Mark Alves

Mark Alves
Montgomery College · Department of ELAP Linguistics and Communication Studies

Ph.D., Linguistics

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81
Publications
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Introduction
My linguistic research largely involves comparative, historical, and typological studies of languages in southern China and mainland Southeast Asia, especially Vietnamese and Vietic, Austroasiatic, Chinese languages, and Tai-Kadai languages. I increasingly combine historical, textual, archaeological, and ethnological data with linguistic data. As for applied linguistics, I teach, research, and publish on English for Academic Purposes (EAP), focusing on collocations and CALP expression.
Additional affiliations
August 2004 - December 2014
Montgomery College
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (81)
Article
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Linguistic evidence supports the claim in archaeological studies that early metallurgy practices moved from north to south in China and Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA). This historical linguistic study of words for knives, sickles, swords, and other metal tools and weapons in the region shows an expected region of Chinese influence from China to nor...
Article
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This paper considers the history of words for domesticated poultry, including ‘chicken’, ‘goose’, and ‘duck’, in China and mainland Southeast Asia to try to relate associated domestication events with specific language groups. Linguistic, archaeological and historical evidence supports Sinitic as one linguistic source, but in other cases, Tai and A...
Article
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This is an overview of loanwords in Vietnamese based on a 1,200-word list for the Max Planck Institute's WOLD project (http://wold.clld.org/).
Research
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This presentation at the ICSTLL 48 is a preliminary overview of grammatical Sino-Tai vocabulary of several classes of function words, with comparative phonological support, notably the tone categories, to identify likely Sinitic loans, or to exclude them as possible loans. It reviews the typological convergence event in Southeast China that contrib...
Conference Paper
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What Was Studied Types of semantico-syntactic morphological categories in 30 languages of 11 sub-branches of Mon-Khmer NOTE: Munda languages were not included due to significant typological differences. There is not enough published material to make claims about Pearic morphology.  Numbers of Categories a-Almost two dozen semantico-syntactic affix...
Presentation
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This talk presents preliminary historical linguistic observations on lexical data related to pottery (e.g., bowls, cups, jars, to mold (clay), etc.) among languages of Mainland Southeast Asia. The primary data comes from both modern languages and reconstructions of Austroasiatic, Tai, Sinitic, Malayo-Chamic, and Indic (and secondarily, Tibeto-Burma...
Article
https://evols.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/handle/10524/52500 We consider the question of whether phonotactic criteria can be used to identify a Vietnamese syllable as being Sinitic in origin, focusing on the layer of Sino-Vietnamese (từ Hán Việt) borrowings. We first assembled a corpus of 8,148 phonologically unique Vietnamese syllables, of which 1,93...
Article
https://evols.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/handle/10524/52500 This study presents Vietnamese words which are Vietic etyma or early Chinese loanwords in the domain of the household (e.g., structures, implements, clothing, decorations, cuisine). The Vietic etyma correspond to the Neolithic lifestyle of Austroasiatic agriculturalists, but some words may s...
Article
https://doi.org/10.1163/26662523-bja10002 This article reviews multiple lines of data in an attempt to determine the ethnolinguistic situation of the Red River Delta in northern Vietnam in the Ðông Sơn period (c. 600 BCE–200 CE) prior to the establishment of a Chinese administration there circa 200 BCE. A variety of possible scenarios are considere...
Presentation
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VIDEO FOR THIS HANDOUT: https://youtu.be/CL2nbMFcz7k This is a presentation at a Vietnamese linguistics workshop.
Presentation
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This is a talk given to Friday Forum at the University of Wisconsin (Center for Southeast Asian Studies & the Department of Anthropology) on March 11, 2022. ANNOUNCEMENT: https://seasia.wisc.edu/event/friday-forum-mark-alves/ VIDEO: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kMcVK4pDvpE&list=PLljDPQLuUJQv4uL9_CEeabcHdjR6nuxOR&index=1&t=3037s
Presentation
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VIDEO: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JyKWFm_TuZM This presentation presents current research insights on the origins and diachronic development from Austroasiatic, to Vietic, to contact with Chinese, to Viet-Muong, and to modern Vietnamese.
