Mark T. Berger

Mark T. Berger
Naval Postgraduate School | NPS · Department of Defense Analysis

BA; MA; PhD. Modern International History With a Specialization on the Americas and British Imperialism in Comparative Perspective

About

93
Publications
42,164
Reads
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1,201
Citations
Citations since 2017
3 Research Items
338 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230102030405060
20172018201920202021202220230102030405060
Additional affiliations
July 2006 - present
Naval Postgraduate School
Position
  • Professor
June 2005 - June 2006
University of British Columbia
Position
  • Professor
January 1998 - May 2005
UNSW Sydney
Position
  • Lecturer

Publications

Publications (93)
Article
Full-text available
We take the opportunity presented by the fiftieth anniversary of the death of Che Guevara to reexamine his life and revolutionary program and the legacy he left behind. Attention is given to the formative influences that led to his introduction to Fidel Castro and his involvement in the Cuban revolution. We take a close look at the stylized theory...
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Southeast Asia. Hard interests, soft illusions: Southeast Asia and American power. By NatashaHamilton-Hart. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2012. Pp. 243. Appendix, Bibliography, Index. - Volume 44 Issue 3 - Mark T. Berger
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DarwinJohn, The Empire Project: The Rise and Fall of the British World System, 1830-1970. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. xiv and 800 pp. ISBN: 978-0-521-30208-1 (hbk.). No price given. - Volume 34 Issue 3 - Mark T. Berger
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This article engages with the latest (post-Cold War) debate about the theory and practice of nation building (state building). This is linked to a discussion of the shift in US foreign policy towards Afghanistan relative to Iraq between late 2008 and late 2009. Afghanistan is currently a major focus of nation building efforts and counter-insurgency...
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Contrary to the view of some observers who insist that the Cold War was of limited or no relevance to the transition from colonies to nation-states after 1945 we argue that the geopolitics of the Cold War played a crucial role in shaping the character and direction of the trajectories of nation-states in Asia, if not the erstwhile Third World as a...
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Full-text available
PowellPhilip Wayne, Tree of Hate: Propaganda and Prejudices Affecting United States Relations with the Hispanic World. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2008; first published 1971. (Introduction by Robert Himmerich y Valencia.) 226 pp. ISBN: 0978-0-8263-4576-9 (hbk.). $29.95. - Volume 33 Issue 1 - Mark T. Berger
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This review paper focuses on the most recent cycle in the debate about the history and future of the ‘New American Empire,’ both in relation to the rise and fall of the Roman Empire specifically, and against the wider backdrop of the extensive debate about the US position in the changing global order more generally. It argues that much of the liter...
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In this contribution we focus on the political merits as well as limitations of the project of Third Worldism. Through critical historical analysis we identify the difference that Third Worldism made to world politics. At the same time it was without a doubt beset with contradictions from its inception. By foregrounding the contexts of development...
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The theory and practice of development has a complicated relationship to the history of war and peace in the 20th century. Efforts to realise the promise of progress have been played out against the backdrop of the crisis of colonialism, national liberation, decolonisation and the rise and fall of Third Worldism. Third Worldism, conceptualised as a...
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This article examines contemporary concerns about citizenship, security, and development against the backdrop of an emergent “MexAmerica.” It seeks to de-routinize the idea of the nation-state and de-naturalize the history of North America in order to move beyond the influential technocratic and quantitative approach to border security and developm...
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This paper focuses on the theory and practice of nation-building. This is done primarily in an effort to explicate how area studies (AS), development studies (DS), and international studies (IS) have been, and continue to be, embedded in international security and economic/development policy processes and questions of national sovereignty, internat...
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This article is an effort to advance the political and intellectual debate on the theory and practice of nation building in an era of collapsing states. I assume at the outset that we are in the midst of a crisis of the nation-state system as a whole and, thus of the vast majority of its constituent polities. This is not a problem that can be addre...
