Mark Bowler

Mark Bowler
University of Suffolk | UC Suffolk · School of Science, Technology and Engineering

PhD

About

87
Publications
43,032
Reads
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959
Citations
Citations since 2017
42 Research Items
686 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
Introduction
I work on wildlife distributions in the UK and South America and the effects that human activity has on them, science communication and community conservation projects in Peru.
Additional affiliations
November 2012 - October 2017
San Diego Zoo Global
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • Research on Behavioural Ecology and Conservation in the Peruvian Amazon
April 2009 - November 2012
University of St Andrews
Position
  • PostDoc Position
January 2008 - December 2009
University of Kent
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (87)
Article
Full-text available
Wild and captive capuchin monkeys will anoint themselves with a range of strong smelling substances including millipedes, ants, limes and onions. Hypotheses for the function of the behaviour range from medicinal to social. However, capuchin monkeys may anoint in contact with other individuals, as well as individually. The function of social anointi...
Article
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We examined the effects of selective timber logging carried out by local indigenous people in remote areas within indigenous territories on the mammal populations of the Yavari-Mirin River basin on the Peru-Brazil border. Recent findings show that habitat change in the study area is minimal, and any effect of logging activities on large mammal popu...
Article
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Large and medium-bodied rainforest canopy mammals are typically surveyed using line transects, but these are labour intensive and usually ignore nocturnal species. Camera traps have become the preferred tool for assessing terrestrial mammal communities, but have rarely been used for arboreal species. Here, we compare the efficiency of arboreal came...
Article
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Hunting for wild meat in the tropics provides subsistence and income for millions of people. Methods have remained relatively unchanged since the introduction of shotguns and battery‐powered incandescent flashlights, but the short battery life of such flashlights has limited nocturnal hunting. However, hunters in many countries throughout the tropi...
Article
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Anointing is a behaviour in which animals apply pungent-smelling materials over their bodies. It can be done individually or socially in contact with others. Social anointing can provide coverage of body parts inaccessible to the individual, consistent with hypotheses that propose medicinal benefits. However, in highly social capuchin monkeys, Sapa...
Article
Filarial nematode infections are common in primates, but have received little attention in the Neotropics. Epidemiological data on filarial infections in primates are still too sparse to fully understand the complex of this parasitism, especially because of the difficulty in studying the ecology and epidemiology of wild primates.. We describe natur...
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Hunter decision-making influences prey selection and is key to understanding the impacts of hunting on biodiversity. Optimal foraging theory (OFT) is often used to describe the decision-making and prey selection of subsistence hunters. We examined the behavior and game meat use of hunters in an indigenous Amazonian community and used free listing a...
Article
Bald uakaris, genus Cacajao, are Amazonian primates currently classified as one species and four subspecies based on the patterns of pelage coloration. In this study, we test if their current taxonomy is represented by the phylogenetic relationship of the main lineages retrieved from molecular data. We included, for the first time, all bald uakari...
Article
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1. Effective estimation of wildlife population abundance is an important component of population monitoring, and ultimately essential for the development of conservation actions. Diurnal line-transect surveys are one of the most applied methods for abundance estimations. Local ecological knowledge (LEK) is empirically acquired through the observati...
Article
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In the Amazon Rainforest, the sustainability of hunting is difficult to model. Accurate sustainability models for hunting of mammal populations require a spatially explicit measure of hunting pressure. Because field‐based measures of hunting pressure are time and labor‐intensive, distance‐based proxies for hunting pressure are frequently used. In t...
Article
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Many wildlife conservation projects aim to change the perceptions of local communities through conservation education programs. However, few assess whether and how these programs effectively promote shifts in community perceptions and attitudes towards wildlife conservation. We designed an educational program focused on communicating to local inhab...
Conference Paper
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Camera traps are a useful tool to study activity patterns and behavior of terrestrial birds, such as tinamous, as it avoids the disturbance of direct observation. However, long-term studies show that data from a wider variety of birds can be gathered. Here we present new behavioral data from birds in the understory of the Madre de Dios, Peru.
Article
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Mineral lick elevation, size, and distance to the closest human community are all associated with mammal and bird species visitations. The most frequently hunted licks have similar species assemblages. Results indicate high variability in species assemblages at different mineral licks suggesting different species‐specific resource needs at differen...
Article
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Arboreal camera trapping is a burgeoning method providing a novel and effective technique to answer research questions across a variety of ecosystems, and it has the capacity to improve our understanding of a wide range of taxa. However, while terrestrial camera trapping has received much attention, there is little guidance for dealing with the uni...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Inventory of understory birds in the tropical rainforest of Madre de Dios (Peru) using camera traps
Article
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Mineral licks are key ecological resources for many species of birds and mammals in Amazonia, providing essential dietary nutrients and clays, yet little is known about which species visit and their behaviors at the mineral licks. Studying visitation and behavior at mineral licks can provide insight into the lives of otherwise secretive and elusive...