Chapter
In this study, over a hundred and twenty Vietnamese function words with Vietic reconstructions and/or status as early Chinese loanwords (i.e., those borrowed before the Sino-Vietnamese layer associated with Late Middle Chinese character readings) have been assembled, grouped by subcategory, and given historical linguistic context. In this lexical d...
Preprint
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Note: This is a prepublication English version of the Vietnamese-language chapter “Thảo luận về một vài điểm trong giả thuyết của Nguyễn Tài Cẩn về các từ mượn tai ở Vietic” in the book Nguyễn Tài Cẩn - Tư Tưởng, Tác Phẩm Và Kỷ Niệm [Nguyen Tai Can - Thoughts, Works, and Memories], ed. by Nguyễn Hồng Cổn, Trần Trí Dõi, Trịnh Cẩm Lan, and Dương Xuân...
Chapter
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Nguyen Tai Can's 1995 book "Giáo trình lịch sử ngữ âm tiếng Việt "A Textbook of Vietnamese Historical Phonology" contributed a systematic overview of the history of Vietnamese phonemes and other aspects of Vietnamese language history. In his book (1995:321-323), he listed about 40 words which he proposed are ancient Tai loanwords in Vietnamese. He...
Presentation
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This talk was given online at the International Conference of Austroasiatic Linguistics 9 on 11-November-2021, held by Lund University in Sweden. It presents ideas on various Austroasiatic words that appear to date to after the Austroasiatic dispersal and thus cannot be reconstructed to Proto-Austroasiatic, but nevertheless present insights into th...
Presentation
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This is a presentation given by Paul Sidwell and Mark Alves at the ICAAL 9 conference held by Lund University 18 November 2021. It presents a phylogenetic tree of the Vietic branch of Austroasiatic. We used lexical data on 29 Vietic languages and lects (Vietnamese, Muong, Ruc, Thavung, etc.), employing computational software, and checked for corrob...
Presentation
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Presentation PPT, 2021 The entire three-hour lecture is available on Youtube: Part 1: https://youtu.be/zod5TLSUD_k; Part 2: https://youtu.be/PVV6P98CP_U; Part 3: https://youtu.be/MDgMVEpOXPg This is a presentation on issues in Vietnamese etymology, given to a Vietnamese studies course at Cheng Kung University in Taiwan on October 19th, 2021. While...
Chapter
This paper provides a synchronic typological overview of the Vietic languages, with only brief, broad comments on historical linguistic matters insofar as they have been factors in the typological range. The Vietic branch of Austroasiatic is a powerful example of the typological transition from an Austroasiatic to a Sinitic typological template. At...
Chapter
The Sinitic branch of Sino-Tibetan has been spreading to the south of its original Yellow River and central plains homeland for three millennia. Southern China, which is today solidly “Chinese” linguistic and cultural territory, is the starting point of language contact and linguistic influence, which later extended into both Mainland Southeast Asi...
Article
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We present a new internal classification of the Vietic languages, covering all recognized subgroups and languages for which we could source suitably comparable data. The analysis reconciles results from two distinct methodologies: (1) computational phylogenetics based on a 116-item basic word list, and (2) historical phonological changes among syll...
Conference Paper
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I have so far identified several hundred native Vietnamese words that are Proto-Austroasiatic etyma or regional Austroasiatic words (over 200 words) or Proto-Vietic etyma (over 500 words). These words are carefully selected based on comparative data of proto-language reconstructions and recurring phonological patterns among two dozen Vietic lects....