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This introductory article provides the context for the contemporary debate about insurgency, counterinsurgency and collapsing states taking place against the backdrop of what originated as the ‘global war on terror’ (gwot) and is now increasingly being characterised as ‘the Long War’. The Long War and the gwot are often represented as a ‘new’ era i...
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This concluding article returns to some of the key themes of this volume in relation to insurgency, counter-insurgency and collapsing states. In particular it attempts to characterise the relationship between the Long War and the Cold War, in relation to the transformation of the nation-state system. More broadly it emphasises that the Cold War was...
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Introduction This chapter examines poverty and inequality in global politics. The first section provides the background for our analysis of global poverty and inequality. We demonstrate how different perspectives of development and the causes of poverty have implications for how one responds to poverty and inequality. The second section examines th...
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This introductory article emphasises the need to put the contemporary nation-building (state-building) effort in post-Saddam Iraq and elsewhere in historical perspective. With the resurgence of a powerful international discourse on nation-building that draws very selectively on the ostensible lessons of earlier nation-building successes and failure...
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Mary A. Renda has written an engaging study of the history of the U.S. occupation of Haiti and its aftermath in relation to the wider cultural dynamics of U.S. imperialism and the changing character of American national identity in the first half of the twentieth century. Taking Haiti is part of an important and growing literature on the cultures o...
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Despite its importance and timeliness Peter Gowan's article “Triumphing toward International Disaster” falls short insofar as it fails to locate “American Grand Strategy” in the context of the global social relations of the capitalist order; particularly problematic is the way that he takes for granted the constitution of “global politics” as a sys...
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Southeast Asia. Conflict and confrontation in South East Asia, 1961–1965: Britain, the United States, Indonesia and the creation of Malaysia. By MATTHEW JONES. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Pp. xxi, 325. Bibliography, Index. - - Volume 35 Issue 1 - MARK T. BERGER
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The idea of the Third World, which is usually traced to the late 1940s or early 1950s, was increasingly used to try and generate unity and support among an emergent group of nation-states whose governments were reluctant to take sides in the Cold War. These leaders and governments sought to displace the ‘East–West’ conflict with the ‘North–South’ c...
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Modernisation theory and political development theory played a key role in the formalisation of the study of Southeast Asia, while the dramatic transitions from colonies to nation-states in the region and the deepening war in Vietnam were also pivotal to the rise and transformation of modernisation theory. This article provides a critical historica...
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This article provides a critical retrospective on the influential Pan-Asian visions that emerged in the 1980s and 1990s to explain and celebrate the economic dynamism of a growing number of East Asian states. Both the dominant East Asian-based narratives and many of the cultural explanations provided by commentators outside the region rested and/or...
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It has become increasingly commonplace to describe the United States as hegemonic. And yet, despite America's dominant position at a number of levels strategic, political-economic and ideational, there are plainly limits to US hegemony. These limits and the enduring strengths of American hegemony are revealed quite clearly in East Asia. This paper...
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Asia has long been an ideological battleground between capitalism and communism, between nationalism and Westernisation and between the nation-state and globalization. This book is a history of the Asian region from 1945 to the present day which delineates the various ideological battles over Asia's development. Subjects covered include: theories o...
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In early December 1992, in a brief address to the Annual Conference on Trade, Investment and Development in the Caribbean Basin held in Miami, U.S. President-Elect Bill Clinton, proclaimed that ‘today we face an unprecedented convergence of ideals’ and ‘together, we can construct a genuine hemispheric community of democracies’. This post-Cold War m...
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One noteworthy feature of the political crisis in Indonesia, which followed the Asian financial crisis of 1997 was the speed with which the collapse of the Suharto government was subsumed by a wider crisis of the Indonesian nation-state. One aspect of this crisis is the strengthening of secessionist movements in several regions of Indonesia, callin...
