Mark Quentin Benedict

Mark Quentin Benedict
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | CDC · Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Entomology Branch

PhD

About

150
Publications
30,798
Reads
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6,304
Citations
Additional affiliations
March 2015 - May 2015
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Position
  • Research Biologist
Education
January 1986 - August 1990
University of Florida
Field of study
  • Entomology, Molecular Biology

Publications

Publications (150)
Article
Full-text available
A network of scientists involved in shipment of live insects has met and generated a series of articles on issues related to live insect transport. The network is diverse, covering large-scale commercial interests, government operated area-wide control programmes, biomedical research and many smaller applications, in research, education and private...
Article
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The sterile insect technique is familiar to agricultural pest management and is now being increasingly applied to mosquitoes as part of integrated vector management programs. This review leans on a growing literature and on the experience of its many authors to describe the key steps, and the challenges to be surmounted, in order to design and exec...
Article
When E.F. Knipling conceived of the release of sexually sterile insects to suppress wild populations, he laid down several fundamental qualities that characterized suitable target species—some of which mosquitoes generally violate—including high reproductive rates and large population numbers. Regardless of this, their global importance in public h...
Article
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The development of cryopreservation protocols for Anopheles gambiae could significantly improve research and control efforts. Cryopreservation of any An. gambiae life stage has yet to be successful. The unique properties of embryos have proven to be resistant to any practical cryoprotectant loading. Therefore, we have chosen to investigate early no...
Article
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This is a digest of a previously published paper aiming to communicate complex science in a teen-accessible way https://sciencejournalforkids.org/articles/how-can-we-trace-malaria-mosquitoes/
Article
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As a means of obtaining reproducible and accurate numbers of larvae for laboratory rearing, we tested a large-particle flow-cytometer type device called the ‘Automated Particle Counter’ (APC). The APC is a gravity-fed, self-contained unit that detects changes in light intensity caused by larvae passing the detector in a water stream and controls di...
Article
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Shipments of living mosquitoes and other arthropods require temperatures that are within a range that is compatible with their health and survival. In addition to express shipping and insulated containers, shipments often include materials that either store heat (i.e., have thermal mass) or otherwise stabilize the temperature. In this paper, we pre...
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Background: One of the promising current approaches to curb malaria lies in genetic vector control, the implementation of which will require an improved understanding of the movement of genetic constructs among mosquito populations. To predict potential gene flow from one area to another, it is important to begin to understand mosquito dynamics out...
Article
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Background: Mosquito rearing containers contain organic-rich water that nourishes numerous bacteria, some of which are capable of forming biofilms. Biofilm is broadly an extracellular polymeric matrix (EPS) in which living bacteria occur, and the accumulation of biofilm is possible during routine stock-keeping as most of these containers are re-us...
Article
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Background: Marking mosquitoes is vital for mark-release-recapture and many laboratory studies, but their small size precludes the use of methods that are available for larger animals such as unique identifier tags and radio devices. Fluorescent dust is the most commonly used method to distinguish released individuals from the wild population. Num...
Article
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Larval mosquitoes are aquatic omnivorous scavengers which scrape food from submerged surfaces and collect suspended food particles with their mouth brushes. The composition of diets that have been used in insectaries varies widely though necessarily provides sufficient nutrition to allow colonies to be maintained. Issues such as cost, availability...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Mosquito rearing containers contain organic-rich water that nourishes numerous bacteria, some of which are capable of forming biofilms. Biofilm is broadly an extracellular polymeric matrix (EPS) in which living bacteria occur, and the accumulation of biofilm is possible during routine stock-keeping as most of these containers are re-use...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Mosquito rearing containers contain organic-rich water that nourishes numerous bacteria, some of which are capable of forming biofilms. Biofilm is broadly an extracellular polymeric matrix (EPS) in which living bacteria occur, and the accumulation of biofilm is possible during routine stock-keeping as most of these containers are re-use...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Marking mosquitoes is vital for mark-release-recapture and many laboratory studies, but their small size precludes the use of methods that are available for larger animals such as unique identifier tags and radio devices. Fluorescent dust is the most commonly used method to distinguish released individuals from the wild population. Num...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Marking mosquitoes is vital for mark-release-recapture and many laboratory studies, but their small size precludes the use of methods that are available for larger animals such as unique identifier tags and radio devices. Fluorescent dust is the most commonly used method to distinguish released individuals from the wild population. Numer...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Marking mosquitoes is vital for mark-release-recapture and many laboratory studies, but their small size precludes the use of methods that are available for larger animals such as unique identifier tags and radio devices. Fluorescent dust is the most commonly used method to distinguish released individuals from the wild population. Numer...
Preprint
Full-text available
Larval mosquitoes are aquatic omnivorous scavengers which scrape food from submerged surfaces and collect suspended food particles with their mouth brushes. The composition of diets that have been used in insectaries varies widely though necessarily provides sufficient nutrition to allow colonies to be maintained. Issues such as cost, availability...
Article
Full-text available
Background Mosquito-borne diseases affect millions worldwide, with malaria alone killing over 400 thousand people per year and affecting hundreds of millions. To date, the best strategy to prevent the disease remains insecticide-based mosquito control. However, insecticide resistance as well as economic and social factors reduce the effectiveness o...
Article
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Background In the context of widespread mosquito resistance to currently available pesticides, novel, precise genetic vector control methods aimed at population suppression or trait replacement are a potentially powerful approach that could complement existing malaria elimination interventions. Such methods require knowledge of vector population co...
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Transgenic Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes have been developed that confer sexual sterility on males that carry a transgene encoding a protein which cuts ribosomal DNA. A relevant risk concern with transgenic mosquitoes is that their capacity to transmit known pathogens could be greater than the unmodified form. In this stud...
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Background Novel transgenic mosquito control methods require progressively more realistic evaluation. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of a transgene that causes a male-bias sex ratio on Anopheles gambiae target populations in large insectary cages. Methods Life history characteristics of Anopheles gambiae wild type and Ag(PMB)1...