Article
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THIS CONTAINS CORRECTED INFORMATION IN TABLE 2, SPECIFICALLY, THAT ALL STAGES OF VIETNAMESE WERE IN THE 2ND MILLENNIUM CE (NOT THE 1ST). This study provides updated numbers of and historical ethnolinguistic observations on Austroasiatic and Vietic etyma in Vietnamese. Lexical data from two dozen Vietic lects were assembled, half from the Mon-Khmer...
Conference Paper
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The Vietnamese system of color terms contains at least a dozen items from Late Old Chinese (LOC) and Early Middle Chinese (EMC), though core color terms in Vietnamese are still largely native items (Vietic, Viet-Muong, or Vietnamese (i.e. no other identifiable source)). Some of the Sino-Vietnamese (SV) terms have retained their older senses in earl...
Chapter
The languages of the Austroasiatic (AA) language family share a core set of derivational prefixes and infixes that are largely fossilized. Beyond these, there is a wide range of morphological features throughout these more than 160 languages. Of the 13 branches of AA, there is a geographically central concentration of branches with predominantly is...
Presentation
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Đây là một bài trình bày cho thấy bằng chứng về việc từ tiếng tiền Hán-Việt nên có thanh sắc và nặng (thanh khứ của tiếng Hán) có thanh ngang và huyền. Nó cũng cho thấy điều này có liên quan đến sự hình thành của thanh điệu trong cả tiếng Hán và tiếng Việt.
Presentation
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Dữ liệu từ vựng tiền Hán-Việt và niên đại tương đối của sự hình thành thanh điệu trong tiếng Hán và tiếng Việt Mark J. Alves Montgomery College CHÚ Ý: PPT này là bản thảo. Nếu bạn có gợi ý, xin thông báo tôi qua email.
Presentation
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This presentation provides linguistic, archaeological (material culture, genetic, and dental/cranial), and ethnonym data to explore possible language scenarios of the Dong Son culture (600 BCE to 200 CE) in the Red River Delta. The most well-supported scenario is one in which Austroasiatic was present in the RRD from 4000 BP, and that by the Dong S...
Conference Paper
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Chinese loanwords have played a significant role in the Vietnamese system of pronouns and terms of address and reference. Semantic and pragmatic features of Chinese kinship terms and names have been transferred into the overall Vietnamese referential system. However, many of the Chinese loanwords in this semantic domain have undergone grammaticaliz...
Article
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DOWNLOAD: https://evols.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/handle/10524/52434 This paper evaluates Chinese lexical data in Shorto’s 2006 Proto-Mon-Khmer reconstructions to prevent misapplication of his reconstructions, which in a few dozen instances are based on problematic data that affect or even refute his reconstructions. First, Shorto notes about 20 Chi...
Article
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Vietnamese has numerous early-era Chinese loanwords with ngang and huyền tones, which in Middle Chinese loanwords correspond to the pingsheng level tone category, for words that should have sắc or nặng tones, corresponding to the Middle Chinese non-level qusheng departing tone category. 1 It is proposed that this layer of Early Sino-Vietnamese repr...
Article
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Level: High-Intermediate to Low-Advanced ESL writing activity Overview: This unit consists of a series of exercises that lead to the writing of an essay on the benefits of higher education. Information used in the essay will come from the College Board’s report “College Pays 2016” containing written descriptions and charts with statistics and othe...
Preprint
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Tóm Tắt: Bài này cung cấp những bằng chứng cho thấy cũng và cùng là hai từ vay mượn có nguồn gốc từ từ 共 cộng trong tiếng Hán. Tuy nhiên, khác với từ Hán-Việt 2 cộng chính thức được công nhận là cách đọc của 共 , hai từ cũng và cùng được vay mượn sớm hơn, trong đầu thiên niên kỷ thứ nhất SCN, theo cứ liệu so sánh ngữ âm học lịch sử và tài liệu thành...