Article
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Mammalian carnivores are considered a key group in maintaining ecological health and can indicate potential ecological integrity in landscapes where they occur. Carnivores also hold high conservation value and their habitat requirements can guide management and conservation plans. The order Carnivora has 84 species from 8 families in the Neotropica...
Article
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Background: The overhunting of wild species is a major threat to biodiversity in the Amazon; yet, managed, sustainable hunting is widely considered part of the solution to conserving wildlife populations. Hunting is both a culturally important activity for Indigenous people and provides an important food source. Mineral licks, a focal point of hun...
Article
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Scientists are increasingly using volunteer efforts of citizen scientists to classify images captured by motion‐activated trail cameras. The rising popularity of citizen science reflects its potential to engage the public in conservation science and accelerate processing of the large volume of images generated by trail cameras. While image classifi...
Article
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Scientists are increasingly using volunteer efforts of citizen scientists to classify images captured by motion-activated trail cameras. The rising popularity of citizen science reflects its potential to engage the public in conservation science and accelerate processing of the large volume of images generated by trail cameras. While image classifi...
Article
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Understanding the repertoire of hunting techniques used by traditional peoples in tropical forests is crucial for recognizing the role of traditional knowledge in hunting activities, as well as assessing the impact of harvests on game species. We describe the hunting techniques used across Amazonia by Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples for hunti...
Article
The harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) is one of the main predators of arboreal mammals in the neotropics, affecting the ecology and behaviour these species. Knowledge of harpy eagle diets across their geographical range is patchy, the ability of harpy eagles to adapt to changing habitats is still open to question. The three main species in the diet of h...
Article
Many herbivorous and frugivorous Amazonian species, including several arboreal animals, feed on earth and water at mineral licks in the Amazon region to supplement their diet with micronutrients and clays. These species are vulnerable to predation during this activity. We recorded an adult Brazilian porcupine (Coendou prehensilis) being predated by...
Article
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Camera traps deployed in grids or stratified random designs are a well‐established survey tool for wildlife but there has been little evaluation of study design parameters. We used an empirical subsampling approach involving 2225 camera deployments run at 41 study areas around the world to evaluate three aspects of camera trap study design (number...
Article
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For arboreal primates, ground use may increase dispersal opportunities, tolerance to habitat change, access to ground-based resources, and resilience to human disturbances, and so has conservation implications. We collated published and unpublished data from 86 studies across 65 localities to assess titi monkey (Callicebinae) terrestriality. We exa...
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El sajino (Pecari tajacu) y la huangana (Tayassu pecari) son especies muy importantes como fuente de proteína y de ingresos económicos a nivel familiar, como elemento cultural y en general del buen vivir de las comunidades nativas. A pesar de su importancia, la escasa información de sus poblaciones en gran parte de la Amazonía peruana dificulta eva...
Article
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The resilience of a given species to hunting is conditioned by the effect of potential threats upon the more sensitive periods in its life history, such as when animals are breeding. We investigated the environmental drivers of breeding seasonality in the lowland paca (Cuniculus paca), and the potential impact of hunting on the species. As part of...
Article
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Infanticide by males is a phenomenon common in species in which the reproductive output of large numbers of females can be monopolized by a small number of males. It is thought to increase a male’s fitness, at the expense of the fitness of the infant’s parents, by bringing females into season more quickly. Infanticide by males has been recorded in...
Article
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Background: In Amazonia, primates are not only an important food source but they also hold significant cultural and symbolic value for many indigenous groups. We document the relationship between primates and community members of the Maijuna indigenous community of Sucusari in the Peruvian Amazon and describe how ethnoprimatological studies provid...
Article
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We determined the prevalence rate and risk of infection of Trypanosoma cruzi and other trypanosomatids in Peruvian non-human primates (NHPs) in the wild (n = 126) and in different captive conditions (n = 183). Blood samples were collected on filter paper, FTA cards, or EDTA tubes and tested using a nested PCR protocol targeting the 24Sα rRNA gene....
Article
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To better understand the ecology of Trypanosoma cruzi in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon, we evaluated the prevalence of T. cruzi and other trypanosomatids in four orders of wild mammals hunted and consumed by inhabitants of three remote indigenous communities in the Peruvian Amazon. Of 300 wild mammals sampled, 115 (38.3%) were infected with tryp...
Article
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Wildlife subsistence hunting is a major source of protein for tropical rural populations and a prominent conservation issue. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (rmax) of populations is a key reproductive parameter in the most-used assessments of hunting sustainability. However, since researchers face severe difficulties in obtaining reproductiv...
Conference Paper
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El establecimiento y las dinámicas sociales de los primates están determinados en gran medida por las interacciones agonísticas y afiliativas que se dan entre individuos. Los subgrupos del huapo rojo (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) son extremadamente variables (de uno a 200 individuos) y presentan un sistema social muy flexible del cual se desconocen muc...