Article
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Modifications in gene expression determine many of the phenotypic differentiations between closely related species. This is particularly evident in reproductive tissues, where evolution of genes is more rapid, facilitating the appearance of distinct reproductive characteristics which may lead to species isolation and phenotypic variation. Large-sca...
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Novel approaches to area-wide control of vector species offer promise as additional tools in the fight against vectored diseases. Evaluation of transgenic insect strains aimed at field population control in disease-endemic countries may involve international partnerships and should be done in a stepwise approach, starting with studies in containmen...
Article
Experimental releases of mosquitoes are performed to understand characteristics of populations related to the biology, ability to transmit pathogens, and ultimately their control. In this article, we discuss considerations related to the safety of experimental releases of living mosquitoes, applying principles of good practice in vector biology tha...
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Transgenic mosquitoes are being developed as novel components of area-wide approaches to vector-borne disease control. Best practice is to develop these in phases, beginning with laboratory studies, before moving to field testing and inclusion in control programs, to ensure safety and prevent costly field testing of unsuitable strains. The process...
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Versatile molecular tools for creating driving transgenes and other invasive genetic factors present regulatory, ethical, and environmental challenges that should be addressed to ensure their safe use. In this article, we discuss driving transgenes and invasive genetic factors that can potentially spread after their introduction into a small propor...
Article
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Background Vector control is a major component of the malaria control strategy. The increasing spread of insecticide resistance has encouraged the development of new tools such as genetic control which use releases of modified male mosquitoes. The use of male mosquitoes as part of a control strategy requires an improved understanding of male mosqui...
Chapter
Genetic control of insects is an established method, mainly for insects that are important crop and veterinary pests such as medflies and screwworm. Efforts to use the same technologies against insects of medical importance, especially mosquitoes, have had limited success. The successes against mosquitoes have been accomplished using forms of both...
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The persistence of transgenes in the environment is a consideration in risk assessments of transgenic organisms. Combining mathematical models that predict the frequency of transgenes and experimental demonstrations can validate the model predictions, or can detect significant biological deviations that were neither apparent nor included as model p...
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Background Numerous important characteristics of adult arthropods are related to their size; this is influenced by conditions experienced as immatures. Arthropods cultured in the laboratory for research, or mass-reared for novel control methods, must therefore be of a standard size range and known quality so that results are reproducible. MethodsA...
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Background Male Anopheles mosquitoes that swarm rely in part on features of the environment including visual stimuli to locate swarms. Swarming is believed to be the primary behaviour during which mating occurs in the field, but is not a common behaviour in the laboratory. Features that stimulate male Anopheles gambiae G3 strain swarming were creat...
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Development rates of Aedes aegypti are known to vary with respect to many abiotic and biotic factors including temperature, resource availability, and intraspecific competition. The relative importance of these factors and their interactions are not well established across populations. We performed meta-analysis on a dataset of development rate est...
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Many environmental factors, biotic and abiotic interact to influence organismal development. Given the importance of Aedes aegypti as a vector of human pathogens including dengue and yellow fever, understanding the impact of environmental factors such as temperature, resource availability, and intraspecific competition during development is critica...
Chapter
This book, which is divided into four parts, describes the advances in insect transgenesis. Part 1 deals with germline transformation technology while part 2 focuses on the application of transgenic insects, including plant insect pests and insect vectors (such as mosquitoes). Part 3 shows alternative transgenic approaches to modifying insect pheno...
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A successful sterile insect technique program depends upon mass production of good-quality sterile insects for release into a target area. Specifically, to control Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) in a pilot area in northern Sudan, 1 million An. arabiensis sterile males per day are needed. To reach this production objective, mosquit...
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A genetic sex separation strain (GSS) has been created for Anopheles arabiensis (Patton) (Diptera: Culicidae), one of the major African malaria vectors, for use in controlling wild populations of this species via the sterile insect technique (SIT). This GSS strain, "ANOIPCL1," allows sex separation by a translocation linking a dieldrin resistance a...
Article
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The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been used with success for suppressing or eliminating important insect pests of agricultural or veterinary importance. In order to develop SIT for mosquitoes, female elimination prior to release is essential as they are the disease-transmitting sex. A genetic sexing strain (GSS) of Anopheles arabiensis was cre...
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The requirement for efficient mosquito mass rearing technology has been one of the major obstacles preventing the large scale application of the Sterile Insect Technique against mosquitoes. At the Food and Agriculture Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency (FAO/ IAEA) Insect Pest Control Laboratories we developed a larval rearing unit base...
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Anopheles gambiae is the primary vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa and is a potential target of genetic control programs. We determined the capacity of male A. gambiae created by germline transformation to introduce infertility into stable age-distribution populations. We also determined effects of the transgenes on life history. Stable age-d...
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Global efforts towards the development of genetically modified (GM) arthropods have progressed to a stage where some might possibly be placed on the EU market within the next decade. To facilitate the risk assessment of particular GM arthropod applications the specific risk issues associated with these applications need to be addressed. To inform t...
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Adult mosquito size is constrained by conditions experienced in the larval stage including the amount and quality of diet. The energy expended collecting diet depends partly on its concentration, the water depth, and the mosquito species. In order to better understand these interactions, individual Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles were cultured to the...
Article
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In mass rearing of anopheline mosquitoes, pupae are usually separated from larvae on a daily basis to prevent unwanted adult emergence from trays. Depending on the device and species, 2 physical characteristics have most often been used for separation: buoyant density and size. In this report, we describe a system for continuous separation of Anoph...