Preprint
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Pre-publication draft, English version of the Vietnamese-language publication "LỊCH SỬ CỦA TỪ CỘNG (共 ) TRONG TIẾNG VIỆT" published in the journal Ngôn Ngữ ("Language"), no. 10 (2018), pages 3-22. http://vienngonnguhoc.gov.vn/bai-viet/muc-luc-tap-chi-ngon-ngu-so-10-nam-2018_712.aspx History of The Chinese Word Gòng 共 In Vietnamese Mark J. Alves Mon...
Presentation
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This was a presentation given at SEALS 28 (Wenzao Ursuline University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, May 17-19, 2018). It presents Early Sino-Vietnamese data that suggests borrowing during a period in Sinitic had lost final fricatives in words that developed qusheng/Type C tones. In Vietnamese, for these Sinitic words, the earlier period have level ngang/huyề...
Presentation
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This talk was given at a workshop/round-table entitled "The Greater South China Sea Interaction Zone" (http://tangcenter-columbia.org/may-27-28-2018-tang-workshop/). Aimed at an interdisciplinary audience, but still containing linguistic data and description, it summarizes the issues of the linguistic typological convergence of Sinitic, Tai-Kadai,...
Presentation
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This is a presentation at the NACCL-30 on March 10, 2018. It presents lexical data of Vietnamese color terms and notes the significant number of Chinese loanwords, mostly of the Early Sino-Vietnamese layer (i.e. Early Middle Chinese or Late Old Chinese). The implication is that, while most of the primary color terms are native in Vietnamese, the ov...
Article
Specialists in Chinese historical phonology have claimed that some Vietnamese words with final /-j/ come from Old Chinese words with final *-r. This is reasonable to speculate as Proto-Austroasiatic finals *-r and *-l became final /-j/ in Vietnamese, parallel to the case in Sinitic. However, these Vietnamese words offer little evidence for oc *-r....
Article
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(Downloadable: https://evols.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10524/52412/1/D05_Alves2017ReviewNa.pdf) This is a review of the book "Tone in Yongning Na: Lexical Tones and Morphotonology" (2017) by Alexis Michaud.
Book
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This free 251-page workbook accompanies "The Grammar You Need - Level 3: Writing with Clarity and Accuracy" reference card. All language/writing exercises (with answer key) are based on readings. The co-author is Eileen Cotter, and the series editor is Michael Berman.
Presentation
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This is a PowerPoint presentation given at the NACCL-29 at Rutgers University on June 16, 2017. It reviews lexical and sociopragmatic aspects of the Vietnamese system of terms of reference and address, including pronouns, kin-derived terms, titles, and names, and considers the impact that Chinese has historically had from the Han Dynasty up through...
Presentation
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This was a presentation given to State Department employees learning Vietnamese, most of whom have studied Chinese and resided in China (first in 2016, then again in 2017, updates in current file). The goal was to help them understand the linguistic relationship between Vietnamese and Chinese and ways to use their knowledge of Chinese to facilitate...
Article
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This document is aimed at helping those with Chinese language background to learn written Vietnamese. The chart below is a list of 112 high frequency Sino-Vietnamese syllables, tự in Vietnamese and 字 in Chinese (Mandarin zì, Japanese ji, Korean ja). The syllables were selected from the top 200 of over 14,000 syllables collected from a Vietnamese ne...
Article
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This article is a linguistics paper but with an interdisciplinary approach. Chinese loanwords in Vietnamese from the first half of the 1st millennium CE are grouped by semantic domains (along with ethnohistorical and archaeological support), thereby offering a way to explore the sociocultural circumstances of Sino-Vietnamese contact in that early p...
Book
Advanced College-level ESL writing/grammar reference card based on high-frequency CALP and core writing issues (e.g., grammar plus methods of cohesion and increasing specificity, etc.); concisely presented for use by students during the writing process and for in-class instruction and review; Free 251-page downloadable workbook;
Presentation
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This is a presentation with initial speculation on Proto-Vietic syntax (clause and noun phrase structure) based on the most complete assembly of comparative Vietic syntax data to date (Vietnamese, Muong, Ruc, Thavung, and Kri) and tempered by issues of regional Southeast Asian typological convergence.