Article
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Colour vision is highly variable in New World monkeys (NWMs). Evidence for the adaptive basis of colour vision in this group has largely centred on environmental features such as foraging benefits for differently coloured foods or predator detection, whereas selection on colour vision for sociosexual communication is an alternative hypothesis that...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Social grooming is common in primates and its frequency is often used to measure social bonds between individuals. Red uakari monkeys (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) live in large groups, with high fission-fusion dynamics, of which the social system is little-known. We use social grooming to examine social relationships between age-sex classes in a wild...
Conference Paper
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Red uakaris (Cacajao calvus ucayalii), like Ateles and Brachyteles, live in large groups with high fission-fusion dynamics. In such primates, male-male cooperation, and tolerance of mating activity is characteristic. Previously red uakaris were observed mating in pairs away from interference from other adult males (n=6). Between June and July 2015,...
Conference Paper
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Most primates live in social groups, whose members are in constant competition for limited resources, such as food or mates, leading to aggressive interactions. Red-faced uakari (C. c. ucayalii) subgroup size is extremely variable (1-200 individuals), favoring high intragroup competition. We examined uakari aggressive behavior by analyzing the cont...
Article
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Cacajao calvus ucayalii (Thomas, 1928) (Primates: Pitheciidae), a subspecies endemic to the Peruvian Amazon, occurs in patchy and sometimes isolated populations in north-eastern Peru and is in a vulnerable situation, mainly due to habitat loss and hunting. This rareness and remote distribution means that, until now, parasitical studies have been li...
Article
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Subject Areas: evolution/health and disease and epidemiology/ecology In social species, such as primates, facial appearances transmit a variety of social signals. Although it is suggested that the intense red colour of the face of the bald uakari monkey might be an indicator of health, this hypothesis still has not been verified. This study describ...
Article
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Pitheciids are known for their frugivorous diets, but there has been no broad-scale comparison of fruit genera used by these primates that range across five geographic regions in South America. We compiled 31 fruit lists from data collected from 18 species (three Cacajao, six Callicebus, five Chiropotes, and four Pithecia) at 26 study sites in six...
Article
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Cooperation and affiliation between males may be key to the evolution of large multimale-multifemale primate groups in some species. Cacajao and Chiropotes form multimale-multifemale groups larger than those of most other platyrrhines (Cacajao: over 150 and Chiropotes: up to 80 individuals), and groups exhibit a high degree of fission-fusion dynami...
Article
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Background Birthrates are key parameters for population models and hunting sustainability analyses frequently used in conservation, but for many rare species, these data do not exist. We examine the reproductive organs of endangered red uakari monkeys to calculate birthrates in the wild.Methods We collected reproductive organs from wild uakari monk...
Article
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Conformity is thought to be an important force in human evolution because it has the potential to stabilize cultural homogeneity within groups and cultural diversity between groups. However, the effects of such conformity on cultural and biological evolution will depend much on the particular way in which individuals are influenced by the frequency...
Article
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Primates are frequently hunted in Amazonia. Assessing the sustainability of hunting is essential to conservation planning. The most-used sustainability model, the 'Production Model', and more recent spatial models, rely on basic reproductive parameters for accuracy. These parameters are often crudely estimated. To date, parameters used for the Amaz...
Article
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Context. Ecotourism, driven by viewing large charismatic fauna, is often assumed to contribute to the conservation of animals and their habitats. Giant otter populations continue to increase and repopulate areas near communities, leading to problems with fishermen because of perceived competition and damage to nets. Aims. We investigate attitudes t...
Article
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Parasites are important in the management of the health of primate populations. We examined 36 fecal samples from Peruvian red uakari monkeys (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) collected from wild animals in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon. Samples were positive for helminth infection. Nematodes egg: Strongyloididae, Trypanoxyuris sp., Spirurid, and a cest...
Article
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Functional morphology may provide important information that could improve methodologies for the diagnosis of the reproductive phase of females, and develop assisted breeding techniques for wildlife. This study examined features of genital organs in 19 Peruvian red uakari monkey (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) females in different reproductive stages, co...
Chapter
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Possessing a suite of unusual and interesting features, Pitheciids are at the extremes of many of primatology’s ecological and sociological continua (see Norconk 2011). Pitheciids should provide acute tests of many primatological models; however, this is frequently thwarted by the lack of even the most basic quantitative information concerning ecol...
Chapter
Full-text available
The neotropical primate family Pitheciidae consists of four genera Cacajao (uacaris), Callicebus (titis), Chiropotes (bearded sakis) and Pithecia (sakis), whose 40+ species display a range of sizes, social organisations, ecologies and habitats. Few are well known and the future survival of many is threatened, yet pitheciines have been little studie...
Chapter
Full-text available
The neotropical primate family Pitheciidae consists of four genera Cacajao (uacaris), Callicebus (titis), Chiropotes (bearded sakis) and Pithecia (sakis), whose 40+ species display a range of sizes, social organisations, ecologies and habitats. Few are well known and the future survival of many is threatened, yet pitheciines have been little studie...