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With the end of the Cold War, economic policies (grounded in romantic conceptions of laissez-faire and validated by neoclassical economics) and political prescriptions (based on the idealisation of representative democracy and legitimated by liberal political science) have emerged as crucial elements in a powerful global discourse on development an...
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This article begins by outlining the way in which the crisis of colonialism, the universalisation of the nation-state system, and the deepening of the Cold War, provided the context for the rise and consolidation between the 1940s and the 1970s, of the national development project, which naturalised the nation-state as the key unit of both capitali...
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Patriots and Tyrants: Ten Asian Leaders. By ROSS MARLAY and CLARK NEHER. Lanham, MD and Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 1999. Pp. xii, 353. Photographs, Maps, Notes, Bibliographies, Index. - - Volume 32 Issue 1 - MARK T. BERGER
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William LeoGrande has written an important history of U. S. policy in Central America with a focus on the crucial period from the late 1970s to the early 1990s. The author is exceedingly well qualified to write critically about the Reagan years. In the late 1970s he gained a reputation for his research on Cuban foreign policy, and after 1981 he eme...
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This article looks at the rise of APEC as a vehicle for the promotion of free trade in the Asia-Pacific. It argues that, although the Japanese government was more interested in trade cooperation than free trade, it played a key role, along with the Australian government, in the establishment of APEC, while the main challenge to APEC came from the M...
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Singapore: Towards A Developed Status. Edited by LowLinda. Singapore: Oxford University Press/Centre for Advanced Studies, 1999. Pp. xxvi, 401. - Volume 30 Issue 2 - Mark T. Berger
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The Commanding Heights: The Battle Between Government and the Marketplace That is Remaking the Modern World Daniel Yergin & Joseph Stanislaw New York: Simon and Schuster, 1998 pp 457 $26.00.
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Full-text available
Over time the conception of development encouraged by the Bank has shifted, mirroring wider trends in the international political economy. This article begins with a brief discussion of the changes in the World Bank's understanding of development over the past 30 or 40 years. This is followed by an examination of the Bank' s efforts to accommodate...
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Singapore's Authoritarian Capitalism: Asian Values, Free Market Illusions, and Political Dependency. By LingleChristopher. Barcelona: Edicions Sirocco, S.L. and The Locke Institute, Fairfax Va., 1996. xxii, 168 pp. $19.95. - Volume 56 Issue 3 - Mark T. Berger
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Southeast Asia and the Cold War The First Indochina War 1945-1954 The Southeast Asian Revolts of 1948 The Struggle for Indonesia II The United States and the Beginning of the Second Indochina War 1954-1960 The Kennedy Administration, Vietnam and Laos Crisis and Massive American Intervention Buildup and Decision 1965-1968 American Withdrawal The End...
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Introduction: US Power, North American Knowledge and the Cold WarThere is now a substantial literature which seeks to situate the influential Latin American theories of development which emerged during the Cold War in their wider political and historical context. And there is a large number of articles which look at the North American historiograph...
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Based on access to secret documents and interviews with many of the participants, Subversion as Foreign Policy is an extraordinary account of civil war in Indonesia provoked by President Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, and resulting in the killing of thousands of Indonesians and the destruction of much of the country's air for...
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The so-called collapse of communism has reinforced powerful North American- and Western-European-centred visions which continue to see 'Western' models of development as the key to modernization world-wide. The end of the Cold War has also drawn renewed attention to the rise of an increasingly dynamic capitalist East Asia, which has brought with it...
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This article looks at early twentieth-century US historiography on the circum-Caribbean, as well as Latin America more generally. There still exists a view that a distinction can be drawn between academic activity and the conduct of US foreign policy. By contrast, it is argued here that the growth of "Latin American studies' can only be understood...
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Full-text available
In the 1990s both non-state-centred and state-centred regional processes of integration have emerged as increasingly important counterpoints to the globalisation project and US globalism. In some parts of the world, most notably Western Europe, regional identity reflects long-standing processes of economic and political integration, which have been...
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Special issue. Incl. bibl., abstracts.