Presentation
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This presentation (given at SEALS 26 in Manila) is on words for Chinese words for metals (copper, bronze, iron, steel, gold, and silver) in Proto-Hmong-Mien, Proto-Tai, Proto-Vietic and Vietnamese, and other neighboring languages. Each word is considered in relationship to the archaeohistory of these metals in the region. While some main ethnohisto...
Article
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The Dictionary of Kammu of Yùan Language and Culture (Kopenhagen: NIAS Press 2014. XXXVI, 462 S. m. Abb. 4°. Hartbd. ISBN 978-87-7694-116-1) is a pleasingly decorated, large (roughly size A paper), tan, hard-cover reference with clear black print inside but also with numerous vivid drawings referring to lexical entries exemplifying aspects of Kammu...
Book
High-Intermediate College-level ESL grammar reference based on high-frequency CALP; concisely presented for use by students in the writing process and for in-class instruction and review; Co-authored with Eileen Cotter and Henry Caballero. A free 238-page downloadable workbook is available.
Book
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This 238-page workbook accompanies "The Grammar You Need: Developing Details" reference card. All language/writing exercises are based on readings. Each section has both an intermediate and high-intermediate (the "Challenge Level") portion.
Presentation
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This is a handout for a talk given at ’’Recent Advances in Old Chinese Historical Phonology” at the University of London, SOAS on the 6th of November, 2015. Old Chinese era loanwords in Vietnamese are considered in light of both linguistic and extralinguistic evidence. Presentation notes are embedded on each page. The video of the presentation is a...
Conference Paper
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This paper surveys historical linguistic and relevant zooarchaeological studies of words for domesticated poultry, including ‘chicken’, ‘goose’, and ‘duck’, in China and mainland Southeast Asia. Zooarchaeological evidence shows these birds were domesticated in China and Southeast Asia, and all language phyla (Austroasiatic, Austronesian, Hmong-Mien...
Chapter
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Mon-Khmer languages are known for their morphologically analytic and isolating structure (Donegan and Stampe 1983). They have fossilized remnants of prefixes and infixes, often in the form of phonologically reduced sesquisyllables, of an apparently historically early productive morphological system. Grammatical functions among Mon-Khmer languages t...
Article
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The simple technique described accomplishes multiple pedagogical and classroom management goals. Giving quizzes at the beginning of class can encourage students to arrive on time prepared to engage in active learning. Moreover, instructors can use the quizzes for other classroom management techniques, such as equitably distributing student particip...
Chapter
This entry in the Brill Encyclopedia of Chinese Language and Linguistics is an overview of Chinese loanwords among languages of Southeast Asia, including sections on Khmer, Thai, Hmong, Indonesian, and Tagalog. Mark ALVES, “Chinese Loanwords in the Languages of Southeast Asia”, in: Encyclopedia of Chinese Language and Linguistics, General Editor R...
Chapter
This entry in the Brill Encyclopedia of Chinese Language and Linguistics is an overview of Chinese loanwords in Vietnamese incorporates new ideas regarding the socio-historical context and timing of loanwords. Mark ALVES, “Chinese Loanwords in Vietnamese”, in: Encyclopedia of Chinese Language and Linguistics, General Editor Rint Sybesma. Consulted...
Article
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It is uncontroversial to say that active learning has long been an integral part of TESOL/TEFL training and overall pedagogy. The term "Active Learning" is embedded in ESL/EFL teacher training and is a regular part of their classrooms, though that specific term is not often used by TESOL/TEFL instructors. We tend to directly discuss pair work, peer...
Article
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The Vietnamese word for ‘rake/harrow’ has been determined to be from the colloquial layer of pre-Tang Dynasty Early Sino-Vietnamese loanwords. Phonological, comparative, and historical data is provided to support this claim. The discussion addresses Vietnamese, Chinese, and Tai historical phonology and the language contact among these three groups....
