wildfire. The experimental data set has been developed at a spatial resolution of 250 m and a temporal resolution...
Article
Comparisons of MODIS inputs appropriate to mapping land cover at different scales are made using global training data and a SAFARI 2000 validation database from western Zambia. Multiple single‐date images, 40‐day composites and multitemporal annual metrics from the MODIS sensor are tested in mapping percent tree cover. While the metrics outperform...
Article
Full-text available
The Brazilian government annually assesses the extent of deforestation in the Legal Amazon for a variety of scientific and policy applications. Currently, the assessment requires the processing and storing of large volumes of Landsat satellite data. The potential for efficient, accurate, and less data-intensive assessment of annual deforestation us...
Article
Data from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor represent a unique information source for mapping land cover and land cover change. Data from MODIS exist at 250m, 500m and 1km spatial resolutions, with nearly daily global coverage. The finer spatial detail of MODIS compared to heritage global coverage instruments, such as...
Article
The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on board the Terra and Aqua satellites offers an unprecedented combination of daily spatial coverage, spatial resolution, and spectral characteristics. These capabilities make MODIS ideal to observe a variety of rapid events: active fires, floods, smoke transport, dust storms, sev...