Questions

Question (1)
Question
My 'field work' until I drop dead is on the US-Mexican Border and DHS. Trump is a scary president and DHS is a scary bureaucracy, but geopolitically I see 10 to 20 years of political consolidation and rebellion if neo-populism and racism continues in the ascendant. The biggest threat to "Americans" is their own government. The upside may be 10-20 years of world historical change in a progressive direction. My field work is on organized crime and the back blocks of TJ and the back blocks of anywhere in North America and beyond. Matt Damon's Elysium could be one future but I am an eternal optimist with regard to how resourceful the marginalized are. Best, Marcos. 

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Project (1)
Project
Despite the ominous character of the title of this book. This is an exercise in hope. I make it clear that the process of historical and contemporary transformation have brought the world to the brink of a crisis-of-global-modernity that imperils the very future of the human race. However, I do not think it is too late, to pull back from the brink, but I do think we need to understand how we got to the crisis-global-modernity (and what I mean by the term) and what that means for the fate of humanity. In order to understand how we got here and pull back from the brink means to understand how we got there in the first place and that is the purpose of this book. The crisis-of-global modernity and its characteristics and solutions are many but first and foremost it is a political crisis of global magnitude. That said on a daily basis the crisis-of-global-modernity manifests itself in the grinding and soul-destroying character of poverty around the world. This is linked to the specifics of the similarities and differences of increasingly high levels of socio-economic inequality and often highly uneven forms of global, regional, national and sub-national economic transformation. Meanwhile, we look out on a world where there are a large number of draconian militaries and law enforcement institutions in a large number of strong states and a proliferation of warlordism in weak nation-states, while ever nastier radical organizations such as the violent and suicidal Islamic groups of the “Greater Middle East” (Morocco to Afghanistan). The emergence to prominence in 2014 of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) bent on recreating a modern day caliphate in the region and violent Hindu and Sikh extremism of various forms in South Asia (manifested most dramatically before their demise in 2009 at the hands of the Sri Lankan military by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam commonly known as the LTTE. These trends are linked to ongoing waves of immigration that shift in geographical terms but are a major symptom of the crisis-of-global-modernity. Meanwhile, the vicissitudes of environmental change generally and the impact of humanity on the environment specifically has myriad consequences and myriad solutions: the latter are within our grasp in many instances but the politics of the status quo makes them unattainable alongside the direct or indirect relationship to the exponential advances in science and technology since the 1970s. As suggested, technological transformation, which is advancing at an uneven but exponential pace, has not only facilitated benign economic (and/or political activity) of a new order of magnitude it has also facilitated a range of malignant characteristics of global transformation (technological or otherwise) across a spectrum of differing levels of direct and indirect violence. Some observers at the center of technological change are particularly concerned about what the consequences of the development of Artificial-Intelligence (A-I) will mean a few decades from now if not sooner. My argument then is that it is not just individual sovereign nation-states that are in trouble in terms of civil wars; insurgencies; secessionist movements; violent religious fundamentalism, but the entire system of sovereign nation-states is in ever more serious trouble. Thus the very idea of the sovereign nation-state promulgated and universalized by the United Nations after 1945 is being challenged on multiple benign and malignant fronts. Closely linked to these elements (albeit often in a complex fashion) and central to the books is the breakdown of a wide array of national, subnational and transnational institutions. The short-term origins of this problem are to be found in the dynamics of global transformation and contemporary transformation after 1945 and are centered politically on the increasing dysfunction (if not crisis) of the universalized system of nation-states. My argument is that it is not just individual sovereign nation-states that are in trouble the entire system and the idea of sovereign nation-states is ever more serious trouble and this profoundly political problem is central to the crisis-global-modernity and the fate of humanity. As an exercise in qualitative analysis of historical and contemporary transformation the introduction may be more than the general reader is interested in; however, in order to get to the majority of the book which the general reader will and academic experts will I hope be interested in certain academic protocols are required. This is a book written by an academic: a professional historian of modern international history with a specialization in the Americas and the fluency in Spanish and English to go with it. I have a secondary thematic specialization in the comparative history of the British Empire. To reiterate the book is addressed to the general reader, but it is written by an academic and if nothing else in the introduction I need to establish my credentials among my peers with the hope that the general reader may find the style and the issues addressed of sufficient interest to engage them as well before moving to the bulk of the book.