Chapter
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The purpose of this paper is to describe the influence of the Chinese language(s) on Vietnamese with a focus on grammatical elements. Language contact between Vietnamese and Chinese has led not only to the borrowing of many thousands of Chinese words and influence on the phonological system of Vietnamese but also to some changes in Vietnamese gramm...
Article
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A noticeable portion of grammatical vocabulary in Vietnamese is Chinese in origin. While many of these words were borrowed from Chinese already grammaticalized, others were grammaticalized only after being borrowed into Vietnamese. In other cases, words originally grammaticalized in Chinese have developed new grammatical functions in Vietnamese. Th...
Article
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While the majority of linguistic researchers both inside and outside Vietnam consider the Vietnamese language a Mon-Khmer, Austroasiatic language, some counterarguments and general confusion continue to exist in the public domain. This article looks at four hypotheses regarding the linguistic origins of Vietnamese, hypotheses that place Vietnamese...
Article
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This is a concise grammar of the Pacoh language of the central highlands of Vietnam.
Chapter
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A significant amount of the grammatical vocabulary in Vietnamese is of Chinese origins, despite the fact that much of it was either not originally grammatical in Chinese or went in semantico-syntactic directions not seen in Chinese. This fact can be accounted for by expected issues of grammaticalization, such as typologically common tendencies of g...
Article
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The Pacoh pronoun system is exceptional among the Mon-Khmer languages in Southeast Asia for having morphologically distinct casemarked sets, including subjects/direct objects, indirect objects, and possessive pronouns (Watson 1964, Alves 2000). Moreover, these pronoun sets have gone further along the path of a grammatical cline, serving a number of...
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This paper considers the sociolinguistic conditions under which Chinese grammatical vocabulary (which presupposes a substantial quantity content vocabulary) was borrowed into Vietnamese. While the early Sino-Vietnamese borrowing was largely through spoken bilingualism, over time, the means of transmission increasingly became biliteracy, namely, thr...
Article
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Trong khi đa số các nhà nghiên cứu ngôn ngữ học cả ở trong và ngoài nước Việt Nam cho tiếng Việt là một ngôn ngữ Môn-Khme thuộc họ ngôn ngữ vùng Nam Á, thì vẫn có một số ý kiến phản bác và trong công chúng vẫn tồn tại sự nhầm lẫn. Bài viết này xem xét bốn giả thiết về nguồn gốc ngôn ngữ của tiếng Việt, các giả thiết này đặt tiếng Việt vào các nhóm...
Article
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In describing the development of tones and register in Southeast and East Asia, several phonetic features need to be considered: various dimensions of pitch (e.g. height and con-tour), phonation type features (e.g. breathiness and creakiness), and length (i.e intrinsic tonal duration). Vietnamese as seen as a link between two linguistic areas with...
Article
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2000. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 456-468).

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Project
In September 2016, I will present preliminary assumptions of Proto-Vietic syntax at the Sixth International Conference on Austroasiatic Linguistics (https://sites.google.com/site/icaalprojects/aa-workshop-2016). The larger goal of the workshop is to attempt to make tentative statements about Proto-Austroasiatic syntax. Below is my abstract. PRELIMINARY STEPS TOWARDS AND CHALLENGES IN RECONSTRUCTING PROTO-VIETIC SYNTAX Mark J. Alves For a reconstruction of Proto-Vietic syntax, key sources of syntactic data include (a) modern Vietnamese, (b) Vietnamese in written records going back several hundred years (e.g., Vu Duc Nghieu 2014 focusing on noun phrase structure), (c) early descriptions of Vietnamese by Catholic missionaries (e.g., de Rhodes 1651), and (d) syntactic descriptions and data of the highly conservative Minor Vietic groups, primarily Ruc (Nguyen V.L. 1993 and Solntsev V.M., Solntseva N.V., Samarina I.V. 2001) and Kri (Enfield and Diffloth 2009). Based on such data, Vietic clause structure and noun phrase structure can be reconstructed largely as that of syntax in modern languages in that Austroasiatic sub-branch: (a) basic clausal structure of the AVP/SVO type and (b) noun phrase structure of numeral + classifier + noun + modifier + possessive + demonstrative. However, it seems likely that long-term areal linguistic contact with Sinitic (following the Annamese-Chinese hypothesis of Phan 2013) and other neighboring language groups has led to modern patterns that mask original syntactic patterns in Proto-Vietic. For instance, in noun phrase structure, while post-nominal modification is a reasonably supported feature of Proto-Vietic, the position of quantifiers in Proto-Vietic noun phrases is less clear. Some early Vietnamese poems include post-nominal measure words (Nguyen D.H. 1957). It is probable that numeral + classifier + noun—and indeed the lexical category and slot in the noun phrase—is the result of Sino-Vietnamese contact along with the borrowing of numerous Chinese measure words and classifiers (cf. Alves 2001a), which only grammaticalized in Sinitic in the mid-first millennium (cf., Behr 2009). Moreover, the likelihood that Vietnamese could have served as a sociolinguistic influence to shape noun phrase structure in Vietic (as well as possibly Katuic and Bahnaric and even varieties of Tai in Vietnam (cf., Jones 1970 and Alves 2001b)) further blurs the data. Thus, one hypothesis is that Proto-Vietic noun phrases lacked a grammaticalized classifier category and slot in the noun phrase. Finally, syntactic data on Minor Vietic is limited, and additional datasets could provide insights. REFERENCES Alves, Mark J. 2001a. "What's So Chinese About Vietnamese?" In Papers from the Ninth Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society, edited by Graham W. Thurgood. 221-242. Arizona State University, Program for Southeast Asian Studies. Alves, Mark J. 2001b. Noun phrase structure in Mon-Khmer. Presentation at the Academia Sinica, Institute of Linguistics, 27 April, 2001. Behr, Wolfgang. 2009. Classifiers, lexical tone, determinatives: a look at their emergence and diachrony in Old Chinese and beyond. Handout from Diachrony of CLF Workshop, NIAS Wassenaar, 2009. de Rhodes, Alexandre. 1991 (originally 1651). Từ Ðiển Annam-Lusitan-Latinh (Thường Gọi là Từ Ðiển Việt-Bồ-La). Ho Chi Minh City: Nhà Xuất Bản Khoa Học Xã Hội. Enfield Nick J. & Gérard Diffloth. 2009. Phonology and sketch grammar of Kri, a Vietic language of Laos. Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale 38(1). 3-69. Jones, Robert B. 1970. "Classifier Constructions in Southeast Asia." In Journal of the American Oriental Society, 90 , no. 1: 1--12. American Oriental Society Nguyễn, Văn Lợi. 1993. Tiếng Rục (The Ruc language). Hà Nội: Nhà Xuất Bản Khoa Học Xã Hội. Nguy­n, Ðình Hoà. 1957. Classifiers in Vietnamese. Word 13.1:124-152. Phan, John. 2013. Lacquered Words: The Evoluation of Vietnamese under Sinitic Influences from the 1st century BCE through the 17th Century CE. dissertation. Cornell University. Solntsev V.M., Solntseva N.V., and Samarina I.V. 2001. Phonetics and Phonology. Field materials: Vocabulary and Grammar - in: Materials of the Russian-Vietnamese linguistic expedition from 1986: Ruc language. Vũ, Đực Nghiệu. 2014. Cấu trúc danh ngữ tiếng Việt trong văn bản Phật thuyết đại báo phụ mẫu ân trọng kinh (Noun phrase structure in the text Phật thuyết đại báo phụ mẫu ân trọng kinh). Ngôn Ngữ 2014.1:3-19.